glutamine synthetase

Summary

Gene Symbol: glutamine synthetase
Description: glutamate-ammonia ligase
Alias: GLNS, PIG43, PIG59, glutamine synthetase, cell proliferation-inducing protein 59, glutamate decarboxylase, glutamine synthase, proliferation-inducing protein 43
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Congenital glutamine deficiency with glutamine synthetase mutations
    Johannes Haberle
    Universitatsklinikum Munster, Klinik und Poliklinik für Kinderheilkunde und Jugendmedizin, Munster, Germany
    N Engl J Med 353:1926-33. 2005
  2. ncbi Proteomic identification of oxidatively modified proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain. Part I: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1
    Alessandra Castegna
    Department of Chemistry, Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506 0055, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 33:562-71. 2002
  3. ncbi Preferential degradation of the oxidatively modified form of glutamine synthetase by intracellular mammalian proteases
    A J Rivett
    J Biol Chem 260:300-5. 1985
  4. ncbi Investigations into enzymes of nitrogen metabolism of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete, Suillus bovinus
    N Grotjohann
    , , , Germany
    Z Naturforsch C 55:203-12. 2000
  5. ncbi Sequential functional and morphological alterations during hepatocarcinogenesis induced in rats by feeding of a low dose of 2-acetylaminofluorene
    F Stenback
    Department of Pathology, University of Oulu, Finland
    Toxicol Pathol 22:620-32. 1994
  6. pmc Sequence and expression of GLN3, a positive nitrogen regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding a protein with a putative zinc finger DNA-binding domain
    P L Minehart
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139
    Mol Cell Biol 11:6216-28. 1991
  7. ncbi Enhanced sensitivity for peptide mapping with electrospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of signal suppression due to trifluoroacetic acid-containing mobile phases
    A Apffel
    Bay Analytical Operation, Hewlett-Packard Co, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Chromatogr A 712:177-90. 1995
  8. ncbi [Studies on regulation of glutamine synthetase activity from Streptomyces lincolnensis]
    Z Jin
    Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
    Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 41:481-8. 2001
  9. ncbi Metabolic adaptations to nitrogen excess in late gestation in rat
    C Blade
    Departament d Enginyeria Quimica i Bioquimica, Facultat de Ciéncies Quimiques, Universitat de Barcelona, Tarragona, Spain
    Horm Metab Res 23:594-9. 1991
  10. pmc Role of the GATA factors Gln3p and Nil1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the expression of nitrogen-regulated genes
    M Stanbrough
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9450-4. 1995

Research Grants

  1. Glutamate-Glutamine Metabolism in Primary Human Brain Tumors
    Anne Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. GENETIC STUDIES OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN BACTERIA
    SYDNEY GOVONS KUSTU; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. REGULATION OF GLUTAMATE SYNTHESIS IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS
    ABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2011
  4. Urease Activity and Nitrogen Assimilation in Helicobacter pylori
    ERICA FRANCESCA MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
  5. CEREBROVASCULAR ALTERATIONS DURING HYPERAMMONEMIA
    Raymond Koehler; Fiscal Year: 2000
  6. REGULATION OF NITROGEN METABOLISM IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS
    Susan H Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2012
  7. Stephen J Moss; Fiscal Year: 2016
  8. Mechanism of action of the ammonia gas channel AmtB in E. coli
    Joanne Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2012
  9. Bryan K Yamamoto; Fiscal Year: 2016
  10. Dysregulation of Glutamine Synthetase in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
    Tore Eid; Fiscal Year: 2012

Detail Information

Publications269 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Congenital glutamine deficiency with glutamine synthetase mutations
    Johannes Haberle
    Universitatsklinikum Munster, Klinik und Poliklinik für Kinderheilkunde und Jugendmedizin, Munster, Germany
    N Engl J Med 353:1926-33. 2005
    b>Glutamine synthetase plays a major role in ammonia detoxification, interorgan nitrogen flux, acid-base homeostasis, and cell signaling...
  2. ncbi Proteomic identification of oxidatively modified proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain. Part I: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1
    Alessandra Castegna
    Department of Chemistry, Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington 40506 0055, USA
    Free Radic Biol Med 33:562-71. 2002
    ..the presence of specific targets of protein oxidation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain: creatine kinase BB, glutamine synthase, and ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L-1...
  3. ncbi Preferential degradation of the oxidatively modified form of glutamine synthetase by intracellular mammalian proteases
    A J Rivett
    J Biol Chem 260:300-5. 1985
    ..purified from liver preferentially degraded the oxidatively modified (catalytically inactive) form of glutamine synthetase. One of the proteases was cathepsin D which is of lysosomal origin; the other three proteases were present ..
  4. ncbi Investigations into enzymes of nitrogen metabolism of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete, Suillus bovinus
    N Grotjohann
    , , , Germany
    Z Naturforsch C 55:203-12. 2000
    ..43 mM and 23.99 mM, respectively. pH-optimum for amination was about 7.2, that for deamination about 9.3. Glutamine synthetase activity was comparatively low (59 nmol x mg protein(-1) x min(-1))...
  5. ncbi Sequential functional and morphological alterations during hepatocarcinogenesis induced in rats by feeding of a low dose of 2-acetylaminofluorene
    F Stenback
    Department of Pathology, University of Oulu, Finland
    Toxicol Pathol 22:620-32. 1994
    ..By 1 wk of exposure, AAF caused a reduction in the number of glutamine synthetase (GS)-positive centrilobular hepatocytes, an increase in DNA synthesizing hepatocytes in the central areas ..
  6. pmc Sequence and expression of GLN3, a positive nitrogen regulatory gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encoding a protein with a putative zinc finger DNA-binding domain
    P L Minehart
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139
    Mol Cell Biol 11:6216-28. 1991
    ..indicated that the GLN3 protein binds the nitrogen upstream activation sequence of GLN1, the gene encoding glutamine synthetase. Neither control of transcription nor control of initiation of translation of GLN3 is important for ..
  7. ncbi Enhanced sensitivity for peptide mapping with electrospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in the presence of signal suppression due to trifluoroacetic acid-containing mobile phases
    A Apffel
    Bay Analytical Operation, Hewlett-Packard Co, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
    J Chromatogr A 712:177-90. 1995
    ..of the technique is shown in more depth in the identification of oxidative modification sites in glutamine synthetase. In this application, the enhanced sensitivity allowed location of a modified residue by comparison ..
  8. ncbi [Studies on regulation of glutamine synthetase activity from Streptomyces lincolnensis]
    Z Jin
    Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China
    Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao 41:481-8. 2001
    b>Glutamine synthetase in crude extracts from Streptomyces lincolnensis growing under different nitrogen sources were studied. The results showed that NH4+ in high concentration repressed the biosynthesis of the enzyme...
  9. ncbi Metabolic adaptations to nitrogen excess in late gestation in rat
    C Blade
    Departament d Enginyeria Quimica i Bioquimica, Facultat de Ciéncies Quimiques, Universitat de Barcelona, Tarragona, Spain
    Horm Metab Res 23:594-9. 1991
    ..Regarding glutamine synthetase activity, both treatments had an opposite effect except in kidney...
  10. pmc Role of the GATA factors Gln3p and Nil1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the expression of nitrogen-regulated genes
    M Stanbrough
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9450-4. 1995
    ..of Nil1p on the expression of the nitrogen-regulated genes GLN1, GDH2, and GAP1, coding respectively for glutamine synthetase, NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase, and general amino acid permease...
  11. ncbi [Research advance in nitrogen metabolism of plant and its environmental regulation]
    Zhenzhu Xu
    Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China
    Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 15:511-6. 2004
    ..During this stage, some key enzymes, e.g., nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthase (GOGAT), aspargine synthetase (AS), and asparate ..
  12. ncbi Development of an immobilized brain glutamine synthetase liquid chromatographic stationary phase for on-line biochemical studies
    J F Cloix
    Department of Pharmacology, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC 20007, USA
    J Chromatogr A 913:133-40. 2001
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays a key role in the regulation of glutamate availability to neurons...
  13. pmc Glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase and other enzyme activities related to the pyrimidine pathway in spleen of Squalus acanthias (spiny dogfish)
    P M Anderson
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Minnesota, Duluth 55812
    Biochem J 261:523-9. 1989
    ..involve formation of glutamine from ammonia and of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine, catalysed by glutamine synthetase and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase, respectively [Anderson & Casey (1984) J. Biol. Chem...
  14. ncbi Some properties of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase from Corynebacterium callunae
    H Ertan
    Department of Biology, University of Istanbul, Faculty of Science, Vezneciler, Turkey
    Arch Microbiol 158:35-41. 1992
    Characteristics of the three major ammonia assimilatory enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GO-GAT) in Corynebacterium callunae (NCIB 10338) were examined. The GDH of C...
  15. pmc Characterization of the regulon controlled by the leucine-responsive regulatory protein in Escherichia coli
    B R Ernsting
    Biophysics Research Division, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor 48109
    J Bacteriol 174:1109-18. 1992
    ..Outer membrane porins OmpC and OmpF, glutamine synthetase (GlnA), the small subunit of glutamate synthase (GltD), lysyl-tRNA synthetase form II (LysU), a high-..
  16. ncbi Historical control data on urinary and renal tissue biomarkers in naive male Wistar rats
    A Trevisan
    Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    J Appl Toxicol 21:409-13. 2001
    Total proteins, angiotensin-converting enzyme, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, glutamine transaminase K and glutamine synthetase were determined in urine collected overnight (14 h: 6:00 p.m.-8:00 a.m...
  17. pmc Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding glutamine synthetase I from the archaeum Pyrococcus woesei: anomalous phylogenies inferred from analysis of archaeal and bacterial glutamine synthetase I sequences
    O Tiboni
    Dipartimento Genetica e Microbiologia A Buzzati Traverso, Universita di Pavia, Italy
    J Bacteriol 175:2961-9. 1993
    The gene glnA encoding glutamine synthetase I (GSI) from the archaeum Pyrococcus woesei was cloned and sequenced with the Sulfolobus solfataricus glnA gene as the probe...
  18. pmc Nodule-specific modulation of glutamine synthetase in transgenic Medicago truncatula leads to inverse alterations in asparagine synthetase expression
    Helena G Carvalho
    Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150 180 Porto, Portugal
    Plant Physiol 133:243-52. 2003
    Transgenic Medicago truncatula plants were produced harboring chimeric gene constructs of the glutamine synthetase (GS) cDNA clones (MtGS1a or MtGS1b) fused in sense or antisense orientation to the nodule-specific leghemoglobin promoter ..
  19. ncbi Glutamine synthetase in brain: effect of ammonia
    I Suarez
    Departamento de Biología Celular y Genética, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871, Madrid, Spain
    Neurochem Int 41:123-42. 2002
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) in brain is located mainly in astrocytes...
  20. ncbi Glutamine directly downregulates glutamine synthetase protein levels in mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle myotubes
    Yi Fang Huang
    Department of Nutritional Sciences, Cook College, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA
    J Nutr 137:1357-62. 2007
    This study examined the regulation of glutamine synthetase protein levels, in response to changes in external glutamine concentration, in mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Glutamine, at concentrations as low as 0...
  21. ncbi Glucocorticoids regulate intestinal glutamine synthetase gene expression in endotoxemia
    P Sarantos
    Department of Surgery, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville
    Arch Surg 129:59-65. 1994
    ..biosynthesis is increased during endotoxemia, and we attempted to define the "stress" mediators that regulate the activity of small intestinal glutamine synthetase (GS), the principal enzyme of de novo glutamine biosynthesis in the gut.
  22. ncbi Glutamine synthetase in tilapia gastrointestinal tract: zonation, cDNA and induction by cortisol
    T P Mommsen
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P O Box 3055, Victoria, B C, V8W 3P6, Canada
    J Comp Physiol B 173:419-27. 2003
    b>Glutamine synthetase, an enzyme generally associated with ammonia detoxication in the vertebrate brain and with hepatic nitrogen turnover in mammals, shows substantial activities in the gastrointestinal tract of teleostean fishes...
  23. ncbi Chronic and acute ammonia toxicity in mudskippers, Periophthalmodon schlosseri and Boleophthalmus boddaerti: brain ammonia and glutamine contents, and effects of methionine sulfoximine and MK801
    Yuen K Ip
    Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 117543, Republic of Singapore
    J Exp Biol 208:1993-2004. 2005
    ..intoxication could be prevented by the administration of methionine sulfoximine [MSO; an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)] or MK801 [an antagonist of N-methyl D-aspartate type glutamate (NMDA) receptors]. For P...
  24. ncbi Metal-dependent self-assembly of protein tubes from Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase. Cu(2+) EPR studies of the ligation and stoichiometry of intermolecular metal binding sites
    P Schurke
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 7610, USA
    J Biol Chem 274:27963-8. 1999
    Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase (GS) is a dodecameric assembly of identical subunits arranged as two back-to-back hexagonal rings...
  25. ncbi Segmentary effects on the renal proximal tubule due to hexachloro-1,3-butadiene in rats: biomarkers related to gender
    Andrea Trevisan
    Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, University of Padova, Italy
    J Appl Toxicol 25:13-9. 2005
    Renal tissue biomarkers (glutamine synthetase and p-aminohippuric acid uptake) were studied in male and female rats after treatment with hexachloro-1,3-butadiene. Reduced glutathione content also was also determined in liver and kidney...
  26. pmc Purification and properties of glutamine synthetase from the non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum
    F Blanco
    , Facultad de Ciencias, , Bilbao, Spain
    J Bacteriol 171:1158-65. 1989
    Soluble glutamine synthetase activity (L-glutamate:ammonia ligase, ADP forming, EC 6.3.1.2) was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from the filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum (OH-1-p...
  27. ncbi Thermodynamics of active-site ligand binding to Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase
    A Ginsburg
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    Biochemistry 26:5989-96. 1987
    Active-site ligand interactions with dodecameric glutamine synthetase from Escherichia coli have been studied by calorimetry and fluorometry using the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue 5'-adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), L-glutamate, L-Met-..
  28. pmc Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and potential regulatory elements of the glutamine synthetase gene from murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes
    B Bhandari
    Department of Medicine, Cleveland Veterans Administration Medical Center, OH
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:5789-93. 1988
    b>Glutamine synthetase [L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming); EC 6.3.1...
  29. ncbi Evolution of glutamine synthetase in heterokonts: evidence for endosymbiotic gene transfer and the early evolution of photosynthesis
    Deborah L Robertson
    Biology Department, Clark University
    Mol Biol Evol 23:1048-55. 2006
    ..b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is essential for ammonium assimilation and glutamine biosynthesis in all organisms...
  30. pmc Glucocorticoids induce glutamine synthetase in folliculostellate cells of rat pituitary glands in vivo and in vitro
    N Shirasawa
    Department of Anatomy, Wakayama Medical College, Japan
    J Anat 194:567-77. 1999
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a glucocorticoid-inducible enzyme that has a key role for glutamate metabolism in the central and peripheral nervous system...
  31. ncbi Regulation of glutamine metabolism during the development of Bombyx mori larvae
    Chikara Hirayama
    National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305 8634, Japan
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1571:131-7. 2002
    ..e. through glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway) for silk synthesis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, in the last larval stadium...
  32. ncbi Characterization of NADPH-diaphorase-positive glial cells of the tench optic nerve after axotomy
    D Clemente
    Laboratorio de Neurobiología del Desarrollo, Unidad de Neurologia Experimental, Hospital Nacional de Paraplejicos, Toledo, Spain
    Arch Ital Biol 146:35-52. 2008
    ..Astrocytic markers (S100 and glutamine synthetase) and the microglial marker tomato lectin were employed...
  33. ncbi Metabolic compartmentation of vertebrate glutamine synthetase: putative mitochondrial targeting signal in avian liver glutamine synthetase
    J W Campbell
    Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77251
    Mol Biol Evol 9:787-805. 1992
    ..of uricoteley as a mechanism for hepatic ammonia detoxication in vertebrates required targeting of glutamine synthetase (GS) to liver mitochondria in the sauropsid line of descent leading to the squamate reptiles and archosaurs...
  34. pmc Nitric oxide (no), citrulline - no cycle enzymes, glutamine synthetase and oxidative stress in anoxia (hypobaric hypoxia) and reperfusion in rat brain
    M Swamy
    Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
    Int J Med Sci 7:147-54. 2010
    ..reoxygenation), the nitric oxide synthase, argininosuccinate synthetase, argininosuccinate lyase, glutamine synthetase and arginase activities along with the concentration of nitrate /nitrite, thiobarbituric acid reactive ..
  35. ncbi Neuronal expression of glutamine synthetase in Alzheimer's disease indicates a profound impairment of metabolic interactions with astrocytes
    S R Robinson
    Department of Psychology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia
    Neurochem Int 36:471-82. 2000
    A considerable body of evidence indicates that the activity of glutamine synthetase is decreased in the cerebral cortices of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease...
  36. ncbi Expression and efficient export of enzymatically active Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase in Mycobacterium smegmatis and evidence that the information for export is contained within the protein
    G Harth
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 37 121 CHS, School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:22728-35. 1997
    ..investigated the expression and extracellular release of active, recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2), an enzyme that is a potentially important determinant of M...
  37. ncbi Response of transgenic poplar overexpressing cytosolic glutamine synthetase to phosphinothricin
    María Belén Pascual
    Departamento de Biologia Molecular y Bioquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Malaga, and Instituto Andaluz de Biotecnología, Campus de Teatinos, E 29071 Malaga, Spain
    Phytochemistry 69:382-9. 2008
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is the main enzyme involved in ammonia assimilation in plants and is the target of phosphinothricin (PPT), an herbicide commonly used for weed control in agriculture...
  38. pmc Distribution of glutamine synthetase and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I in vertebrate liver
    D D Smith
    Department of Biology, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85:160-4. 1988
    Mitochondrial glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) is the primary ammonia-detoxifying enzyme in avian liver and is therefore analogous in function to carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I (ammonia) (EC 6.3.4.16) in mammalian liver...
  39. ncbi Characterization of the GlnK protein of Escherichia coli
    M R Atkinson
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0606, USA
    Mol Microbiol 32:301-13. 1999
    ..of PII, the GlnK protein controls nitrogen assimilation by regulating the activities of the PII receptors glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (ATase) and the kinase/phosphatase nitrogen regulator II (NRII or NtrB), which controls ..
  40. ncbi Protease So from Escherichia coli preferentially degrades oxidatively damaged glutamine synthetase
    Y S Lee
    Department of Zoology, College of Natural Science, Seoul National University, Korea
    J Biol Chem 263:6643-6. 1988
    After oxidative damage (e.g. induced with iron, ascorbate, and oxygen), the inactivated glutamine synthetase is selectively hydrolyzed in extracts of Escherichia coli...
  41. ncbi Lactose supports Muller cell protein expression patterns in the absence of the retinal pigment epithelium
    M M Jablonski
    Retinal Degeneration Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center at Memphis, Memphis, TN 38163, USA
    Mol Vis 7:27-35. 2001
    ..The purpose of the present study was to determine if, in addition to the improved outer segment assembly observed in the presence of lactose, biosynthetic changes in Muller cells could also be detected...
  42. ncbi Tubular segment-specific biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in the rat
    A Trevisan
    Laboratory of Industrial Toxicology, Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani 2, I 35128 Padova, Italy
    Toxicol Lett 124:113-20. 2001
    Segment-specific localization of p-aminohippuric acid accumulation and glutamine synthetase activity along the proximal tubule was investigated in kidneys of rats treated with segment-specific nephrotoxicants such as potassium dichromate (..
  43. ncbi Loss of glutamine synthetase in the human epileptogenic hippocampus: possible mechanism for raised extracellular glutamate in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy
    T Eid
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
    Lancet 363:28-37. 2004
    ..We investigated whether a deficiency in glutamine synthetase, a key enzyme in catabolism of extracellular glutamate in the brain, could explain the perturbed glutamate ..
  44. ncbi Differential expression of the astrocytic enzymes 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase, kynurenine aminotransferase and glutamine synthetase in seizure-prone and non-epileptic mice
    C L Eastman
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore 21228
    Epilepsy Res 18:185-94. 1994
    ..acid oxygenase (3HAO), and of two other astrocytic enzymes, kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) and glutamine synthetase (GS), were measured in the brains of seizure-prone EL and DBA/2 mice and two non-epileptic strains (BALB/c ..
  45. ncbi Expression of carbamoylphosphate synthetase I and glutamine synthetase in hepatic organoids reconstructed by rat small hepatocytes and hepatic nonparenchymal cells
    T Mitaka
    Department of Pathology, Cancer Research Institute, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Chuo Ku, S 1, W 17, Sapporo 060 8556, Japan
    Cell Tissue Res 306:467-71. 2001
    The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of carbamoylphosphate synthetase I (CPS) and glutamine synthetase (GS) in small hepatocyte colonies and whether the heterogeneous expression of the enzymes could be induced ..
  46. ncbi A second glutamine synthetase gene with expression in the gills of the gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta)
    Patrick J Walsh
    NIEHS Marine and Freshwater Biomedical Sciences Center, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149, USA
    J Exp Biol 206:1523-33. 2003
    We characterized the expression of the nitrogen metabolism enzyme glutamine synthetase [GSase; L-glutamate: ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), E.C. 6.3.1...
  47. ncbi Urea synthesis in the African lungfish Protopterus dolloi--hepatic carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III and glutamine synthetase are upregulated by 6 days of aerial exposure
    Shit F Chew
    Natural Sciences, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616, Republic of Singapore
    J Exp Biol 206:3615-24. 2003
    ..dolloi is present mainly in the cytosol. Glutamine synthetase activity is present in both the mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions of the liver of P. dolloi...
  48. ncbi How does glutamine synthetase activity determine plant tolerance to ammonium?
    C Cruz
    Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Faculdade de Ciencias de Lisboa, Centro de Ecologia e Biologia Vegetal, CEBV, Campo Grande, Bloco C 2, Piso 4, 1749 016 Lisboa, Portugal
    Planta 223:1068-80. 2006
    ..5, 1.5, 3 and 6 mM) of nitrate and ammonium. The relative contributions of the activity of the key enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS; under light and dark conditions) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) were determined...
  49. ncbi Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes
    J R Brown
    Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Department of Biochemistry, Halifax, Nova Scotia
    J Mol Evol 38:566-76. 1994
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS), an essential enzyme in ammonia assimilation and glutamine biosynthesis, has three distinctive types: GSI, GSII and GSIII...
  50. pmc Glutamine synthetase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: extracellular release and characterization of its enzymatic activity
    G Harth
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90024
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:9342-6. 1994
    We have investigated the activity and extracellular release of glutamine synthetase [L-glutamate:ammonia ligase (ADP-forming), EC 6.3.1.2] of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The purified, homogeneous M...
  51. doi The 3' untranslated region of the two cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS(1)) genes in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) regulates transcript stability in response to glutamine
    Bindu Simon
    New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA
    Planta 232:1151-62. 2010
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of ammonia with glutamate to produce glutamine. The GS enzyme is located either in the chloroplast (GS(2)) or in the cytoplasm (GS(1))...
  52. ncbi Glutamine synthetase and protease enzyme activities and growth response of ruminal bacterium Prevotella ruminicola strain B(1)4 to nitrogen source and concentration
    J M Kirk
    Department of Animal Science, Texas A and M University, College Station 77843 2471, USA
    J Environ Sci Health B 35:103-20. 2000
    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying nitrogen sources and concentrations upon glutamine synthetase and protease activities in Prevotella ruminicola strain B(1)4...
  53. pmc Regulation of glutamine synthetase activity in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 by the nitrogen source: effect of ammonium
    A Merida
    Departamento de Bioquimica Vegetal y Biologia Molecular, Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Universidad de Sevilla CSIC, Spain
    J Bacteriol 173:4095-100. 1991
    b>Glutamine synthetase activity from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 is regulated as a function of the nitrogen source available in the medium. Addition of 0...
  54. ncbi The glutamine synthetase of Prevotella bryantii B(1)4 is a family III enzyme (GlnN) and glutamine supports growth of mutants lacking glutamate dehydrogenase activity
    Zezhang T Wen
    Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583 0908, USA
    FEMS Microbiol Lett 229:15-21. 2003
    ..The gene encoding a family III glutamine synthetase (GSIII, glnN) in Prevotella bryantii B(1)4 was cloned by Escherichia coli mutant complementation, and ..
  55. doi Haploinsufficiency of glutamine synthetase increases susceptibility to experimental febrile seizures
    K L I van Gassen
    Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Genes Brain Behav 8:290-5. 2009
    b>Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a pivotal glial enzyme in the glutamate-glutamine cycle...
  56. ncbi Glutamine synthetase and glutamate metabolism in the guinea pig cochlea
    M Eybalin
    INSERM U 254 Neurobiologie de l Audition Plasticité Synaptique, Montpellier, France
    Hear Res 101:93-101. 1996
    Glutamate is thought to act as a neurotransmitter of the sensory hair cells of the organ of Corti. Glutamine synthetase could be involved in a type of glutamate-glutamine cycle in the cochlea which could clear glutamate off the synaptic ..
  57. ncbi Structure-function analysis of glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (ATase, EC 2.7.7.49) of Escherichia coli
    Peng Jiang
    Department of Biological Chemistry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0606, USA
    Biochemistry 46:4117-32. 2007
    b>Glutamine synthetase adenylyltransferase (ATase) regulates the activity of glutamine synthetase by adenylylation and deadenylylation in response to signals of nitrogen and carbon status: glutamine, alpha-ketoglutarate, and the ..
  58. doi The freshwater Amazonian stingray, Potamotrygon motoro, up-regulates glutamine synthetase activity and protein abundance, and accumulates glutamine when exposed to brackish (15 per thousand) water
    Y K Ip
    Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 117543, Republic of Singapore
    J Exp Biol 212:3828-36. 2009
    ..freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro, which lacks a functional ornithine-urea cycle, would up-regulate glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and protein abundance, and accumulate glutamine during a progressive transfer from freshwater ..
  59. ncbi Nucleotide sequence of a tobacco cDNA encoding plastidic glutamine synthetase and light inducibility, organ specificity and diurnal rhythmicity in the expression of the corresponding genes of tobacco and tomato
    T W Becker
    Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire, INRA, Centre de Versailles, France
    Plant Mol Biol 19:367-79. 1992
    A full-length cDNA encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) was cloned from a lambda gt10 library of tobacco leaf RNA, and the nucleotide sequence was determined...
  60. ncbi Purification and characterization of a repressor for the Bacillus cereus glnRA operon
    Y Nakano
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, College of Science, Rikkyo St Paul s University, Tokyo
    J Biochem 109:223-8. 1991
    We report the overexpression, purification, and properties of the regulatory protein, GlnR, for glutamine synthetase synthesis of Bacillus cereus...
  61. ncbi Physical and chemical characterization of glutamine synthetase purified from Mycobacterium phlei
    K Kimura
    Laboratory of Biochemistry, College of Science, Rikkyo St Paul s University, Tokyo
    J Biochem 105:648-52. 1989
    b>Glutamine synthetase (L-glutamate: ammonia ligase [ADP forming]) [EC 6.3.1.2] has been purified from a Gram-positive, acid-fast bacterium, Mycobacterium phlei, by simple procedures with 57% recovery...
  62. ncbi Structure of the Escherichia coli signal transducing protein PII
    E Cheah
    Centre for Molecular Structure and Function, Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra
    Structure 2:981-90. 1994
    ..PII modulates the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) through its interaction with adenylyl transferase and it represses the expression of GS by acting in ..
  63. pmc Evolution of the glutamine synthetase gene, one of the oldest existing and functioning genes
    Y Kumada
    Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd, Tokyo, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:3009-13. 1993
    We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses of glutamine synthetase (GS) genes in order to investigate their evolutionary history. The analyses were done on 30 DNA sequences of the GS gene which included both prokaryotes and eukaryotes...
  64. ncbi The effect of high altitude and caloric restriction on reactive carbonyl derivatives and activity of glutamine synthetase in rat brain
    Z Radak
    Laboratory of Exercise Physiology, Institute of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan
    Life Sci 62:1317-22. 1998
    ..In addition, the activity and protein content of glutamine synthetase (GS) were determined. The body mass of C rats was significantly higher (P< 0...
  65. ncbi NMDA-induced increases in rat brain glutamine synthetase but not glial fibrillary acidic protein are mediated by free radicals
    J E Davenport Jones
    Department of Biosciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK
    Neurosci Lett 247:37-40. 1998
    ..antioxidant, could prevent N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-produced increases of the glial specific proteins, glutamine synthetase (GS) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in rat brain spheroids in vitro...
  66. ncbi Müller glia cells reorganize reaggregating chicken retinal cells into correctly laminated in vitro retinae
    E Willbold
    Darmstadt University of Technology, Institute for Zoology, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurogenetics, Darmstadt, Germany
    Glia 29:45-57. 2000
    ..In correctly laminated spheroids, staining for vimentin and glutamine synthetase was much more pronounced than in rosetted spheroids; in particular, a well-established inner limiting ..
  67. ncbi Intracellular pH regulation in maize root tips exposed to ammonium at high external pH
    J Gerendás
    Institute for Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, University of Kiel, Germany
    J Exp Bot 51:207-19. 2000
    ..Similarly, ammonium assimilation, which was shown to occur via the proton-generating glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway using in vivo 15N NMR, was also quantitatively insignificant in comparison with ..
  68. pmc Nitrogen-regulated group 2 sigma factor from Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 involved in survival under nitrogen stress
    A M Muro-Pastor
    Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Universidad de Sevilla, E 41092 Seville, Spain
    J Bacteriol 183:1090-5. 2001
    ..We have named this gene rpoD2-V. The expression of glnN, encoding a type III glutamine synthetase, was impaired in strains bearing an inactivated copy of the rpoD2-V gene.
  69. ncbi Multicopy crystallographic refinement of a relaxed glutamine synthetase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlights flexible loops in the enzymatic mechanism and its regulation
    Harindarpal S Gill
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, UCLA Department of Energy Laboratory of Structural Biology and Molecular Medicine, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Box 951570, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1570, USA
    Biochemistry 41:9863-72. 2002
    The crystal structure of glutamine synthetase (GS) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis determined at 2.4 A resolution reveals citrate and AMP bound in the active site...
  70. pmc Biological effects of power frequency magnetic fields: Neurochemical and toxicological changes in developing chick embryos
    P Rajendra
    Department of Biochemistry, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India
    Biomagn Res Technol 2:1. 2004
    ..amino acid (tyrosine, glutamine and tryptophan) contents were measured, along with an assay of the enzyme glutamine synthetase in the brain...
  71. ncbi Ornithine metabolism in male and female rat kidney: mitochondrial expression of ornithine aminotransferase and arginase II
    Olivier Levillain
    Laboratoire de Physiopathologie Métabolique et Rénale, Faculté de Médecine Lyon R T H Laennec, INSERM U 499, 7 ue G Paradin, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France
    Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 286:F727-38. 2004
    ..However, the coexpression of ODC, glutamate decarboxylase, and glutamine synthetase in PST suggests that L-ornithine can also be metabolized to putrescine, GABA, ..
  72. ncbi YbdK is a carboxylate-amine ligase with a gamma-glutamyl:Cysteine ligase activity: crystal structure and enzymatic assays
    Christopher Lehmann
    Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA
    Proteins 56:376-83. 2004
    ..The 2.15 A resolution crystal structure of YbdK reveals an overall fold similar to that of glutamine synthetase (GS), a nitrogen metabolism enzyme that ligates glutamate and ammonia to yield glutamine...
  73. ncbi Differentially expressed genes associated with hepatitis B virus HBx and MHBs protein function in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Dae Ghon Kim
    Division of GI and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea
    Methods Mol Biol 317:141-55. 2006
    ..13mers, 16 genes were differentially expressed in the HBx and MHBs-positive HCC including RoRNA hY1, glutamine synthetase, factor H homologue 3' end, voltage-dependent anionc hannel 3 (VDAC3), three ribosomal proteins, four ..
  74. ncbi Ammonia toxicity and tolerance in the brain of the African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus
    Nicklaus L J Wee
    Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore 117543, Republic of Singapore
    Aquat Toxicol 82:204-13. 2007
    ..gariepinus, and to examine whether methionine sulfoximine [MSO; an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)] or MK801 [an antagonist of N-methyl d-aspartate type glutamate (NMDA) receptors] had protective ..
  75. doi Hepatic gene expression profiles in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed fishmeal or fish oil-free diets
    Stephane Panserat
    INRA, UMR1067 Nutrition Aquaculture and Genomics, Pôle d Hydrobiologie, CD 918, F 64310 Saint Pée sur Nivelle, France
    Br J Nutr 100:953-67. 2008
    ..capacity of fatty acid biosynthesis (fatty acid synthase) and variation of detoxification metabolism (cytochrome P450s) whereas dietary fishmeal replacement may depress protein metabolism in the liver as reflected by glutamine synthetase.
  76. doi Comparative proteomic studies in Rhodospirillum rubrum grown under different nitrogen conditions
    Tiago T Selao
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Arrhenius Laboratories for Natural Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden
    J Proteome Res 7:3267-75. 2008
    ..Ntr and Nif regulated proteins, such as glutamine synthetase and nitrogenase, were, as expected, induced under nitrogen-fixing conditions and glutamate dehydrogenase ..
  77. doi Retinal vascular changes after glial disruption in rats
    Weiyong Shen
    Save Sight Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
    J Neurosci Res 88:1485-99. 2010
    ..of glial disruption on retinal vasculature after intraocular injection of DL-alpha-AAA or siRNA targeting glutamine synthetase (GS) in rats...
  78. doi Pharmacological evaluation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) mediated neuroprotection following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury
    Rajkumar Verma
    Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute CDRI, P O Box 173, Lucknow, India
    Eur J Pharmacol 638:65-71. 2010
    ..It also caused a significant (P<0.05) upregulation of GLT-1 mRNA, protein and glutamine synthetase (GS) activity...
  79. pmc Regulation of the nitrogen transfer pathway in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis: gene characterization and the coordination of expression with nitrogen flux
    Chunjie Tian
    Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA
    Plant Physiol 153:1175-87. 2010
    ..Two glutamine synthetase isoforms were found to have different substrate affinities and expression patterns, suggesting different ..
  80. doi Regulation of nitrate assimilation in cyanobacteria
    Yoshitake Ohashi
    Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo, Chikusa, Nagoya 464 8601, Japan
    J Exp Bot 62:1411-24. 2011
    ..Ammonium inhibits transcription by quickly depleting the 2-OG pool through its metabolism via the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycle...
  81. doi Nitrogen metabolism in leaves of a tank epiphytic bromeliad: characterization of a spatial and functional division
    Cassia Ayumi Takahashi
    Department of Botany, Institution of Bioscience, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Matão 277, 05508 090 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
    J Plant Physiol 168:1208-16. 2011
    ..source was supplied to the tank of these plants and the activities of urease, nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH) were quantified in apical and basal leaf portions after 1, 3, 6,..
  82. doi Characterization of protein acyltransferase function of recombinant purified GlnA1 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a moon lighting property
    Anil S Baghel
    Department of Biochemistry, VP Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
    Microbiol Res 166:662-72. 2011
    The protein acetyltransferase (MTAase) function of glutamine synthetase of Mycobacterium smegmatis was established earlier...
  83. doi Immunohistochemical localization of protein kinase C (PKC) beta I in the pig retina during postnatal development
    Chanwoo Jeong
    Laboratory of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine and Veterinary Medical Research Institute, Jeju National University, South Korea
    Acta Histochem 114:18-23. 2012
    ..3-day-old retina, where PKC beta I was localized in some glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells, glutamine synthetase-positive cells, parvalbumin-positive cells, and PKC alpha-positive cells in the retina...
  84. pmc Cellular and 3D optical coherence tomography assessment during the initiation and progression of retinal degeneration in the Ccl2/Cx3cr1-deficient mouse
    Yongdong Zhou
    Neuroscience Center of Excellence, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
    Exp Eye Res 93:636-48. 2011
    ..Our observations of decreased glutamine synthetase and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein suggest that Müller cells respond very early within regions ..
  85. pmc Targeting the overproduction of peroxynitrite for the prevention and reversal of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain
    Timothy Doyle
    Department of Pharmacological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63104, USA
    J Neurosci 32:6149-60. 2012
    ..known to be involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission (astrocyte-restricted glutamate transporters and glutamine synthetase)...
  86. pmc Roles of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in retinal neuron-like differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from nonobese diabetic mice
    Yue Xu
    Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, 226001, People s Republic of China
    J Mol Neurosci 49:250-61. 2013
    ..such as glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific nuclear protein, tyrosine hydroxylase, Thy-1, glutamine synthetase, and rhodopsin was lower in NOD-MSCs than in imprinting control region MSCs...
  87. pmc Global and ocular hypothermic preconditioning protect the rat retina from ischemic damage
    Ezequiel M Salido
    Laboratory of Retinal Neurochemistry and Experimental Ophthalmology, Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires CEFyBO, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    PLoS ONE 8:e61656. 2013
    ..Three days after ischemia, a significant decrease in retinal glutamate uptake and glutamine synthetase activity was observed, whereas ocular HPC prevented the effect of ischemia on these parameters...
  88. doi Expression of glutamine synthetase in Tegillarca granosa (Bivalvia, Arcidae) hemocytes stimulated by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and lipopolysaccharides
    Y B Bao
    College of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Wanli University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China
    Genet Mol Res 12:1143-54. 2013
    The blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, is a widely consumed clam in the Indo-Pacific region. Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an enzyme that plays an essential role in the metabolism of nitrogen by catalyzing the condensation of glutamate and ..
  89. ncbi Analysis of proteins associated with ozone stress response in soybean cultivars
    Nisar Ahmad Khan
    Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko, Abiko, 270 1194, Japan
    Protein Pept Lett 20:1144-52. 2013
    ..subunit, ATP synthase β-subunit, phosphoglycerate kinase, aldo/ketoreductase, rubiscoactivase and glutamine synthetase. To understand that the differences in response of ATP synthase proteins were ultimately associated with ..
  90. pmc Phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of isocortical and hippocampal astrocytes in the human brain
    Alexander A Sosunov
    Departments of Neurosurgery and Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032
    J Neurosci 34:2285-98. 2014
    ..astrocytes generally displayed high immunostaining for GFAP, S100β, and CD44, but low immunostaining for glutamine synthetase, excitatory amino-acid transporter 1 (EAAT1), and EAAT2...
  91. doi Ephrin/Ephrin receptor expression in ammonia-treated rat astrocytes and in human cerebral cortex in hepatic encephalopathy
    Karmela Sobczyk
    Clinic for Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
    Neurochem Res 40:274-83. 2015
    ..This effect was sensitive to inhibitors of NAPDH oxidase or glutamine synthetase, but was insensitive to siRNA-mediated EphR A4 knockdown...
  92. doi Ammonium nitrate and iron nutrition effects on some nitrogen assimilation enzymes and metabolites in Spirulina platensis
    Merve Esen
    Chemistry Department, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Dokuz Eylul University, Buca Izmir, Turkey
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem 62:275-86. 2015
    ..and some nitrogen assimilation enzymes such as nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) in Spirulina platensis (Gamont) Geitler was investigated...
  93. doi Blockade of spinal glutamate recycling produces paradoxical antinociception in rats with orofacial inflammatory pain
    Kui Y Yang
    Department of Oral Physiology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea Electronic address
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 57:100-9. 2015
    ..or methionine sulfoximine (MSO) was administered intracisternally to block spinal glutamate transporter and glutamine synthetase activity in astroglia...
  94. doi Crosstalk Among Disrupted Glutamatergic and Cholinergic Homeostasis and Inflammatory Response in Mechanisms Elicited by Proline in Astrocytes
    Samanta Oliveira Loureiro
    Departamento de Bioquimica, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas da Saude, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600 anexo, 90035 003, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    Mol Neurobiol 53:1065-79. 2016
    ..The excess of glutamate elicited by Pro together with increased glutamate uptake and upregulated glutamine synthetase (GS) activity supported misregulated glutamate homeostasis in astrocytic cells...
  95. doi Targeting Stromal Glutamine Synthetase in Tumors Disrupts Tumor Microenvironment-Regulated Cancer Cell Growth
    Lifeng Yang
    Laboratory for Systems Biology of Human Diseases, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005, USA
    Cell Metab 24:685-700. 2016
    ..Using an orthotopic mouse model for ovarian carcinoma, we find that co-targeting glutamine synthetase in stroma and glutaminase in cancer cells reduces tumor weight, nodules, and metastasis...
  96. doi Evaluating the role of astrocytes on β-estradiol effect on seizures of Pilocarpine epileptic model
    Masoumeh Sarfi
    School of Biology, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran
    Eur J Pharmacol . 2017
    ..Behavioral convulsions were then monitored and recorded on the day of induction. Four weeks later, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and the astrocyte transporter GLT-1 expression of the hippocampus were measured...
  97. ncbi Homologous nuclear genes encode cytoplasmic and mitochondrial glutamine synthetase in Drosophila melanogaster
    R Caizzi
    Istituto di Genetica, Universita di Bari, Italy
    J Mol Biol 212:17-26. 1990
    We describe the cloning of the glutamine synthetase 1 (GS1) gene based on cross-homology with the glutamine synthetase 2 (GS2) gene in Drosophila melanogaster...
  98. pmc The two opposing activities of adenylyl transferase reside in distinct homologous domains, with intramolecular signal transduction
    R Jaggi
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia
    EMBO J 16:5562-71. 1997
    ..is the bifunctional effector enzyme in the nitrogen assimilation cascade that controls the activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in Escherichia coli...
  99. ncbi The acute effects of acrylamide on astrocyte functions
    Michael Aschner
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology and Interdisciplinary Program in Neuroscience, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 993:296-304; discussion 345-9. 2003
    ..Metallothionein (MT), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), and taurine transporter (tau-T) mRNA expression levels as ..
  100. ncbi Effect of composted textile sludge on growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation of soybean and cowpea
    A S F Araújo
    Universidade Estadual do Piauí, Av Nossa Senhora de Fátima, S N, Parnaiba, PI 64202 220, Brazil
    Bioresour Technol 98:1028-32. 2007
    ..Nodule glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and leghemoglobin content were evaluated 63 days after emergence...
  101. pmc Comparative studies of early liver dysfunction in senescence-accelerated mouse using mitochondrial proteomics approaches
    Yashu Liu
    The National Laboratory of Protein Engineering and Plant Genetic Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    Mol Cell Proteomics 7:1737-47. 2008
    ..b>Glutamine synthetase and ornithine aminotransferase involved in glutamine synthesis were up-regulated in SAMP8 livers at both 1 ..

Research Grants64

  1. Glutamate-Glutamine Metabolism in Primary Human Brain Tumors
    Anne Williamson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..brain, glial cells avidly transport glutamate, use it to detoxify ammonia by synthesizing glutamine (via glutamine synthetase (GS)), and export glutamine into the extracellular space and blood via specific glutamine transporters...
  2. GENETIC STUDIES OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN BACTERIA
    SYDNEY GOVONS KUSTU; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..limiting (>or equal to 50 nM) and is functionally coupled to the high-affinity NH3 assimilatory enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). One long-term goal of this project is to understand how the E...
  3. REGULATION OF GLUTAMATE SYNTHESIS IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS
    ABRAHAM LINCOLN SONENSHEIN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..and isocitrate dehydrogenase) that produce a-ketoglutarate and the enzymes of nitrogen assimilation (glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase) are encoded by genes that are subject to multiple forms of ..
  4. Urease Activity and Nitrogen Assimilation in Helicobacter pylori
    ERICA FRANCESCA MILLER; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..to both the structure and the regulation of the enzymes thought to assimilate ammonium in this organism-glutamine synthetase and glutamate dehydrogenase...
  5. CEREBROVASCULAR ALTERATIONS DURING HYPERAMMONEMIA
    Raymond Koehler; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Ammonia is metabolized by an active glutamine synthetase pool localized in astrocytes...
  6. REGULATION OF NITROGEN METABOLISM IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS
    Susan H Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..G+C Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is controlled by a novel regulatory system where the enzyme glutamine synthetase is required for both glutamine synthesis and the direct control of the activity of two transcription ..
  7. Stephen J Moss; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..ability of astrocytes to export glutamine i dependent upon the activity of the astrocyte-specific enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS)...
  8. Mechanism of action of the ammonia gas channel AmtB in E. coli
    Joanne Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..coli and S. typhimurium show that at low NH3 concentrations NH3 transport by AmtB appears to be coupled to glutamine synthetase which assimilates NH3 into glutamine. Therefore, in this proposal we seek to understand how AmtB in E...
  9. Bryan K Yamamoto; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..GLU) release, activates NMDA receptors, and down- regulates the GLU transporter, while inhibiting glutamine synthetase (condensation of GLU) and increasing superoxide radical and nitric oxide formation...
  10. Dysregulation of Glutamine Synthetase in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
    Tore Eid; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Dysregulation of Glutamine Synthetase in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: The main objective of this K08 proposal is to facilitate the applicant's development towards independence as a physician-..
  11. Marc R Freeman; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..g. EAATs, glutamine synthetase, and GABA transporters)...
  12. Tore Eid; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Recent studies have suggested that a deficiency in glutamine synthetase in the hippocampus is implicated in the generation of seizures in MTLE (Eid et al. Lancet 2004;363: 28-37)...
  13. INTERACTIONS OF THE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PROTEIN GLNK
    Alexander Ninfa; Fiscal Year: 2002
    Escherichia coli controls the transcription of nitrogen-regulated (Ntr) genes and the activity of the glutamine synthetase (GS) with two signal-transducing bicyclic cascades, that mediate control by the small molecule signals of nitrogen ..
  14. HYPERAMMONEMIA AND CANCER ANOREXIA
    WILLIAM CHANCE; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..effects in the intraventicular adminstration of glutamine to normal rats; (5) determining the effects of a glutamine synthetase inhibitor on cancer anorexia; (6) assessing whether infusion of arginine and citrulline will aid in host ..
  15. ASTROCYTE FUNCTION AND EAA NEUROTOXICITY IN ISCHEMIA
    Raymond Swanson; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Inhibition of glial glutamine synthetase reduces brain glutamine and may thereby reduce EAA-mediated neuronal injury under pathological conditions...
  16. Human hepatocytes for drug toxicity screening from Cardiac Death Donor livers
    Mark G Clemens; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..This will be accomplished by assessing the activity the perivenous marker glutamine synthetase by measuring total activity and determining the percentage of isolated cells positive for glutamine ..
  17. Daniela Salvemini; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..effects on the expression &activities of spinal glutamate transporters (neuronal &glial) &glial glutamine synthetase. If our hypothesis holds true, the outcome of our results are anticipated to provide the pharmacological ..
  18. JoEllen Welsh; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Through genomic profiling, we identified SLC1A1 (a glutamate transporter) and GLUL (glutamine synthetase) as vitamin D regulated genes suggesting that, like p53, vitamin D might act to reduce risk of ..
  19. GLUTAMATE BIOSYNTHESIS MUTANTS AND ALCOHOL SENSITIVITY
    Douglas Ruden; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..mutants of glutamate biosynthesis genes, namely glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT1 and GOT2), and glutamine synthetase 1 (GS1), are hypersensitive to alcohol, and whether wild-type transgenes of GLUD, GPT, GOT1, GOT2, and GS1 ..
  20. RENAL AMMONIAGENESIS: 15NH3 STUDIES WITH GC-MS
    Itzhak Nissim; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The significance of diminished flux through the glutamine synthetase reaction in abetting HN3 production will be studied as well...
  21. QiQi Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..may be due to several factors including stress, inflammation, allergc disorders and/or through decreased glutamine synthetase activity, resulting in decreased intestinal glutamine levels...
  22. LUNG GLUTAMINE METABOLISM FOLLOWING INJURY AND INFECTION
    Wiley Souba; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..The activities of the major glutamine synthetic (glutamine synthetase) and degradative (glutaminase) enzymes will be determined as well as changes in lung glutamine content...
  23. REGULATION OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE IN STREPTOMYCES
    Susan Fisher; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..In order to increase our understanding of Streptomyces basic physiology, the regulation of glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in ammoniin assimilation, is being studied in S. coelicolor. Analysis of the cloned I...
  24. GLUTAMINE METABOLISM IN THE TUMOR BEARING RAT
    Wiley Souba; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..The activities of the glutamine synthetase and glutaminase enzymes will be measured...
  25. GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE AND INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM
    Josef Neu; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Considering the technical limitations in administering glutamine (degradation in aqueous solutions), these studies will suggest alternatives providing the same benefits in a safer and more practical manner. ..
  26. Hormonal Modulation of Excitatory Neurotransmission
    Tamara Blutstein; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..There are only two enzymes in the glutamate- glutamine cycle: neuronal glutaminase, and glial glutamine synthetase (GS)...
  27. M TUBERCULOSIS GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE EXPORT & INHIBITION
    MARCUS HORWITZ; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..One such key molecule is glutamine synthetase. M...
  28. Function and development in the synapse
    Louis Reichardt; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..transporters involved in glutamate uptake into glia in the brain and retina, test genetically the role of glutamine synthetase in converting glutamate to glutamine, and examine the roles of glutamine transporters in controlling ..
  29. INTERACTIONS OF THE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PROTEIN PII
    Alexander Ninfa; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The ATase enzyme reversibly modifies glutamine synthetase (GS) and thereby controls GS activity...
  30. REGULATION OF NITROGEN METABOLISM
    James Kane; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..physiological manipulations; 4) mutations at the gltA and gltB loci (code for 2 subunits of GOGAT) affect glutamine synthetase (GS) (glt plus NH3 plus ATP greater than gln plus ADP plus Pi)...
  31. DESIGN OF IMMORTALIZED HEPATOCYTES FOR LIVER SUPPORT
    STEPHANIE CASCIO; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..This project creates a new cell line, HepLiu GS, through the stable integration of the glutamine synthetase (GS) gene into the HepLiu genome to confer ammonia metabolizing activity in addition to their ability to ..
  32. ANTISENSE INHIBITION OF RETINAL GLUTAMATE METABOLISM
    John Danias; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Antisense oligonucleotides to the glutamate metabolizing enzymes, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) and to glutamate transporters (GLAST) will be used to inhibit glutamate metabolism and uptake in RGCs...
  33. EXCITATORY AMION ACID SYNAPTIC CIRCUITRY IN SPINAL SENSO
    Kenneth Miller; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..Glutamate, aspartate, glutaminase, aspartate amino transferase, glutamine synthetase, glutamate dehydrogenase, and N-acetylaspartylglutamate will be studied...
  34. Therapeutic delivery of anti-miR oligos to hepatocellular cancer
    Robert J Lee; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Synthesize, characterize and evaluate in vitro the liver-targeted galactosylated lipid nanoparticles (GLNs) for anti-miR delivery in HCC cells. 2...
  35. MODELS FOR EXPLORING FREE RADICAL DAMAGE
    Julie Andersen; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..evaluated during normal aging for changes in lipid peroxidation by MDA accumulation, protein oxidation by glutamine synthetase activity, oxidative stress as assessed by GSH/GSSG ratios, and for cell loss or atrophy as measured by cell ..
  36. CHITIN BIOSYNTHESIS AND THE MOSQUITO PERITROPHIC MATRIX
    Bruce Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..It now is known that glutamine synthetase (GS), glucosamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) and chitin synthase (CS) play major roles ..
  37. Monoclonal Antibodies Against T-Regulatory Cells
    Alan Epstein; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..FABs will then be genetically engineered into whole human lgG1/kappa antibodies and expressed using the Glutamine Synthetase Expression System in murine NS0 cells, purified by tandem protein-A affinity chromatography and ion-..
  38. ASTROCYTE FUNCTION: ROLE OF PROTEIN KINASE C
    PHILIP MOBLEY; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..This will include the regulation of intracellular pH and free (Ca++), the expression of GFAP, glutamine synthetase activity, and astrocyte mitogenesis...
  39. Novel targets for vaccines against tuberculosis
    Yuri Bushkin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Th1-type cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against mycobacterial alanine dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase can be detected only in non-vaccinated, tuberculin skin test-positive asymptomatic individuals but not in ..
  40. A mammalian expression system to produce human S-lgA
    Koteswara Chintalacharuvu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..We now hypothesize that by using vectors containing glutamine synthetase (GS) for selection and expressing SC and J chain and H and L chains as a dicistronic mRNAs in non-lymphoid ..
  41. ACTIVATION OF TRANSCRIPTION BY NRI-PHOSPHATE IN E. COLI
    LAWRENCE REITZER; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..The first operon induced by nitrogen-limited growth is the glnALG operon, which codes for glutamine synthetase, an essential enzyme for ammonia assimilation...
  42. HyperSense System for Molecular Imaging
    Rahim Rizi; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..enable rapid cell proliferation, (v) a study of the potential of hyperpolarized ammonium as a probe of glutamine synthetase activity, (vi) a feasibility study concerning the use of hyperpolarized tracers to detect ovarian cancer in ..
  43. ENDOCRINE ASPECTS OF MUSCLE WASTING IN AIDS
    STEPHEN MAX; Fiscal Year: 1991
    ..Glucocorticoids, by stimulating muscle proteolysis and glutamine synthetase activity, are a key contributing factor to wasting...
  44. Development of Genetic Tools to Study Retinal Regeneration
    David Hyde; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The Cre enzyme, which will be expressed in Muller glia using the GFAP or glutamine synthetase promoter, will catalyze the recombination between two lox sites in a second transgene...
  45. REGULATION OF GLNA IN BACILLUS SUBTILIS
    HAROLD SCHREIER; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..This gene codes for glutamine synthetase (GS), a key enzyme in nitrogen metabolism and one that may play some role in triggering the organism to ..
  46. BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT
    N Robinson; Fiscal Year: 1992
    ..four will investigate structure-function relationships of isolated proteins (dynein ATPase, DNA polymerase, glutamine synthetase and adenylyl transferase) and four will investigate various aspects of cells and their organelles (..
  47. Herpes Simplex Virus, Early Brain Injury and Epilepsy
    Tore Eid; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..If a viral causation of TLE is established, then this would not only open new avenues for prevention and control of this disorder, but also improve our understanding of viral-induced brain injury. ..
  48. Temporal lobe epilepsy - validation of a new animal model
    Tore Eid; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..lobe epilepsy (TIE), we propose here a novel rat model of TLE by chronic, intracerebral infusions of the glutamine synthetase antagonist, methionine sulfoximine (MSO)...
  49. Glutamine Synthetase Inhibitors for Tuberculosis Therapy
    William Atkins; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Recently, the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) has become a new therapeutic target for MTB, due to the demonstration that secretion of enzymatically ..
  50. STRUCTURE AND MECHANISM OF REGULATORY ENZYMES
    JOSEPH VILLAFRANCA; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..investigation involves the rigorously controlled assimilation of nitrogen in bacterial cells by the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS)...
  51. HOMOGENEOUS GLYCOPROTEINS FOR STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY
    TIMOTHY LOGAN; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..The pEE14 glutamine synthetase based vectors would be used to provide enough Thy-1 for structure determination...
  52. MOLECULAR BASIS OF BIOLOGICAL RECOGNITION AND ASSEMBLY
    TODD YEATES; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..6) Determination of the structure of eukaryotic glutamine synthetase as a step toward development of an anti-tuberculosis drug, and understanding of protein-ligand recognition...
  53. Human monoclonal panel mimicking anthrax immune globulin
    Donald Reason; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..antibody expression both in our bi-cistronic pARC/IRES expression vectors and the established Lonza glutamine synthetase-based antibody expression system...
  54. MECHANISM OF GLUTATHIONE CONJUGATE DEPENDENT TOXICITY
    Arthur Cooper; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. The link between lipid peroxidation and manganese induced glutathione depletion
    Keith Erikson; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  56. GLUTAMINE AND INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM
    LAWRENCE PINKUS; Fiscal Year: 1980
    ..Using specific enzyme inhibitors the importance of certain enzymes in the pathways of glutamine oxidation is being studied. Glutamine synthetase has been found in the intestinal mucosa and is being characterized.
  57. Engineering glutamate metabolism
    Malcolm Watford; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The long term goals of the work are to formulate optimal delivery of amino acids and protein to enhance protein accretion and limit protein wasting in the treatment, and prevention, of disease. ..
  58. Neurotoxicology of dietary iron/manganese interactions
    Keith Erikson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..If successful, these studies will lay the foundation for the development of a pharmacological therapy aimed at the prevention of manganese-accumulation in vulnerable populations. ..
  59. KETOGENIC DIET AND BRAIN AMINO ACID METABOLISM
    Marc Yudkoff; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..In astrocytes, more glutamate becomes available to the glutamine synthetase pathway. This results in increased synthesis of glutamine, a highly effective precursor to GABA...
  60. Proteomic Profiles in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
    Nihal de Lanerolle; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies are essential to identify molecules unique to TLE, which will be the candidates for study in future research that explores their role(s) in seizure mechanisms. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  61. Genetic Signatures in Human Temporal Lobe Epilespy
    Nihal de Lanerolle; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  62. Extreme Ammonia Tolerance Mechanisms: A Model Vertebrate
    Patrick Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..