Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: glutamine synthetase
Description: glutamate-ammonia ligase
Alias: GLNS, PIG43, PIG59, glutamine synthetase, cell proliferation-inducing protein 59, glutamate decarboxylase, glutamine synthase, proliferation-inducing protein 43
Publications269 found, 100 shown here
- Congenital glutamine deficiency with glutamine synthetase mutationsJohannes Haberle
Universitatsklinikum Munster, Klinik und Poliklinik für Kinderheilkunde und Jugendmedizin, Munster, Germany
N Engl J Med 353:1926-33. 2005b>Glutamine synthetase plays a major role in ammonia detoxification, interorgan nitrogen flux, acid-base homeostasis, and cell signaling...
- Proteomic identification of oxidatively modified proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain. Part I: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1Alessandra Castegna
Department of Chemistry, Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506 0055, USA
Free Radic Biol Med 33:562-71. 2002..the presence of specific targets of protein oxidation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1...
- Preferential degradation of the oxidatively modified form of glutamine synthetase by intracellular mammalian proteasesA J Rivett
J Biol Chem 260:300-5. 1985..purified from liver preferentially degraded the oxidatively modified (catalytically inactive) form of glutamine synthetase. One of the proteases was cathepsin D which is of lysosomal origin; the other three proteases were present ..
- Investigations into enzymes of nitrogen metabolism of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete, Suillus bovinusN Grotjohann
, , , Germany
Z Naturforsch C 55:203-12. 2000..43 mM and 23.99 mM, respectively. pH-optimum for amination was about 7.2, that for deamination about 9.3. Glutamine synthetase activity was comparatively low (59 nmol x mg protein(-1) x min(-1))...
- Sequential functional and morphological alterations during hepatocarcinogenesis induced in rats by feeding of a low dose of 2-acetylaminofluoreneF Stenback
Department of Pathology, University of Oulu, Finland
Toxicol Pathol 22:620-32. 1994..By 1 wk of exposure, AAF caused a reduction in the number of glutamine synthetase (GS)-positive centrilobular hepatocytes, an increase in DNA synthesizing hepatocytes in the central areas ..
- Sequence and expression of GLN3, a positive nitrogen regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding a protein with a putative zinc finger DNA-binding domainP L Minehart
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139
Mol Cell Biol 11:6216-28. 1991..indicated that the GLN3 protein binds the nitrogen upstream activation sequence of GLN1, the gene encoding glutamine synthetase. Neither control of transcription nor control of initiation of translation of GLN3 is important for ..
- Enhanced sensitivity for peptide mapping with electrospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of signal suppression due to trifluoroacetic acid-containing mobile phasesA Apffel
Bay Analytical Operation, Hewlett-Packard Co, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
J Chromatogr A 712:177-90. 1995..of the technique is shown in more depth in the identification of oxidative modification sites in glutamine synthetase. In this application, the enhanced sensitivity allowed location of a modified residue by comparison ..
- [Studies on regulation of glutamine synthetase activity from Streptomyces lincolnensis]Z Jin
Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 41:481-8. 2001b>Glutamine synthetase in crude extracts from Streptomyces lincolnensis growing under different nitrogen sources were studied. The results showed that NH4+ in high concentration repressed the biosynthesis of the enzyme...
- Metabolic adaptations to nitrogen excess in late gestation in ratC Blade
Departament d Enginyeria Quimica i Bioquimica, Facultat de Ciéncies Quimiques, Universitat de Barcelona, Tarragona, Spain
Horm Metab Res 23:594-9. 1991..Regarding glutamine synthetase activity, both treatments had an opposite effect except in kidney...
- Role of the GATA factors Gln3p and Nil1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the expression of nitrogen-regulated genesM Stanbrough
Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9450-4. 1995..of Nil1p on the expression of the nitrogen-regulated genes GLN1, GDH2, and GAP1, coding respectively for glutamine synthetase, NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase, and general amino acid permease...
- [Research advance in nitrogen metabolism of plant and its environmental regulation]Zhenzhu Xu
Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 15:511-6. 2004..During this stage, some key enzymes, e.g., nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthase (GOGAT), aspargine synthetase (AS), and asparate ..
- Development of an immobilized brain glutamine synthetase liquid chromatographic stationary phase for on-line biochemical studiesJ F Cloix
Department of Pharmacology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007, USA
J Chromatogr A 913:133-40. 2001b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays a key role in the regulation of glutamate availability to neurons...
- Glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase and other enzyme activities related to the pyrimidine pathway in spleen of Squalus acanthias (spiny dogfish)P M Anderson
Department of Biochemistry, University of Minnesota, Duluth 55812
Biochem J 261:523-9. 1989..involve formation of glutamine from ammonia and of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine, catalysed by glutamine synthetase and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, respectively [Anderson & Casey (1984) J. Biol. Chem...
- Some properties of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase from Corynebacterium callunaeH Ertan
Department of Biology, University of Istanbul, Faculty of Science, Vezneciler, Turkey
Arch Microbiol 158:35-41. 1992Characteristics of the three major ammonia assimilatory enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GO-GAT) in Corynebacterium callunae (NCIB 10338) were examined. The GDH of C...
- Characterization of the regulon controlled by the leucine-responsive regulatory protein in Escherichia coliB R Ernsting
Biophysics Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109
J Bacteriol 174:1109-18. 1992..Outer membrane porins OmpC and OmpF, glutamine synthetase (GlnA), the small subunit of glutamate synthase (GltD), lysyl-tRNA synthetase form II (LysU), a high-..
- Historical control data on urinary and renal tissue biomarkers in naive male Wistar ratsA Trevisan
Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
J Appl Toxicol 21:409-13. 2001Total proteins, angiotensin-converting enzyme, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, glutamine transaminase K and glutamine synthetase were determined in urine collected overnight (14 h: 6:00 p.m.-8:00 a.m...
- Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding glutamine synthetase I from the archaeum Pyrococcus woesei: anomalous phylogenies inferred from analysis of archaeal and bacterial glutamine synthetase I sequencesO Tiboni
Dipartimento Genetica e Microbiologia A Buzzati Traverso, Universita di Pavia, Italy
J Bacteriol 175:2961-9. 1993The gene glnA encoding glutamine synthetase I (GSI) from the archaeum Pyrococcus woesei was cloned and sequenced with the Sulfolobus solfataricus glnA gene as the probe...
- Nodule-specific modulation of glutamine synthetase in transgenic Medicago truncatula leads to inverse alterations in asparagine synthetase expressionHelena G Carvalho
Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150 180 Porto, Portugal
Plant Physiol 133:243-52. 2003Transgenic Medicago truncatula plants were produced harboring chimeric gene constructs of the glutamine synthetase (GS) cDNA clones (MtGS1a or MtGS1b) fused in sense or antisense orientation to the nodule-specific leghemoglobin promoter ..
- Glutamine synthetase in brain: effect of ammoniaI Suarez
Departamento de Biología Celular y Genética, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871, Madrid, Spain
Neurochem Int 41:123-42. 2002b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) in brain is located mainly in astrocytes...
- Glutamine directly downregulates glutamine synthetase protein levels in mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubesYi Fang Huang
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
J Nutr 137:1357-62. 2007This study examined the regulation of glutamine synthetase protein levels, in response to changes in external glutamine concentration, in mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Glutamine, at concentrations as low as 0...
- Glucocorticoids regulate intestinal glutamine synthetase gene expression in endotoxemiaP Sarantos
Department of Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville
Arch Surg 129:59-65. 1994..biosynthesis is increased during endotoxemia, and we attempted to define the "stress" mediators that regulate the activity of small intestinal glutamine synthetase (GS), the principal enzyme of de novo glutamine biosynthesis in the gut.
- Glutamine synthetase in tilapia gastrointestinal tract: zonation, cDNA and induction by cortisolT P Mommsen
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P O Box 3055, Victoria, B C, V8W 3P6, Canada
J Comp Physiol B 173:419-27. 2003b>Glutamine synthetase, an enzyme generally associated with ammonia detoxication in the vertebrate brain and with hepatic nitrogen turnover in mammals, shows substantial activities in the gastrointestinal tract of teleostean fishes...
- Chronic and acute ammonia toxicity in mudskippers, Periophthalmodon schlosseri and Boleophthalmus boddaerti: brain ammonia and glutamine contents, and effects of methionine sulfoximine and MK801Yuen K Ip
Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 117543, Republic of Singapore
J Exp Biol 208:1993-2004. 2005..intoxication could be prevented by the administration of methionine sulfoximine [MSO; an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)] or MK801 [an antagonist of N-methyl D-aspartate type glutamate (NMDA) receptors]. For P...
- Metal-dependent self-assembly of protein tubes from Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase. Cu(2+) EPR studies of the ligation and stoichiometry of intermolecular metal binding sitesP Schurke
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7610, USA
J Biol Chem 274:27963-8. 1999Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase (GS) is a dodecameric assembly of identical subunits arranged as two back-to-back hexagonal rings...
- Segmentary effects on the renal proximal tubule due to hexachloro-1,3-butadiene in rats: biomarkers related to genderAndrea Trevisan
Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, University of Padova, Italy
J Appl Toxicol 25:13-9. 2005Renal tissue biomarkers (glutamine synthetase and p-aminohippuric acid uptake) were studied in male and female rats after treatment with hexachloro-1,3-butadiene. Reduced glutathione content also was also determined in liver and kidney...
- Purification and properties of glutamine synthetase from the non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosumF Blanco
, Facultad de Ciencias, , Bilbao, Spain
J Bacteriol 171:1158-65. 1989Soluble glutamine synthetase activity (L-glutamate:ammonia ligase, ADP forming, EC 184.108.40.206) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum (OH-1-p...
- Thermodynamics of active-site ligand binding to Escherichia coli glutamine synthetaseA Ginsburg
Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
Biochemistry 26:5989-96. 1987Active-site ligand interactions with dodecameric glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli have been studied by calorimetry and fluorometry using the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), L-glutamate, L-Met-..
- Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and potential regulatory elements of the glutamine synthetase gene from murine 3T3-L1 adipocytesB Bhandari
Department of Medicine, Cleveland Veterans Administration Medical Center, OH
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:5789-93. 1988b>Glutamine synthetase [L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming); EC 6.3.1...
- Evolution of glutamine synthetase in heterokonts: evidence for endosymbiotic gene transfer and the early evolution of photosynthesisDeborah L Robertson
Biology Department, Clark University
Mol Biol Evol 23:1048-55. 2006..b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is essential for ammonium assimilation and glutamine biosynthesis in all organisms...
- Glucocorticoids induce glutamine synthetase in folliculostellate cells of rat pituitary glands in vivo and in vitroN Shirasawa
Department of Anatomy, Wakayama Medical College, Japan
J Anat 194:567-77. 1999b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a glucocorticoid-inducible enzyme that has a key role for glutamate metabolism in the central and peripheral nervous system...
- Regulation of glutamine metabolism during the development of Bombyx mori larvaeChikara Hirayama
National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 8634, Japan
Biochim Biophys Acta 1571:131-7. 2002..e. through glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway) for silk synthesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, in the last larval stadium...
- Characterization of NADPH-diaphorase-positive glial cells of the tench optic nerve after axotomyD Clemente
Laboratorio de Neurobiología del Desarrollo, Unidad de Neurologia Experimental, Hospital Nacional de Paraplejicos, Toledo, Spain
Arch Ital Biol 146:35-52. 2008..Astrocytic markers (S100 and glutamine synthetase) and the microglial marker tomato lectin were employed...
- Metabolic compartmentation of vertebrate glutamine synthetase: putative mitochondrial targeting signal in avian liver glutamine synthetaseJ W Campbell
Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251
Mol Biol Evol 9:787-805. 1992..of uricoteley as a mechanism for hepatic ammonia detoxication in vertebrates required targeting of glutamine synthetase (GS) to liver mitochondria in the sauropsid line of descent leading to the squamate reptiles and archosaurs...
- Nitric oxide (no), citrulline - no cycle enzymes, glutamine synthetase and oxidative stress in anoxia (hypobaric hypoxia) and reperfusion in rat brainM Swamy
Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Int J Med Sci 7:147-54. 2010..reoxygenation), the nitric oxide synthase, argininosuccinate synthetase, argininosuccinate lyase, glutamine synthetase and arginase activities along with the concentration of nitrate /nitrite, thiobarbituric acid reactive ..
- Neuronal expression of glutamine synthetase in Alzheimer's disease indicates a profound impairment of metabolic interactions with astrocytesS R Robinson
Department of Psychology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
Neurochem Int 36:471-82. 2000A considerable body of evidence indicates that the activity of glutamine synthetase is decreased in the cerebral cortices of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease...
- Expression and efficient export of enzymatically active Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase in Mycobacterium smegmatis and evidence that the information for export is contained within the proteinG Harth
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 37 121 CHS, School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
J Biol Chem 272:22728-35. 1997..investigated the expression and extracellular release of active, recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase (EC 220.127.116.11), an enzyme that is a potentially important determinant of M...
- Response of transgenic poplar overexpressing cytosolic glutamine synthetase to phosphinothricinMaría Belén Pascual
Departamento de Biologia Molecular y Bioquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, and Instituto Andaluz de Biotecnología, Campus de Teatinos, E 29071 Malaga, Spain
Phytochemistry 69:382-9. 2008b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the main enzyme involved in ammonia assimilation in plants and is the target of phosphinothricin (PPT), an herbicide commonly used for weed control in agriculture...
- Distribution of glutamine synthetase and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I in vertebrate liverD D Smith
Department of Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:160-4. 1988Mitochondrial glutamine synthetase (EC 18.104.22.168) is the primary ammonia-detoxifying enzyme in avian liver and is therefore analogous in function to carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I (ammonia) (EC 22.214.171.124) in mammalian liver...
- Characterization of the GlnK protein of Escherichia coliM R Atkinson
Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0606, USA
Mol Microbiol 32:301-13. 1999..of PII, the GlnK protein controls nitrogen assimilation by regulating the activities of the PII receptors glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (ATase) and the kinase/phosphatase nitrogen regulator II (NRII or NtrB), which controls ..
- Protease So from Escherichia coli preferentially degrades oxidatively damaged glutamine synthetaseY S Lee
Department of Zoology, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, Korea
J Biol Chem 263:6643-6. 1988After oxidative damage (e.g. induced with iron, ascorbate, and oxygen), the inactivated glutamine synthetase is selectively hydrolyzed in extracts of Escherichia coli...
- Lactose supports Muller cell protein expression patterns in the absence of the retinal pigment epitheliumM M Jablonski
Retinal Degeneration Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center at Memphis, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
Mol Vis 7:27-35. 2001..The purpose of the present study was to determine if, in addition to the improved outer segment assembly observed in the presence of lactose, biosynthetic changes in Muller cells could also be detected...
- Tubular segment-specific biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in the ratA Trevisan
Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, I 35128 Padova, Italy
Toxicol Lett 124:113-20. 2001Segment-specific localization of p-aminohippuric acid accumulation and glutamine synthetase activity along the proximal tubule was investigated in kidneys of rats treated with segment-specific nephrotoxicants such as potassium dichromate (..
- Loss of glutamine synthetase in the human epileptogenic hippocampus: possible mechanism for raised extracellular glutamate in mesial temporal lobe epilepsyT Eid
Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
Lancet 363:28-37. 2004..We investigated whether a deficiency in glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme in catabolism of extracellular glutamate in the brain, could explain the perturbed glutamate ..
- Differential expression of the astrocytic enzymes 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase, kynurenine aminotransferase and glutamine synthetase in seizure-prone and non-epileptic miceC L Eastman
Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21228
Epilepsy Res 18:185-94. 1994..acid oxygenase (3HAO), and of two other astrocytic enzymes, kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) and glutamine synthetase (GS), were measured in the brains of seizure-prone EL and DBA/2 mice and two non-epileptic strains (BALB/c ..
- Expression of carbamoylphosphate synthetase I and glutamine synthetase in hepatic organoids reconstructed by rat small hepatocytes and hepatic nonparenchymal cellsT Mitaka
Department of Pathology, Cancer Research Institute, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Chuo Ku, S 1, W 17, Sapporo 060 8556, Japan
Cell Tissue Res 306:467-71. 2001The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of carbamoylphosphate synthetase I (CPS) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in small hepatocyte colonies and whether the heterogeneous expression of the enzymes could be induced ..
- A second glutamine synthetase gene with expression in the gills of the gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta)Patrick J Walsh
NIEHS Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Center, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149, USA
J Exp Biol 206:1523-33. 2003We characterized the expression of the nitrogen metabolism enzyme glutamine synthetase [GSase; L-glutamate: ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), E.C. 6.3.1...
- Urea synthesis in the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi--hepatic carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III and glutamine synthetase are upregulated by 6 days of aerial exposureShit F Chew
Natural Sciences, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616, Republic of Singapore
J Exp Biol 206:3615-24. 2003..dolloi is present mainly in the cytosol. Glutamine synthetase activity is present in both the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions of the liver of P. dolloi...
- How does glutamine synthetase activity determine plant tolerance to ammonium?C Cruz
Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, CEBV, Campo Grande, Bloco C 2, Piso 4, 1749 016 Lisboa, Portugal
Planta 223:1068-80. 2006..5, 1.5, 3 and 6 mM) of nitrate and ammonium. The relative contributions of the activity of the key enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS; under light and dark conditions) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were determined...
- Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genesJ R Brown
Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Biochemistry, Halifax, Nova Scotia
J Mol Evol 38:566-76. 1994b>Glutamine synthetase (GS), an essential enzyme in ammonia assimilation and glutamine biosynthesis, has three distinctive types: GSI, GSII and GSIII...
- Glutamine synthetase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: extracellular release and characterization of its enzymatic activityG Harth
Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90024
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:9342-6. 1994We have investigated the activity and extracellular release of glutamine synthetase [L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), EC 126.96.36.199] of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The purified, homogeneous M...
- The 3' untranslated region of the two cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS(1)) genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) regulates transcript stability in response to glutamineBindu Simon
New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
Planta 232:1151-62. 2010b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia with glutamate to produce glutamine. The GS enzyme is located either in the chloroplast (GS(2)) or in the cytoplasm (GS(1))...
- Glutamine synthetase and protease enzyme activities and growth response of ruminal bacterium Prevotella ruminicola strain B(1)4 to nitrogen source and concentrationJ M Kirk
Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
J Environ Sci Health B 35:103-20. 2000The objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying nitrogen sources and concentrations upon glutamine synthetase and protease activities in Prevotella ruminicola strain B(1)4...
- Regulation of glutamine synthetase activity in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 by the nitrogen source: effect of ammoniumA Merida
Departamento de Bioquimica Vegetal y Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Universidad de Sevilla CSIC, Spain
J Bacteriol 173:4095-100. 1991b>Glutamine synthetase activity from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is regulated as a function of the nitrogen source available in the medium. Addition of 0...
- The glutamine synthetase of Prevotella bryantii B(1)4 is a family III enzyme (GlnN) and glutamine supports growth of mutants lacking glutamate dehydrogenase activityZezhang T Wen
Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 0908, USA
FEMS Microbiol Lett 229:15-21. 2003..The gene encoding a family III glutamine synthetase (GSIII, glnN) in Prevotella bryantii B(1)4 was cloned by Escherichia coli mutant complementation, and ..
- Haploinsufficiency of glutamine synthetase increases susceptibility to experimental febrile seizuresK L I van Gassen
Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Genes Brain Behav 8:290-5. 2009b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a pivotal glial enzyme in the glutamate-glutamine cycle...
- Glutamine synthetase and glutamate metabolism in the guinea pig cochleaM Eybalin
INSERM U 254 Neurobiologie de l Audition Plasticité Synaptique, Montpellier, France
Hear Res 101:93-101. 1996Glutamate is thought to act as a neurotransmitter of the sensory hair cells of the organ of Corti. Glutamine synthetase could be involved in a type of glutamate-glutamine cycle in the cochlea which could clear glutamate off the synaptic ..
- Structure-function analysis of glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (ATase, EC 188.8.131.52) of Escherichia coliPeng Jiang
Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0606, USA
Biochemistry 46:4117-32. 2007b>Glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (ATase) regulates the activity of glutamine synthetase by adenylylation and deadenylylation in response to signals of nitrogen and carbon status: glutamine, alpha-ketoglutarate, and the ..
- The freshwater Amazonian stingray, Potamotrygon motoro, up-regulates glutamine synthetase activity and protein abundance, and accumulates glutamine when exposed to brackish (15 per thousand) waterY K Ip
Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 117543, Republic of Singapore
J Exp Biol 212:3828-36. 2009..freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro, which lacks a functional ornithine-urea cycle, would up-regulate glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and protein abundance, and accumulate glutamine during a progressive transfer from freshwater ..
- Nucleotide sequence of a tobacco cDNA encoding plastidic glutamine synthetase and light inducibility, organ specificity and diurnal rhythmicity in the expression of the corresponding genes of tobacco and tomatoT W Becker
Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire, INRA, Centre de Versailles, France
Plant Mol Biol 19:367-79. 1992A full-length cDNA encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was cloned from a lambda gt10 library of tobacco leaf RNA, and the nucleotide sequence was determined...
- Purification and characterization of a repressor for the Bacillus cereus glnRA operonY Nakano
Laboratory of Biochemistry, College of Science, Rikkyo St Paul s University, Tokyo
J Biochem 109:223-8. 1991We report the overexpression, purification, and properties of the regulatory protein, GlnR, for glutamine synthetase synthesis of Bacillus cereus...
- Physical and chemical characterization of glutamine synthetase purified from Mycobacterium phleiK Kimura
Laboratory of Biochemistry, College of Science, Rikkyo St Paul s University, Tokyo
J Biochem 105:648-52. 1989b>Glutamine synthetase (L-glutamate: ammonia ligase [ADP forming]) [EC 184.108.40.206] has been purified from a Gram-positive, acid-fast bacterium, Mycobacterium phlei, by simple procedures with 57% recovery...
- Structure of the Escherichia coli signal transducing protein PIIE Cheah
Centre for Molecular Structure and Function, Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra
Structure 2:981-90. 1994..PII modulates the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) through its interaction with adenylyl transferase and it represses the expression of GS by acting in ..
- Evolution of the glutamine synthetase gene, one of the oldest existing and functioning genesY Kumada
Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd, Tokyo, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:3009-13. 1993We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in order to investigate their evolutionary history. The analyses were done on 30 DNA sequences of the GS gene which included both prokaryotes and eukaryotes...
- The effect of high altitude and caloric restriction on reactive carbonyl derivatives and activity of glutamine synthetase in rat brainZ Radak
Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Institute of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan
Life Sci 62:1317-22. 1998..In addition, the activity and protein content of glutamine synthetase (GS) were determined. The body mass of C rats was significantly higher (P< 0...
- NMDA-induced increases in rat brain glutamine synthetase but not glial fibrillary acidic protein are mediated by free radicalsJ E Davenport Jones
Department of Biosciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK
Neurosci Lett 247:37-40. 1998..antioxidant, could prevent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-produced increases of the glial specific proteins, glutamine synthetase (GS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in rat brain spheroids in vitro...
- Müller glia cells reorganize reaggregating chicken retinal cells into correctly laminated in vitro retinaeE Willbold
Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Zoology, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurogenetics, Darmstadt, Germany
Glia 29:45-57. 2000..In correctly laminated spheroids, staining for vimentin and glutamine synthetase was much more pronounced than in rosetted spheroids; in particular, a well-established inner limiting ..
- Intracellular pH regulation in maize root tips exposed to ammonium at high external pHJ Gerendás
Institute for Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, University of Kiel, Germany
J Exp Bot 51:207-19. 2000..Similarly, ammonium assimilation, which was shown to occur via the proton-generating glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway using in vivo 15N NMR, was also quantitatively insignificant in comparison with ..
- Nitrogen-regulated group 2 sigma factor from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 involved in survival under nitrogen stressA M Muro-Pastor
Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Universidad de Sevilla, E 41092 Seville, Spain
J Bacteriol 183:1090-5. 2001..We have named this gene rpoD2-V. The expression of glnN, encoding a type III glutamine synthetase, was impaired in strains bearing an inactivated copy of the rpoD2-V gene.
- Multicopy crystallographic refinement of a relaxed glutamine synthetase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlights flexible loops in the enzymatic mechanism and its regulationHarindarpal S Gill
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, UCLA Department of Energy Laboratory of Structural Biology and Molecular Medicine, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Box 951570, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1570, USA
Biochemistry 41:9863-72. 2002The crystal structure of glutamine synthetase (GS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis determined at 2.4 A resolution reveals citrate and AMP bound in the active site...
- Biological effects of power frequency magnetic fields: Neurochemical and toxicological changes in developing chick embryosP Rajendra
Department of Biochemistry, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India
Biomagn Res Technol 2:1. 2004..amino acid (tyrosine, glutamine and tryptophan) contents were measured, along with an assay of the enzyme glutamine synthetase in the brain...
- Ornithine metabolism in male and female rat kidney: mitochondrial expression of ornithine aminotransferase and arginase IIOlivier Levillain
Laboratoire de Physiopathologie Métabolique et Rénale, Faculté de Médecine Lyon R T H Laennec, INSERM U 499, 7 ue G Paradin, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 286:F727-38. 2004..However, the coexpression of ODC, glutamate decarboxylase, and glutamine synthetase in PST suggests that L-ornithine can also be metabolized to putrescine, GABA, ..
- YbdK is a carboxylate-amine ligase with a gamma-glutamyl:Cysteine ligase activity: crystal structure and enzymatic assaysChristopher Lehmann
Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
Proteins 56:376-83. 2004..The 2.15 A resolution crystal structure of YbdK reveals an overall fold similar to that of glutamine synthetase (GS), a nitrogen metabolism enzyme that ligates glutamate and ammonia to yield glutamine...
- Differentially expressed genes associated with hepatitis B virus HBx and MHBs protein function in hepatocellular carcinomaDae Ghon Kim
Division of GI and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea
Methods Mol Biol 317:141-55. 2006..13mers, 16 genes were differentially expressed in the HBx and MHBs-positive HCC including RoRNA hY1, glutamine synthetase, factor H homologue 3' end, voltage-dependent anionc hannel 3 (VDAC3), three ribosomal proteins, four ..
- Ammonia toxicity and tolerance in the brain of the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinusNicklaus L J Wee
Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 117543, Republic of Singapore
Aquat Toxicol 82:204-13. 2007..gariepinus, and to examine whether methionine sulfoximine [MSO; an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)] or MK801 [an antagonist of N-methyl d-aspartate type glutamate (NMDA) receptors] had protective ..
- Hepatic gene expression profiles in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed fishmeal or fish oil-free dietsStephane Panserat
INRA, UMR1067 Nutrition Aquaculture and Genomics, Pôle d Hydrobiologie, CD 918, F 64310 Saint Pée sur Nivelle, France
Br J Nutr 100:953-67. 2008..capacity of fatty acid biosynthesis (fatty acid synthase) and variation of detoxification metabolism (cytochrome P450s) whereas dietary fishmeal replacement may depress protein metabolism in the liver as reflected by glutamine synthetase.
- Comparative proteomic studies in Rhodospirillum rubrum grown under different nitrogen conditionsTiago T Selao
Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories for Natural Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden
J Proteome Res 7:3267-75. 2008..Ntr and Nif regulated proteins, such as glutamine synthetase and nitrogenase, were, as expected, induced under nitrogen-fixing conditions and glutamate dehydrogenase ..
- Retinal vascular changes after glial disruption in ratsWeiyong Shen
Save Sight Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
J Neurosci Res 88:1485-99. 2010..of glial disruption on retinal vasculature after intraocular injection of DL-alpha-AAA or siRNA targeting glutamine synthetase (GS) in rats...
- Pharmacological evaluation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) mediated neuroprotection following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injuryRajkumar Verma
Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute CDRI, P O Box 173, Lucknow, India
Eur J Pharmacol 638:65-71. 2010..It also caused a significant (P<0.05) upregulation of GLT-1 mRNA, protein and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity...
- Regulation of the nitrogen transfer pathway in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: gene characterization and the coordination of expression with nitrogen fluxChunjie Tian
Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
Plant Physiol 153:1175-87. 2010..Two glutamine synthetase isoforms were found to have different substrate affinities and expression patterns, suggesting different ..
- Regulation of nitrate assimilation in cyanobacteriaYoshitake Ohashi
Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
J Exp Bot 62:1411-24. 2011..Ammonium inhibits transcription by quickly depleting the 2-OG pool through its metabolism via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle...
- Nitrogen metabolism in leaves of a tank epiphytic bromeliad: characterization of a spatial and functional divisionCassia Ayumi Takahashi
Department of Botany, Institution of Bioscience, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matão 277, 05508 090 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
J Plant Physiol 168:1208-16. 2011..source was supplied to the tank of these plants and the activities of urease, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH) were quantified in apical and basal leaf portions after 1, 3, 6,..
- Characterization of protein acyltransferase function of recombinant purified GlnA1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a moon lighting propertyAnil S Baghel
Department of Biochemistry, VP Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
Microbiol Res 166:662-72. 2011The protein acetyltransferase (MTAase) function of glutamine synthetase of Mycobacterium smegmatis was established earlier...
- Immunohistochemical localization of protein kinase C (PKC) beta I in the pig retina during postnatal developmentChanwoo Jeong
Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Jeju National University, South Korea
Acta Histochem 114:18-23. 2012..3-day-old retina, where PKC beta I was localized in some glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells, glutamine synthetase-positive cells, parvalbumin-positive cells, and PKC alpha-positive cells in the retina...
- Cellular and 3D optical coherence tomography assessment during the initiation and progression of retinal degeneration in the Ccl2/Cx3cr1-deficient mouseYongdong Zhou
Neuroscience Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Exp Eye Res 93:636-48. 2011..Our observations of decreased glutamine synthetase and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein suggest that Müller cells respond very early within regions ..
- Targeting the overproduction of peroxynitrite for the prevention and reversal of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic painTimothy Doyle
Department of Pharmacological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63104, USA
J Neurosci 32:6149-60. 2012..known to be involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission (astrocyte-restricted glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase)...
- Roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in retinal neuron-like differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from nonobese diabetic miceYue Xu
Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, 226001, People s Republic of China
J Mol Neurosci 49:250-61. 2013..such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific nuclear protein, tyrosine hydroxylase, Thy-1, glutamine synthetase, and rhodopsin was lower in NOD-MSCs than in imprinting control region MSCs...
- Global and ocular hypothermic preconditioning protect the rat retina from ischemic damageEzequiel M Salido
Laboratory of Retinal Neurochemistry and Experimental Ophthalmology, Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires CEFyBO, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina
PLoS ONE 8:e61656. 2013..Three days after ischemia, a significant decrease in retinal glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase activity was observed, whereas ocular HPC prevented the effect of ischemia on these parameters...
- Expression of glutamine synthetase in Tegillarca granosa (Bivalvia, Arcidae) hemocytes stimulated by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and lipopolysaccharidesY B Bao
College of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China
Genet Mol Res 12:1143-54. 2013The blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, is a widely consumed clam in the Indo-Pacific region. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ..
- Analysis of proteins associated with ozone stress response in soybean cultivarsNisar Ahmad Khan
Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko, Abiko, 270 1194, Japan
Protein Pept Lett 20:1144-52. 2013..subunit, ATP synthase β-subunit, phosphoglycerate kinase, aldo/ketoreductase, rubiscoactivase and glutamine synthetase. To understand that the differences in response of ATP synthase proteins were ultimately associated with ..
- Phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of isocortical and hippocampal astrocytes in the human brainAlexander A Sosunov
Departments of Neurosurgery and Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032
J Neurosci 34:2285-98. 2014..astrocytes generally displayed high immunostaining for GFAP, S100β, and CD44, but low immunostaining for glutamine synthetase, excitatory amino-acid transporter 1 (EAAT1), and EAAT2...
- Ephrin/Ephrin receptor expression in ammonia-treated rat astrocytes and in human cerebral cortex in hepatic encephalopathyKarmela Sobczyk
Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
Neurochem Res 40:274-83. 2015..This effect was sensitive to inhibitors of NAPDH oxidase or glutamine synthetase, but was insensitive to siRNA-mediated EphR A4 knockdown...
- Ammonium nitrate and iron nutrition effects on some nitrogen assimilation enzymes and metabolites in Spirulina platensisMerve Esen
Chemistry Department, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Dokuz Eylul University, Buca Izmir, Turkey
Biotechnol Appl Biochem 62:275-86. 2015..and some nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Spirulina platensis (Gamont) Geitler was investigated...
- Blockade of spinal glutamate recycling produces paradoxical antinociception in rats with orofacial inflammatory painKui Y Yang
Department of Oral Physiology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea Electronic address
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 57:100-9. 2015..or methionine sulfoximine (MSO) was administered intracisternally to block spinal glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase activity in astroglia...
- Crosstalk Among Disrupted Glutamatergic and Cholinergic Homeostasis and Inflammatory Response in Mechanisms Elicited by Proline in AstrocytesSamanta Oliveira Loureiro
Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600 anexo, 90035 003, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Mol Neurobiol 53:1065-79. 2016..The excess of glutamate elicited by Pro together with increased glutamate uptake and upregulated glutamine synthetase (GS) activity supported misregulated glutamate homeostasis in astrocytic cells...
- Targeting Stromal Glutamine Synthetase in Tumors Disrupts Tumor Microenvironment-Regulated Cancer Cell GrowthLifeng Yang
Laboratory for Systems Biology of Human Diseases, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Cell Metab 24:685-700. 2016..Using an orthotopic mouse model for ovarian carcinoma, we find that co-targeting glutamine synthetase in stroma and glutaminase in cancer cells reduces tumor weight, nodules, and metastasis...
- Evaluating the role of astrocytes on β-estradiol effect on seizures of Pilocarpine epileptic modelMasoumeh Sarfi
School of Biology, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran
Eur J Pharmacol . 2017..Behavioral convulsions were then monitored and recorded on the day of induction. Four weeks later, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and the astrocyte transporter GLT-1 expression of the hippocampus were measured...
- Homologous nuclear genes encode cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutamine synthetase in Drosophila melanogasterR Caizzi
Istituto di Genetica, Universita di Bari, Italy
J Mol Biol 212:17-26. 1990We describe the cloning of the glutamine synthetase 1 (GS1) gene based on cross-homology with the glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2) gene in Drosophila melanogaster...
- The two opposing activities of adenylyl transferase reside in distinct homologous domains, with intramolecular signal transductionR Jaggi
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia
EMBO J 16:5562-71. 1997..is the bifunctional effector enzyme in the nitrogen assimilation cascade that controls the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in Escherichia coli...
- The acute effects of acrylamide on astrocyte functionsMichael Aschner
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
Ann N Y Acad Sci 993:296-304; discussion 345-9. 2003..Metallothionein (MT), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), and taurine transporter (tau-T) mRNA expression levels as ..
- Effect of composted textile sludge on growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of soybean and cowpeaA S F Araújo
Universidade Estadual do Piauí, Av Nossa Senhora de Fátima, S N, Parnaiba, PI 64202 220, Brazil
Bioresour Technol 98:1028-32. 2007..Nodule glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and leghemoglobin content were evaluated 63 days after emergence...
- Comparative studies of early liver dysfunction in senescence-accelerated mouse using mitochondrial proteomics approachesYashu Liu
The National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Mol Cell Proteomics 7:1737-47. 2008..b>Glutamine synthetase and ornithine aminotransferase involved in glutamine synthesis were up-regulated in SAMP8 livers at both 1 ..
- Glutamate-Glutamine Metabolism in Primary Human Brain TumorsAnne Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2010..brain, glial cells avidly transport glutamate, use it to detoxify ammonia by synthesizing glutamine (via glutamine synthetase (GS)), and export glutamine into the extracellular space and blood via specific glutamine transporters...
- GENETIC STUDIES OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN BACTERIASYDNEY GOVONS KUSTU; Fiscal Year: 2010..limiting (>or equal to 50 nM) and is functionally coupled to the high-affinity NH3 assimilatory enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). One long-term goal of this project is to understand how the E...
- REGULATION OF GLUTAMATE SYNTHESIS IN BACILLUS SUBTILISABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2011..and isocitrate dehydrogenase) that produce a-ketoglutarate and the enzymes of nitrogen assimilation (glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are encoded by genes that are subject to multiple forms of ..
- Urease Activity and Nitrogen Assimilation in Helicobacter pyloriERICA FRANCESCA MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2012..to both the structure and the regulation of the enzymes thought to assimilate ammonium in this organism-glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase...
- CEREBROVASCULAR ALTERATIONS DURING HYPERAMMONEMIARaymond Koehler; Fiscal Year: 2000..Ammonia is metabolized by an active glutamine synthetase pool localized in astrocytes...
- REGULATION OF NITROGEN METABOLISM IN BACILLUS SUBTILISSusan H Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2012..G+C Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is controlled by a novel regulatory system where the enzyme glutamine synthetase is required for both glutamine synthesis and the direct control of the activity of two transcription ..
- Stephen J Moss; Fiscal Year: 2016..ability of astrocytes to export glutamine i dependent upon the activity of the astrocyte-specific enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS)...
- Mechanism of action of the ammonia gas channel AmtB in E. coliJoanne Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2012..coli and S. typhimurium show that at low NH3 concentrations NH3 transport by AmtB appears to be coupled to glutamine synthetase which assimilates NH3 into glutamine. Therefore, in this proposal we seek to understand how AmtB in E...
- Bryan K Yamamoto; Fiscal Year: 2016..GLU) release, activates NMDA receptors, and down- regulates the GLU transporter, while inhibiting glutamine synthetase (condensation of GLU) and increasing superoxide radical and nitric oxide formation...
- Dysregulation of Glutamine Synthetase in Human Temporal Lobe EpilepsyTore Eid; Fiscal Year: 2012DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Dysregulation of Glutamine Synthetase in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: The main objective of this K08 proposal is to facilitate the applicant's development towards independence as a physician-..
- Marc R Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2015..g. EAATs, glutamine synthetase, and GABA transporters)...
- Tore Eid; Fiscal Year: 2014..Recent studies have suggested that a deficiency in glutamine synthetase in the hippocampus is implicated in the generation of seizures in MTLE (Eid et al. Lancet 2004;363: 28-37)...
- INTERACTIONS OF THE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PROTEIN GLNKAlexander Ninfa; Fiscal Year: 2002Escherichia coli controls the transcription of nitrogen-regulated (Ntr) genes and the activity of the glutamine synthetase (GS) with two signal-transducing bicyclic cascades, that mediate control by the small molecule signals of nitrogen ..
- HYPERAMMONEMIA AND CANCER ANOREXIAWILLIAM CHANCE; Fiscal Year: 1990..effects in the intraventicular adminstration of glutamine to normal rats; (5) determining the effects of a glutamine synthetase inhibitor on cancer anorexia; (6) assessing whether infusion of arginine and citrulline will aid in host ..
- ASTROCYTE FUNCTION AND EAA NEUROTOXICITY IN ISCHEMIARaymond Swanson; Fiscal Year: 2000..Inhibition of glial glutamine synthetase reduces brain glutamine and may thereby reduce EAA-mediated neuronal injury under pathological conditions...
- Human hepatocytes for drug toxicity screening from Cardiac Death Donor liversMark G Clemens; Fiscal Year: 2012..This will be accomplished by assessing the activity the perivenous marker glutamine synthetase by measuring total activity and determining the percentage of isolated cells positive for glutamine ..
- Daniela Salvemini; Fiscal Year: 2016..effects on the expression &activities of spinal glutamate transporters (neuronal &glial) &glial glutamine synthetase. If our hypothesis holds true, the outcome of our results are anticipated to provide the pharmacological ..
- JoEllen Welsh; Fiscal Year: 2014..Through genomic profiling, we identified SLC1A1 (a glutamate transporter) and GLUL (glutamine synthetase) as vitamin D regulated genes suggesting that, like p53, vitamin D might act to reduce risk of ..
- GLUTAMATE BIOSYNTHESIS MUTANTS AND ALCOHOL SENSITIVITYDouglas Ruden; Fiscal Year: 2003..mutants of glutamate biosynthesis genes, namely glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT1 and GOT2), and glutamine synthetase 1 (GS1), are hypersensitive to alcohol, and whether wild-type transgenes of GLUD, GPT, GOT1, GOT2, and GS1 ..
- RENAL AMMONIAGENESIS: 15NH3 STUDIES WITH GC-MSItzhak Nissim; Fiscal Year: 1990..The significance of diminished flux through the glutamine synthetase reaction in abetting HN3 production will be studied as well...
- QiQi Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2015..may be due to several factors including stress, inflammation, allergc disorders and/or through decreased glutamine synthetase activity, resulting in decreased intestinal glutamine levels...
- LUNG GLUTAMINE METABOLISM FOLLOWING INJURY AND INFECTIONWiley Souba; Fiscal Year: 2000..The activities of the major glutamine synthetic (glutamine synthetase) and degradative (glutaminase) enzymes will be determined as well as changes in lung glutamine content...
- REGULATION OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN STREPTOMYCESSusan Fisher; Fiscal Year: 1993..In order to increase our understanding of Streptomyces basic physiology, the regulation of glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in ammoniin assimilation, is being studied in S. coelicolor. Analysis of the cloned I...
- GLUTAMINE METABOLISM IN THE TUMOR BEARING RATWiley Souba; Fiscal Year: 1992..The activities of the glutamine synthetase and glutaminase enzymes will be measured...
- GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE AND INTESTINAL EPITHELIUMJosef Neu; Fiscal Year: 2003..Considering the technical limitations in administering glutamine (degradation in aqueous solutions), these studies will suggest alternatives providing the same benefits in a safer and more practical manner. ..
- Hormonal Modulation of Excitatory NeurotransmissionTamara Blutstein; Fiscal Year: 2009..There are only two enzymes in the glutamate- glutamine cycle: neuronal glutaminase, and glial glutamine synthetase (GS)...
- M TUBERCULOSIS GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE EXPORT & INHIBITIONMARCUS HORWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2002..One such key molecule is glutamine synthetase. M...
- Function and development in the synapseLouis Reichardt; Fiscal Year: 2007..transporters involved in glutamate uptake into glia in the brain and retina, test genetically the role of glutamine synthetase in converting glutamate to glutamine, and examine the roles of glutamine transporters in controlling ..
- INTERACTIONS OF THE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PROTEIN PIIAlexander Ninfa; Fiscal Year: 1999..The ATase enzyme reversibly modifies glutamine synthetase (GS) and thereby controls GS activity...
- REGULATION OF NITROGEN METABOLISMJames Kane; Fiscal Year: 1980..physiological manipulations; 4) mutations at the gltA and gltB loci (code for 2 subunits of GOGAT) affect glutamine synthetase (GS) (glt plus NH3 plus ATP greater than gln plus ADP plus Pi)...
- DESIGN OF IMMORTALIZED HEPATOCYTES FOR LIVER SUPPORTSTEPHANIE CASCIO; Fiscal Year: 2000..This project creates a new cell line, HepLiu GS, through the stable integration of the glutamine synthetase (GS) gene into the HepLiu genome to confer ammonia metabolizing activity in addition to their ability to ..
- ANTISENSE INHIBITION OF RETINAL GLUTAMATE METABOLISMJohn Danias; Fiscal Year: 2003..Antisense oligonucleotides to the glutamate metabolizing enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) and to glutamate transporters (GLAST) will be used to inhibit glutamate metabolism and uptake in RGCs...
- EXCITATORY AMION ACID SYNAPTIC CIRCUITRY IN SPINAL SENSOKenneth Miller; Fiscal Year: 1993..Glutamate, aspartate, glutaminase, aspartate amino transferase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and N-acetylaspartylglutamate will be studied...
- Therapeutic delivery of anti-miR oligos to hepatocellular cancerRobert J Lee; Fiscal Year: 2012..Synthesize, characterize and evaluate in vitro the liver-targeted galactosylated lipid nanoparticles (GLNs) for anti-miR delivery in HCC cells. 2...
- MODELS FOR EXPLORING FREE RADICAL DAMAGEJulie Andersen; Fiscal Year: 1999..evaluated during normal aging for changes in lipid peroxidation by MDA accumulation, protein oxidation by glutamine synthetase activity, oxidative stress as assessed by GSH/GSSG ratios, and for cell loss or atrophy as measured by cell ..
- CHITIN BIOSYNTHESIS AND THE MOSQUITO PERITROPHIC MATRIXBruce Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2007..It now is known that glutamine synthetase (GS), glucosamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) and chitin synthase (CS) play major roles ..
- Monoclonal Antibodies Against T-Regulatory CellsAlan Epstein; Fiscal Year: 2005..FABs will then be genetically engineered into whole human lgG1/kappa antibodies and expressed using the Glutamine Synthetase Expression System in murine NS0 cells, purified by tandem protein-A affinity chromatography and ion-..
- ASTROCYTE FUNCTION: ROLE OF PROTEIN KINASE CPHILIP MOBLEY; Fiscal Year: 1990..This will include the regulation of intracellular pH and free (Ca++), the expression of GFAP, glutamine synthetase activity, and astrocyte mitogenesis...
- Novel targets for vaccines against tuberculosisYuri Bushkin; Fiscal Year: 2006..Th1-type cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against mycobacterial alanine dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase can be detected only in non-vaccinated, tuberculin skin test-positive asymptomatic individuals but not in ..
- A mammalian expression system to produce human S-lgAKoteswara Chintalacharuvu; Fiscal Year: 2006..We now hypothesize that by using vectors containing glutamine synthetase (GS) for selection and expressing SC and J chain and H and L chains as a dicistronic mRNAs in non-lymphoid ..
- ACTIVATION OF TRANSCRIPTION BY NRI-PHOSPHATE IN E. COLILAWRENCE REITZER; Fiscal Year: 1991..The first operon induced by nitrogen-limited growth is the glnALG operon, which codes for glutamine synthetase, an essential enzyme for ammonia assimilation...
- HyperSense System for Molecular ImagingRahim Rizi; Fiscal Year: 2009..enable rapid cell proliferation, (v) a study of the potential of hyperpolarized ammonium as a probe of glutamine synthetase activity, (vi) a feasibility study concerning the use of hyperpolarized tracers to detect ovarian cancer in ..
- ENDOCRINE ASPECTS OF MUSCLE WASTING IN AIDSSTEPHEN MAX; Fiscal Year: 1991..Glucocorticoids, by stimulating muscle proteolysis and glutamine synthetase activity, are a key contributing factor to wasting...
- Development of Genetic Tools to Study Retinal Regeneration David Hyde; Fiscal Year: 2007..The Cre enzyme, which will be expressed in Muller glia using the GFAP or glutamine synthetase promoter, will catalyze the recombination between two lox sites in a second transgene...
- REGULATION OF GLNA IN BACILLUS SUBTILISHAROLD SCHREIER; Fiscal Year: 1992..This gene codes for glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism and one that may play some role in triggering the organism to ..
- BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORTN Robinson; Fiscal Year: 1992..four will investigate structure-function relationships of isolated proteins (dynein ATPase, DNA polymerase, glutamine synthetase and adenylyl transferase) and four will investigate various aspects of cells and their organelles (..
- Herpes Simplex Virus, Early Brain Injury and EpilepsyTore Eid; Fiscal Year: 2004..If a viral causation of TLE is established, then this would not only open new avenues for prevention and control of this disorder, but also improve our understanding of viral-induced brain injury. ..
- Temporal lobe epilepsy - validation of a new animal modelTore Eid; Fiscal Year: 2008..lobe epilepsy (TIE), we propose here a novel rat model of TLE by chronic, intracerebral infusions of the glutamine synthetase antagonist, methionine sulfoximine (MSO)...
- Glutamine Synthetase Inhibitors for Tuberculosis TherapyWilliam Atkins; Fiscal Year: 2004..Recently, the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) has become a new therapeutic target for MTB, due to the demonstration that secretion of enzymatically ..
- STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF REGULATORY ENZYMESJOSEPH VILLAFRANCA; Fiscal Year: 1993..investigation involves the rigorously controlled assimilation of nitrogen in bacterial cells by the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS)...
- HOMOGENEOUS GLYCOPROTEINS FOR STRUCTURAL BIOLOGYTIMOTHY LOGAN; Fiscal Year: 1999..The pEE14 glutamine synthetase based vectors would be used to provide enough Thy-1 for structure determination...
- MOLECULAR BASIS OF BIOLOGICAL RECOGNITION AND ASSEMBLYTODD YEATES; Fiscal Year: 2005..6) Determination of the structure of eukaryotic glutamine synthetase as a step toward development of an anti-tuberculosis drug, and understanding of protein-ligand recognition...
- Human monoclonal panel mimicking anthrax immune globulinDonald Reason; Fiscal Year: 2005..antibody expression both in our bi-cistronic pARC/IRES expression vectors and the established Lonza glutamine synthetase-based antibody expression system...
- MECHANISM OF GLUTATHIONE CONJUGATE DEPENDENT TOXICITYArthur Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2007..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- The link between lipid peroxidation and manganese induced glutathione depletionKeith Erikson; Fiscal Year: 2008..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- GLUTAMINE AND INTESTINAL EPITHELIUMLAWRENCE PINKUS; Fiscal Year: 1980..Using specific enzyme inhibitors the importance of certain enzymes in the pathways of glutamine oxidation is being studied. Glutamine synthetase has been found in the intestinal mucosa and is being characterized.
- Engineering glutamate metabolismMalcolm Watford; Fiscal Year: 2006..The long term goals of the work are to formulate optimal delivery of amino acids and protein to enhance protein accretion and limit protein wasting in the treatment, and prevention, of disease. ..
- Neurotoxicology of dietary iron/manganese interactionsKeith Erikson; Fiscal Year: 2005..If successful, these studies will lay the foundation for the development of a pharmacological therapy aimed at the prevention of manganese-accumulation in vulnerable populations. ..
- KETOGENIC DIET AND BRAIN AMINO ACID METABOLISMMarc Yudkoff; Fiscal Year: 2002..In astrocytes, more glutamate becomes available to the glutamine synthetase pathway. This results in increased synthesis of glutamine, a highly effective precursor to GABA...
- Proteomic Profiles in Human Temporal Lobe EpilepsyNihal de Lanerolle; Fiscal Year: 2007..These studies are essential to identify molecules unique to TLE, which will be the candidates for study in future research that explores their role(s) in seizure mechanisms. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
- Genetic Signatures in Human Temporal Lobe EpilespyNihal de Lanerolle; Fiscal Year: 2005..abstract_text> ..
- Extreme Ammonia Tolerance Mechanisms: A Model VertebratePatrick Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2004..abstract_text> ..