GluR2

Summary

Gene Symbol: GluR2
Description: glutamate ionotropic receptor AMPA type subunit 2
Alias: GLUR2, GLURB, GluA2, GluR-K2, HBGR2, glutamate receptor 2, AMPA-selective glutamate receptor 2, gluR-2, gluR-B, glutamate receptor B flip isoform, glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Neurochemistry of the mammalian cone 'synaptic complex'
    N Vardi
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104 6058, USA
    Vision Res 38:1359-69. 1998
  2. pmc Gain-of-function glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 variants alter GluA2 recycling and surface distribution in patients with autism
    Rebeca Mejias
    McKusick Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Predoctoral Training Program in Human Genetics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4920-5. 2011
  3. doi The GluR2 subunit inhibits proliferation by inactivating Src-MAPK signalling and induces apoptosis by means of caspase 3/6-dependent activation in glioma cells
    Francesca Beretta
    DTI Dulbecco Telethon Institute, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan 20129, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 30:25-34. 2009
  4. ncbi New potential regulators of uterine leiomyomata from DNA arrays: the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2
    John C M Tsibris
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida, 4 Columbia Drive, Room 524, Tampa, FL 33606, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 312:249-54. 2003
  5. pmc Developmental regulation of the toxin sensitivity of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors in cortical glia
    O Meucci
    Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Sciences, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Neurosci 16:519-30. 1996
  6. ncbi Surface expression of AMPA receptors in hippocampal neurons is regulated by an NSF-dependent mechanism
    J Noel
    Medical Research Council Centre for Synaptic Plasticity, Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, School of Medical Sciences, United Kingdom
    Neuron 23:365-76. 1999
  7. ncbi Disruption of the GluR2-NSF interaction protects primary hippocampal neurons from ischemic stress
    G S Ralph
    Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, Marlborough Street, Bristol, BS2 8HW
    Mol Cell Neurosci 17:662-70. 2001
  8. ncbi Blockade of glutamate receptors and barbiturate anesthesia: increased sensitivity to pentobarbital-induced anesthesia despite reduced inhibition of AMPA receptors in GluR2 null mutant mice
    D T Joo
    Department of Anaesthesia, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Anesthesiology 91:1329-41. 1999
  9. ncbi Binding of 5'-GMP to the GluR2 AMPA receptor: insight from targeted molecular dynamics simulations
    Jesús Mendieta
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autonoma, E 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    Biochemistry 44:14470-6. 2005
  10. ncbi Deficient RNA editing of GluR2 and neuronal death in amyotropic lateral sclerosis
    Shin Kwak
    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, 113 8655 Tokyo, Japan
    J Mol Med (Berl) 83:110-20. 2005

Detail Information

Publications357 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Neurochemistry of the mammalian cone 'synaptic complex'
    N Vardi
    Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 19104 6058, USA
    Vision Res 38:1359-69. 1998
    ..Surprisingly, invaginating bipolar dendrites in the cat also express the AMPA receptor subunits, GluR2/3 and GluR4...
  2. pmc Gain-of-function glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 variants alter GluA2 recycling and surface distribution in patients with autism
    Rebeca Mejias
    McKusick Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, The Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Predoctoral Training Program in Human Genetics, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:4920-5. 2011
    ..1 (GRIP1) is a neuronal scaffolding protein that interacts directly with the C termini of glutamate receptors 2/3 (GluA2/3) via its PDZ domains 4 to 6 (PDZ4-6). We found an association (P<0...
  3. doi The GluR2 subunit inhibits proliferation by inactivating Src-MAPK signalling and induces apoptosis by means of caspase 3/6-dependent activation in glioma cells
    Francesca Beretta
    DTI Dulbecco Telethon Institute, Via Vanvitelli 32, Milan 20129, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 30:25-34. 2009
    ..We found that GluR2 is absent in fast-growing GBM-derived tumour stem cells and high-grade glioma specimens, but is expressed in slow-..
  4. ncbi New potential regulators of uterine leiomyomata from DNA arrays: the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR2
    John C M Tsibris
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Florida, 4 Columbia Drive, Room 524, Tampa, FL 33606, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 312:249-54. 2003
    ..b>GluR2, a subunit of a ligand-gated cation channel, is up-regulated in leiomyomata relative to myometrium by 15- to 30-..
  5. pmc Developmental regulation of the toxin sensitivity of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors in cortical glia
    O Meucci
    Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Sciences, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    J Neurosci 16:519-30. 1996
    ..of the expression of AMPA-receptor subunits showed an increase in the concentration of glutamate receptor-2 (GluR2) in CG-4 cells as they differentiated into type II astrocytes and oligodendrocytes...
  6. ncbi Surface expression of AMPA receptors in hippocampal neurons is regulated by an NSF-dependent mechanism
    J Noel
    Medical Research Council Centre for Synaptic Plasticity, Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, School of Medical Sciences, United Kingdom
    Neuron 23:365-76. 1999
    Here, we show that disruption of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein- (NSF-) GluR2 interaction by infusion into cultured hippocampal neurons of a blocking peptide (pep2m) caused a rapid decrease in the frequency but no change in ..
  7. ncbi Disruption of the GluR2-NSF interaction protects primary hippocampal neurons from ischemic stress
    G S Ralph
    Division of Medicine, University of Bristol, Marlborough Street, Bristol, BS2 8HW
    Mol Cell Neurosci 17:662-70. 2001
    A specific interaction between the AMPA receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR3 and the fusion protein NSF has recently been identified...
  8. ncbi Blockade of glutamate receptors and barbiturate anesthesia: increased sensitivity to pentobarbital-induced anesthesia despite reduced inhibition of AMPA receptors in GluR2 null mutant mice
    D T Joo
    Department of Anaesthesia, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Anesthesiology 91:1329-41. 1999
    ..Because AMPA receptor complexes that lack the GluR2 subunit are relatively insensitive to pentobarbital inhibition, GluR2 null mutant mice provide a novel tool to ..
  9. ncbi Binding of 5'-GMP to the GluR2 AMPA receptor: insight from targeted molecular dynamics simulations
    Jesús Mendieta
    Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, Universidad Autonoma, E 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain
    Biochemistry 44:14470-6. 2005
    ..nucleotide, we have tried to understand how these molecules interact with the agonist-binding site of the GluR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor...
  10. ncbi Deficient RNA editing of GluR2 and neuronal death in amyotropic lateral sclerosis
    Shin Kwak
    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7 3 1 Hongo, Bunkyo ku, 113 8655 Tokyo, Japan
    J Mol Med (Berl) 83:110-20. 2005
    ..The Ca2+ conductance of AMPA receptors differs markedly depending on whether the GluR2 (or GluR-B) subunit is a component of the receptor...
  11. pmc Hypothermia rescues hippocampal CA1 neurons and attenuates down-regulation of the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit after forebrain ischemia
    Frederick Colbourne
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2E9
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:2906-10. 2003
    ..Neuronal death is preceded by down-regulation specific to CA1 of GluR2, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit that limits Ca(2+) influx...
  12. ncbi GluR2-dependent properties of AMPA receptors determine the selective vulnerability of motor neurons to excitotoxicity
    P Van Damme
    Laboratory for Neurobiology, University of Leuven, B 3000 Leuven, Belgium
    J Neurophysiol 88:1279-87. 2002
    ..Because the absence of GluR2 in AMPA receptors renders them highly permeable to Ca(2+) ions, it has been hypothesized that the selective ..
  13. ncbi Loss of GLUR2 alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazoleproprionic acid receptor subunit differentially affects remaining synaptic glutamate receptors in cerebellum and cochlear nuclei
    Ronald S Petralia
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, NIDCD NIH, 50 4142, 50 South Drive MSC 8027, Bethesda, MD 20892 8027, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 19:2017-29. 2004
    ..Most AMPA receptors are impermeable to calcium because they contain the GluR2 subunit...
  14. ncbi Inflammation-induced upregulation of AMPA receptor subunit expression in brain stem pain modulatory circuitry
    Yun Guan
    Program in Neuroscience, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201 1586, USA
    Pain 104:401-13. 2003
    ..We analyzed mRNA and protein levels of the GluR1 and GluR2 AMPA receptor subunits in the RVM at 2h to 14 days post-inflammation...
  15. ncbi Primary afferent terminals in spinal cord express presynaptic AMPA receptors
    Chun Rong Lu
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA
    J Neurosci 22:9522-9. 2002
    Larger dorsal root ganglion neurons are stained by an antibody for the C terminus of glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) and GluR3 (GluR2/3) rather than by an antibody for GluR4...
  16. ncbi Glutamate receptor subunit 2-selective antibody shows a differential distribution of calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors among populations of neurons
    R S Petralia
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, NIDCD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4162, USA
    J Comp Neurol 385:456-76. 1997
    ..AMPA receptor complexes that contain the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) are responsible for the low calcium permeability typical of most AMPA receptors, and the absence of GluR2 may be ..
  17. ncbi Developmental expression of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors underlies depolarization-induced long-term depression at mossy fiber CA3 pyramid synapses
    Michelle T W Ho
    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Neurosci 27:11651-62. 2007
    ..Concerning AMPA receptors (AMPARs), glutamate receptor 2 subunit (GluR2)-containing, Ca2+-impermeable AMPARs (CI-AMPARs) prevail at synapses between mature ..
  18. doi Flip and flop: a molecular determinant for AMPA receptor channel opening
    Weimin Pei
    Department of Chemistry, Center for Neuroscience Research, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York 12222, USA
    Biochemistry 48:3767-77. 2009
    ..e., flip and flop. The flop variant of the GluR2 AMPA receptor is known to desensitize faster than the flip counterpart, whereas the GluR1 flip and flop variants ..
  19. ncbi Effects of deletion of gria1 or gria2 genes encoding glutamatergic AMPA-receptor subunits on place preference conditioning in mice
    Andy N Mead
    Department of Psychology, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, BN1 9QG, UK
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 179:164-71. 2005
    ..Critically, this classical conditioning procedure requires the formation of associations between a rewarding stimulus and environmental cues, and the ability of these cues to direct subsequent behaviour...
  20. ncbi Ethanol sensitivity of recombinant homomeric and heteromeric AMPA receptor subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes
    B Emmanuel Akinshola
    Department of Pharmacology, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC 20059, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:1876-83. 2003
    ..In this study, we compared ethanol sensitivity of homomeric and heteromeric AMPA receptor subunits microinjected into Xenopus oocytes and confirmed subunit expression in oocytes by immunoblot...
  21. ncbi Kainate-induced epilepsy alters protein expression of AMPA receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2 and AMPA receptor binding protein in the rat hippocampus
    C Sommer
    Department of Neuropathology, Ruprecht Karls University Heidelberg, Germany
    Acta Neuropathol 101:460-8. 2001
    ..through newly synthesized alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) receptors lacking the GluR2 subunit, which normally renders AMPA receptors calcium impermeable, is thought to play a pivotal role for ..
  22. ncbi The anticonvulsants lamotrigine, riluzole, and valproate differentially regulate AMPA receptor membrane localization: relationship to clinical effects in mood disorders
    Jing Du
    Laboratory of Molecular Pathophysiology, Mood and Anxiety Disorders Program, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 32:793-802. 2007
    ..profile, namely lamotrigine and riluzole, significantly enhanced the surface expression of GluR1 and GluR2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured hippocampal neurons...
  23. ncbi Immunochemical characterization of the non-NMDA glutamate receptor using subunit-specific antibodies. Evidence for a hetero-oligomeric structure in rat brain
    R J Wenthold
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    J Biol Chem 267:501-7. 1992
    ..antibodies were found to be selective for each of the four GluR subunits, and a fifth antibody recognized both GluR2 and 3...
  24. ncbi Involvement of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunits in stimulus-reward learning: evidence from glutamate receptor gria2 knock-out mice
    Andy N Mead
    Laboratory of Experimental Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 23:9500-7. 2003
    Presence of the glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) subunit prevents calcium influx through AMPA-receptor complexes; deletion of this subunit results in enhanced hippocampal long-term potentiation...
  25. ncbi Ischemia and ischemic tolerance induction differentially regulate protein expression of GluR1, GluR2, and AMPA receptor binding protein in the gerbil hippocampus: GluR2 (GluR-B) reduction does not predict neuronal death
    Clemens Sommer
    Department of Neuropathology, Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Germany
    Stroke 33:1093-100. 2002
    ..of calcium-permeable alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors lacking the GluR2 subunit (GluR2 hypothesis). DND can be prevented by a short tolerance-inducing ischemic period...
  26. ncbi Calcium-permeable AMPA receptor plasticity is mediated by subunit-specific interactions with PICK1 and NSF
    Stephanie M Gardner
    Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 725 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Neuron 45:903-15. 2005
    ..Since the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit confers calcium permeability, this plasticity is thought to occur through the dynamic exchange of synaptic ..
  27. ncbi Transient Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors in postnatal rat primary auditory neurons
    Michel Eybalin
    INSERM U583, Institut des Neurosciences, Hopital St Eloi, 80, avenue Augustin Fliche, BP 74103, 34091 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
    Eur J Neurosci 20:2981-9. 2004
    ..Here, we report that AMPA receptors at inner hair cell (IHC) synapses lack the GluR2 subunit and are transiently Ca2+-permeable before hearing onset as evidenced using agonist-induced Co2+ ..
  28. ncbi [ALS and excitatory amino acid]
    Hitoshi Aizawa
    Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asahik awa Medical College, 2 1 1 1 Midorigaoka Higashi, Asahikawa 078 8510, Japan
    Brain Nerve 59:1117-27. 2007
    ..mechanisms to increase Ca2+ influx through Ca2+-permiable AMPA receptor: a decrease of RNA editing efficacy at the GluR2 Q/R site and a decrease of GluR2 level relative to AMPA receptor subunits...
  29. pmc Afferent-specific AMPA receptor subunit composition and regulation of synaptic plasticity in midbrain dopamine neurons by abused drugs
    Cameron H Good
    Electrophysiology Research Section, Cellular Neurobiology Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    J Neurosci 30:7900-9. 2010
    ..Using a unique rat brain slice preparation, we found that PPN stimulation activates afferents targeting GluR2-containing AMPA receptors (AMPAR) on VTA DA neurons, and these afferents did not exhibit long-term depression (LTD)..
  30. ncbi Synaptic anchorage of AMPA receptors by cadherins through neural plakophilin-related arm protein AMPA receptor-binding protein complexes
    Joshua B Silverman
    Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Neurosci 27:8505-16. 2007
    ..ABP) and the related glutamate receptor (GluR)-interacting protein (GRIP), two multi-PDZ proteins that bind the GluR2 and GluR3 AMPAR subunits. The resulting cadherin-NPRAP-ABP/GRIP complexes serve as anchorages for AMPARs...
  31. doi A subpopulation of serotonin 1B receptors colocalize with the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 in the hippocampal dentate gyrus
    C J Peddie
    Department of Life Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK
    Neurosci Lett 485:251-5. 2010
    ..study, we have examined the cellular and subcellular distribution of 5-HT(1B)Rs with the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2. Of 5-HT(1B)R positive profiles, 28% displayed colocalization with GluR2...
  32. ncbi The protein kinase C alpha binding protein PICK1 interacts with short but not long form alternative splice variants of AMPA receptor subunits
    K K Dev
    Department of Biological Sciences, Kyoto University, Faculty of Medicine, Japan
    Neuropharmacology 38:635-44. 1999
    ..and the mutation of a single amino acid in this region (Lys-27 to Glu) prevents interaction between PICK1 and GluR2 in the yeast two-hybrid assay...
  33. doi Nucleus accumbens neurons exhibit synaptic scaling that is occluded by repeated dopamine pre-exposure
    Xiu Sun
    Department of Neuroscience, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 30:539-50. 2009
    ..an AMPA receptor antagonist increased cell surface (synaptic and extrasynaptic) glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) and GluR2 but not GluR3, as well as GluR1/2 co-localization on the cell surface and total GluR1 and GluR2 protein levels...
  34. pmc Peripheral AMPA receptors contribute to muscle nociception and c-fos activation
    Yang Hyun Chun
    Kyung Hee University, School of Dentistry, Department of Oral Medicine, 1 Hoegi dong, Dongdaemun Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea
    Neurosci Res 62:97-104. 2008
    ..AMPA receptor subunits, GluR1 and GluR2, were predominantly expressed in small to medium size neurons but more GluR2 positive labeling were encountered in ..
  35. ncbi Differential palmitoylation directs the AMPA receptor-binding protein ABP to spines or to intracellular clusters
    Sunita DeSouza
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA
    J Neurosci 22:3493-503. 2002
    ..postsynaptic density 95/Discs large/zona occludens 1) proteins that interact with glutamate receptors 2 and 3 (GluR2 and GluR3) subunits...
  36. doi AMPA receptor subunit-specific regulation by a distinct family of type II TARPs
    Akihiko S Kato
    Department of Neuroscience, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA
    Neuron 59:986-96. 2008
    ..Here, we classify gamma-5 as a distinct class of TARP that modulates specific GluR2-containing AMPA receptors and displays properties entirely dissimilar from canonical TARPs...
  37. ncbi Ischemia-induced changes of AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit expression pattern in the rat retina: a real-time quantitative PCR study
    Frederike Dijk
    Netherlands Ophthalmic Research Institute KNAW, Glaucoma Research Group, Graduate School for the Neurosciences Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 45:330-41. 2004
    ..Furthermore, to study possible changes in the ratios of alternative splice variants of GluR2 and -4 and possible changes in the subunit composition of the receptor complex after ischemia-reperfusion...
  38. ncbi Response of Purkinje neurons to hypobaric hypoxic exposure as shown by alteration in expression of glutamate receptors, nitric oxide synthases and calcium binding proteins
    C Kaur
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Blk MD10, 4 Medical Drive, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597
    Neuroscience 135:1217-29. 2005
    ..glutamate receptors N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunit 1, amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid GluR2/3, calcium binding proteins and nitric oxide synthases in the Purkinje neurons was examined in rats exposed to ..
  39. pmc Control of glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) translational initiation by its alternative 3' untranslated regions
    Hasan A Irier
    Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Rollins Research Center, Room 5002, 1510 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 76:1145-9. 2009
    Four major glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) transcripts differing in size (approximately 4 and approximately 6 kilobases) due to alternative 3' untranslated regions (UTRs), and also containing alternative 5'UTRs, exist in the brain...
  40. ncbi Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 in the hippocampus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and of rats and mice after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus
    F R Tang
    Epilepsy Research Laboratories, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore
    Epilepsy Res 59:167-80. 2004
    A comparative study of the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3) was done in the hippocampus of rats and mice after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (APISE), and of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...
  41. ncbi Expression of genes encoding glutamate receptors and transporters in rod and cone bipolar cells of the primate retina determined by single-cell polymerase chain reaction
    Michael C Hanna
    The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Cellular Neurology Unit, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Mol Vis 13:2194-208. 2007
    ..Here we apply the same protocol to compare expression of these genes in cDNA constructed from single rod and cone bipolar cells previously-labeled for morphological identification in fixed slices of macaque retina...
  42. doi Differential response of AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors of Purkinje cells to aging of the chicken cerebellum
    Raquel S Pires
    City University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil
    Neurosci Lett 478:146-9. 2010
    ..4 years old) chickens (Gallus gallus) were used in order to evaluate the expression of GluR1, GluR2/3 and NR1 subunits...
  43. ncbi Localization of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in distinct neuronal elements of the rat substantia nigra
    K K Yung
    Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, China
    Neurochem Int 33:313-26. 1998
    ..was performed using commercially available antibodies (against subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors: GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4, NMDAR1, NMDAR2A/B; and subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors: mGluR1alpha, mGluR2/3)...
  44. ncbi Expression of the AMPA-selective receptor subunits in the vestibular nuclei of the chinchilla
    P Popper
    Division of Head and Neck Surgery, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90024 1624, USA
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 44:21-30. 1997
    ..were used to localize the messenger RNAs and proteins of the AMPA-selective receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2, GluR3 and GluR4 in the vestibular nuclei of the chinchilla...
  45. pmc Effects of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 agonism and antagonism on schizophrenia-like cognitive deficits induced by phencyclidine in rats
    Nurith Amitai
    Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 639:67-80. 2010
    ..We examined how the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 agonist LY379268 and the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 antagonist LY341495 altered phencyclidine-..
  46. ncbi Distribution of glutamate and preproenkephalin messenger RNAs following transient focal cerebral ischemia
    L K Friedman
    Department of Neuroscience, Seton Hall University NJ Neuroscience Institute, JFK Medical Center, Edison 08818, USA
    Neuroscience 95:841-57. 2000
    ..ischemia, in situ hybridization histochemistry was used to measure levels of glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1), GluR2, GluR3, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 (NR1) and preproenkephalin messenger RNAs in adult rats at various ..
  47. ncbi Input- and subunit-specific AMPA receptor trafficking underlying long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3 synapses
    Wataru Kakegawa
    Department of Neurophysiology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3 39 22 Showa machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371 8511, Japan
    Eur J Neurosci 20:101-10. 2004
    ..To trace the subunit-specific trafficking of AMPARs at each synapse, GluR1 and GluR2 subunits were introduced into CA3 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal organotypic cultures using the Sindbis viral ..
  48. ncbi Subcellular distribution of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit immunoreactivity in ventral posterior and reticular nuclei of rat and cat thalamus
    X B Liu
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California, Irvine 92682, USA
    J Comp Neurol 388:587-602. 1997
    ..The authors used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to localize AMPA selective GluR 2/3 subunits (GluR2/3) and NMDA receptor subunit 1 (NMDAR1) in rat and cat ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL) ..
  49. ncbi Differential distribution of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the rat olfactory bulb
    A A Montague
    Department of Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8082, USA
    J Comp Neurol 405:233-46. 1999
    ..by using antibodies to alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits: GluR1, GluR2/3, and GluR4; and kainate (KA) receptor subunits: GluR5/6/7...
  50. ncbi GluR2/3, NMDAepsilon1 and GABAA receptors in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
    I Ferrer
    Institut de Neuropatologia, Servei d Anatomia Patològica, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, carrer Feixa Llarga sn, 08907, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain
    Acta Neuropathol 106:311-8. 2003
    ..Glutamate receptors AMPA GluR2/3 and NMDA R2A: NR2A (NMDAepsilon1), and GABA(A) (GABA(A) Ralpha1) receptors were examined by immunohistochemistry ..
  51. ncbi AMPA and kainate receptors in turtle retina: an immunocytochemical study
    Lily Vitanova
    Department of Physiology, Medical University, 1 G Sofiisky Street, Sofia, 1431, Bulgaria
    Cell Mol Neurobiol 27:407-21. 2007
    ..6. It can be assumed that the GluR2/3 and GluR6/7 subunits are expressed on the dendrites of a subpopulation of bipolar cells that are immunopositive ..
  52. doi Expression of NMDA receptors and Ca2+-impermeable AMPA receptors requires neuronal differentiation and allows discrimination between two different types of neural stem cells
    Elke Muth-Köhne
    Department of Biochemistry I, Receptor Biochemistry, Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum, Germany
    Cell Physiol Biochem 26:935-46. 2010
    ..The NMDAR subunits NR1 and NR2B as well as the AMPAR subunit GluR2 present in Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPARs were found to be upregulated at the mRNA level in differentiated ..
  53. doi Chromatin structure and expression of the AMPA receptor subunit Glur2 in human glioma cells: major regulatory role of REST and Sp1
    Myriam Ekici
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Saarland Medical Center, D 66421 Homburg, Germany
    J Cell Biochem 113:528-43. 2012
    It has been suggested that reduced glutamate receptor expression protects glioma cells from glutamate toxicity. GluR2 is the critical subunit of the GluR2 subtype of AMPA glutamate receptors as this subunit determines the Ca(2+) ..
  54. ncbi Microtubule-associated protein light chain 2 is a stargazin-AMPA receptor complex-interacting protein in vivo
    Jane H Ives
    School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Science Research Laboratories, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 279:31002-9. 2004
    ..soluble cerebellar extracts revealed that LC2 is pulled down not only by anti-stargazin antibodies but also anti-GluR2 antibodies suggesting that stargazin and AMPA receptor subunits associate with LC2...
  55. pmc Altered trafficking of membrane proteins in purkinje cells of SCA1 transgenic mice
    P J Skinner
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Am J Pathol 159:905-13. 2001
    ..cytoplasmic vacuoles contained proteins from the somatodendritic membrane, including mGluR1, GluRDelta1/Delta2, GluR2/3, and protein kinase C (PKC) gamma...
  56. ncbi The respective N-hydroxypyrazole analogues of the classical glutamate receptor ligands ibotenic acid and (RS)-2-amino-2-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)acetic acid
    Rasmus P Clausen
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 Universitetsparken, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Eur J Pharmacol 499:35-44. 2004
    ..modelling approaches assist in explaining these pharmacological trends among the metabotropic receptors and suggest a mechanism of partial agonism at mglu2 receptor similar to that proposed for the GluR2 glutamate receptor.
  57. pmc The rewarding and locomotor-sensitizing effects of repeated cocaine administration are distinct and separable in mice
    Thorfinn T Riday
    Laboratory of Developmental Neuropharmacology, Department of Neurology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7025, USA
    Neuropharmacology 62:1858-66. 2012
    ..Expression of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) and CRE binding protein (CREB) was measured in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsolateral striatum (STR) and ..
  58. pmc Developmental regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor subunit expression in forebrain and relationship to regional susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic injury. II. Human cerebral white matter and cortex
    Delia M Talos
    Department of Neurology, Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Comp Neurol 497:61-77. 2006
    ..In part I, we reported that, in rat, developmental expression of Ca2+-permeable (GluR2-lacking) AMPARs correlated at the regional and cellular level with increased susceptibility to hypoxia/ischemia (H/..
  59. ncbi Distinct Localization of P2X receptors at excitatory postsynaptic specializations
    M E Rubio
    Department of Molecular Biology of Neuronal Signals, Max Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, D 37075 Gottingen, Germany
    J Neurosci 21:641-53. 2001
    ..By double imunogold labeling using antibodies for P2X receptor subunits and GluR2/3 subunits of the AMPA glutamate receptors, we show that synapses expressing P2X receptors are also glutamatergic...
  60. pmc Learning-induced glutamate receptor phosphorylation resembles that induced by long term potentiation
    Kajal Shukla
    Department of Neurology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390 8813, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:18100-7. 2007
    ..831 phosphorylation is present at synapses and is in heteromeric complexes with the glutamate receptor subunit GluR2. These data indicate that a biochemical correlate of long term potentiation occurs at synapses in receptor ..
  61. ncbi A novel anterograde trafficking signal present in the N-terminal extracellular domain of ionotropic glutamate receptors
    Houhui Xia
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94304, USA
    J Biol Chem 277:47765-9. 2002
    ..experiments demonstrated that the mutant GluR1 in which this sequence was deleted still interacts with GluR2, suggesting that mutant GluR1 is capable of at least partial assembly into heteromeric structures...
  62. pmc Involvement of AMPA receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of lithium in the mouse tail suspension test and forced swim test
    Todd D Gould
    Laboratory of Molecular Pathophysiology and Experimental Therapeutics, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    Neuropharmacology 54:577-87. 2008
    ..Additionally, administration of lithium increased the cell surface expression of GluR1 and GluR2 in the mouse hippocampus...
  63. doi Subunit-selective palmitoylation regulates the intracellular trafficking of AMPA receptor
    Guang Yang
    Graduate Program of Neuroscience, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    Eur J Neurosci 30:35-46. 2009
    The AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits GluR1 and GluR2 show different properties in central neurons and affect AMPAR trafficking via distinct mechanisms...
  64. ncbi [Activation of hippocampal D1 dopamine receptor inhibits glutamate-mediated depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress in rats]
    Ting Ting Yuan
    College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi an 710062, China
    Sheng Li Xue Bao 63:333-41. 2011
    ..changes, higher concentration of glutamic acid, lower expressions of NMDA receptor (NR1) and AMPA receptor (GluR2/3) in hippocampus...
  65. doi DCP-LA stimulates AMPA receptor exocytosis through CaMKII activation due to PP-1 inhibition
    Takeshi Kanno
    Division of Bioinformation, Department of Physiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan
    J Cell Physiol 221:183-8. 2009
    ..alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors composed of the GluR1, GluR3, GluR1/GluR2, GluR1/GluR3, and GluR1/GluR2/GluR3 subunits, and the potentiation was significantly inhibited by KN-93...
  66. pmc Ovarian steroids increase glutamatergic related gene expression in serotonin neurons of macaques
    Cynthia L Bethea
    Division of Reproductive Sciences, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR 97006, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 49:251-62. 2012
    ..Their induction by ovarian steroids indicates a complex upregulation of multiple components in the glutamate cycle and antioxidation, in addition to spine proliferation...
  67. ncbi [New roles of glutamate receptors in glias and gliomas]
    Shogo Ishiuchi
    Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara machi, Okinawa 903 0215, Japan
    Brain Nerve 61:753-64. 2009
    ..acid-typeglutamate-receptor channels (AMPARs) are composed of 4 subunits (GluR1-4); the channels without the GluR2 (GluR-B) subunit are characterized by high Ca2+ permeability...
  68. doi The phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase MTMR2 interacts with PSD-95 and maintains excitatory synapses by modulating endosomal traffic
    Hyun Woo Lee
    National Creative Research Initiative Center for Synaptogenesis and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305 701, Korea
    J Neurosci 30:5508-18. 2010
    ..Moreover, MTMR2 suppression promotes endocytosis, but not recycling, of the GluR2 subunit of AMPA receptors, which is an endosomal cargo...
  69. ncbi Cerebral cortical dysplasia: giant neurons show potential for increased excitation and axonal plasticity
    C Kerfoot
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Neuropathology, UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1732, USA
    Dev Neurosci 21:260-70. 1999
    ..receptor subunit beta (GABA(Abeta)), glutamate decarboxylase, AMPA receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) and subunit 2/3 (GluR2/3), and NMDA receptor 2 (NMDAR2) immunoreactivity...
  70. pmc Phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of GluR2-containing AMPA receptors in the nucleus accumbens plays a critical role in the reinstatement of cocaine seeking
    Katie R Famous
    Department of Pharmacology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Neurosci 28:11061-70. 2008
    ..Cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking also was associated with increases in GluR2-pSer880 in the nucleus accumbens shell...
  71. pmc Excitatory synaptic transmission and network activity are depressed following mechanical injury in cortical neurons
    Paulette B Goforth
    University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Pharmacology, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA
    J Neurophysiol 105:2350-63. 2011
    ..if NMDARs and CP-AMPARs were blocked pharmacologically, suggesting the decrease reflected alterations in synaptic Glur2-containing, calcium-impermeable AMPARs...
  72. doi Alternative splicing of AMPA receptor subunits in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia
    Christopher Kobylecki
    Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health, University of Manchester, UK
    Exp Neurol 247:476-84. 2013
    ..were processed for in situ hybridisation histochemistry, using oligonucleotide probes specific for the GluR1 and GluR2 subunits and their flip and flop isoforms...
  73. ncbi Prion protein regulates glutamate-dependent lactate transport of astrocytes
    Ralf Kleene
    Zentrum für Molekulare Neurobiologie, Universitat Hamburg, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 27:12331-40. 2007
    ..Lactate transport via MCT1 is glutamate dependent and regulated by glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2)-containing AMPA receptors with which PrP interacts...
  74. pmc Formation of accumbens GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors mediates incubation of cocaine craving
    KELLY L CONRAD
    Department of Neuroscience, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, Illinois 60064, USA
    Nature 454:118-21. 2008
    ..after prolonged withdrawal from cocaine self-administration by the addition of new AMPA receptors lacking glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2). Furthermore, we show that these new receptors mediate the incubation of cocaine craving...
  75. doi Retinal localization of the glutamate receptor GluR2 and GluR2-regulating proteins in diabetic rats
    Irina Semkova
    Department of Ophthalmology, University of Dusseldorf, Moorenstr 5, D 40225 Dusseldorf, Germany
    Exp Eye Res 90:244-53. 2010
    ..Here we analyzed the expression changes and trafficking abnormalities of the AMPA glutamate receptor 2 subunit (GluR2) and its regulators protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and PKC-interacting protein 1 (PICK1) ..
  76. ncbi Effects of acute amphetamine administration on AMPA-mediated synaptic activity and expression of AMPA receptor subunit 2 of brain neurons
    Meng Fen Yu
    Chang Gang Institute of Technology, School of Nursing, Tao Yuan, Taiwan, ROC
    J Mol Neurosci 25:171-81. 2005
    ..Moreover, Amph treatment down-regulated the level of flip-form glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) mRNA by 27% in cultured neurons but did not change the expression of GluR2 proteins and flop-form ..
  77. ncbi Solution X-ray scattering evidence for agonist- and antagonist-induced modulation of cleft closure in a glutamate receptor ligand-binding domain
    Dean R Madden
    Department of Biochemistry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:23637-42. 2005
    ..Crystallographic analysis of the GluR2 LBD core has revealed a ligand-binding cleft located between two lobes...
  78. ncbi Evaluation of GluR2 subunit involvement in AMPA receptor function of neonatal rat hypoglossal motoneurons
    K Essin
    Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Thorez pr 44, 193224 St Petersburg, Russia
    Eur J Neurosci 15:1899-906. 2002
    AMPA receptors (AMPAr) mediate fast synaptic responses to glutamate and, when they lack the GluR2 subunit, are strongly Ca2+ permeable and may increase intracellular Ca2+ levels...
  79. pmc The density of AMPA receptors activated by a transmitter quantum at the climbing fibre-Purkinje cell synapse in immature rats
    Akiko Momiyama
    Department of Pharmacology, University College London, UK
    J Physiol 549:75-92. 2003
    ..whole-cell AMPA currents displayed roughly linear current-voltage relationships, consistent with the presence of GluR2 subunits in synaptic and extrasynaptic AMPARs...
  80. pmc Disruption of glutamate receptors at Shank-postsynaptic platform in Alzheimer's disease
    Yuesong Gong
    Department of Neurology, Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 N 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
    Brain Res 1292:191-8. 2009
    ..NMDA) receptor 1 and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor 2 (GluR2) were substantially lost; specifically, the loss of GluR2 was up to 40% at PSD in AD...
  81. ncbi AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunits 2/3 in the human trigeminal sensory ganglion and subnucleus caudalis from prenatal ages to adulthood
    Marina Quartu
    Dipartimento di Citomorfologia, Universita di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy
    Mech Ageing Dev 123:463-71. 2002
    ..and distribution of the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) glutamate receptor subunits GluR2/3 is shown in the human trigeminal ganglion and subnucleus caudalis from 20 weeks of gestation to adulthood...
  82. doi Downstream effects of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase reduction on RNA expression in vivo and in vitro
    V L Reinhart
    Pfizer Research and Development, Cambridge, MA, United States Electronic address
    Neuroscience 278:62-9. 2014
    ..ERK1/2), FYN, PYK2) and glutamate receptor subunits (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B), glutamate receptor 2 (GLUR2))...
  83. ncbi Nitric oxide synthase and glutamate receptor immunoreactivity in the rat spinal trigeminal neurons expressing Fos protein after formalin injection
    S Leong
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore, Singapore
    Brain Res 855:107-15. 2000
    ..neurons with Fos immunofluorescent nuclei were colocalised with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1, 94% with glutamate receptor 2/3 and 14% with nitric oxide synthase...
  84. ncbi AMPA receptor subunits are differentially expressed in parvalbumin- and calretinin-positive neurons of the rat hippocampus
    M V Catania
    Istituto di Bioimmagini e Fisiopatologia del Sistema Nervoso Centrale, Consiglio Nazionale dell Ricerche, Catania, Italy
    Eur J Neurosci 10:3479-90. 1998
    ..The different combination of subunits might subserve different properties of the AMPA channels featured by these cell types, with implications for the functioning of the hippocampal network...
  85. pmc The Rett syndrome protein MeCP2 regulates synaptic scaling
    Zilong Qiu
    Neurobiology Section, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 0366, USA
    J Neurosci 32:989-94. 2012
    ..neuronal activity leads to a decrease in mEPSC amplitude and a decrease in expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 in rat hippocampal cultures...
  86. ncbi [Effects of theanine on monoamine neurotransmitters and related genes in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury rats]
    Jing Yao
    Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 200032, China
    Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 46:635-9. 2012
    To study the effects of theanine on dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-TH) and glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) mRNA, phospholipase-γ1 (PLC-γ1) mRNA in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury rats and explore the mechanism of protective ..
  87. ncbi Identification of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II regulatory phosphorylation site in the alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate-type glutamate receptor
    A Barria
    Vollum Institute, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:32727-30. 1997
    ..The Ser831 site is specific to GluR1, and CaM-KII did not phosphorylate or potentiate current in cells expressing GluR2, emphasizing the importance of the GluR1 subunit in this regulatory mechanism...
  88. pmc Rsk2 Knockdown in PC12 Cells Results in Sp1 Dependent Increased Expression of the Gria2 Gene, Encoding the AMPA Receptor Subunit GluR2
    Tahir Mehmood
    Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire IGBMC, Department of Translational Medicine and Neurogenetics, INSERM U 964, CNRS UMR 1704, Universite de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch, France
    Int J Mol Sci 14:3358-75. 2013
    ..is abnormally increased in the hippocampus of Rsk2-KO mice as well as the expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2. The mechanism via which RSK2 deficiency affects the expression of GluR2 in neural cells was unknown...
  89. doi AMPA receptor endocytosis in the amygdala is involved in the disrupted reconsolidation of Methamphetamine-associated contextual memory
    Yang Jung Yu
    Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and Department of Pharmacology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
    Neurobiol Learn Mem 103:72-81. 2013
    ..MeAM CPP increased surface expression of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits of AMPA receptor in the BLA...
  90. ncbi Enhanced LTP in mice deficient in the AMPA receptor GluR2
    Z Jia
    Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Neuron 17:945-56. 1996
    ..However, one subunit of the AMPARs, GluR2, is also known to control Ca2+ influx...
  91. ncbi Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors show unique postsynaptic, presynaptic, and glial localizations in the dorsal cochlear nucleus
    R S Petralia
    Laboratory of Neurochemistry, NIDCD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Comp Neurol 372:356-83. 1996
    ..glutamate receptors was examined with preembedding immunocytochemistry, using 14 antibodies to ionotropic (GluR1, GluR2/3, GluR4, GluR5-7, GluR6/7, KA2, NR1, NR2A/B, delta 1/2) and metabotropic (mGluR1 alpha, mGluR2/3, mGluR5) ..
  92. ncbi Functional coupling of rat group II metabotropic glutamate receptors to an omega-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive calcium channel in human embryonic kidney 293 cells
    B A McCool
    Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 50:912-22. 1996
    ..It was recently demonstrated that a rat group II metabotropic receptor (rm-GluR2) is capable of coupling to endogenous N-type Ca2+ channels when heterologously expressed in adult rat sympathetic ..
  93. doi Involvement of prefrontal AMPA receptors in encounter stimulation-induced hyperactivity in isolation-reared mice
    Ryota Araki
    Laboratory of Medicinal Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1 6 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 17:883-93. 2014
    ..Furthermore, isolation rearing increased the expression of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1, GluR2 and GluR3) and GluR1 Ser845 phosphorylation in the prefrontal cortex, but not in the hippocampus or nucleus ..
  94. doi GluA2 (GluR2) regulates metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression through N-cadherin-dependent and cofilin-mediated actin reorganization
    Zikai Zhou
    Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X8, Canada
    J Neurosci 31:819-33. 2011
    The GluA2 (GluR2) subunit is critical for the regulation of AMPA receptor properties and synaptic plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear...
  95. doi Chronic fluoxetine treatment induces structural plasticity and selective changes in glutamate receptor subunits in the rat cerebral cortex
    E Ampuero
    Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Santiago, Chile
    Neuroscience 169:98-108. 2010
    ..alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor subunit levels (NR1, NR2A, NR2B, GluR1 and GluR2) were analysed in the forebrain by both western blot of homogenates and immunohistochemistry...
  96. ncbi Postnatal developmental changes in AMPA and NMDA receptors in the rat vestibular nuclei
    N A Sans
    INSERM U432, Neurobiologie et Développement du Système Vestibulaire, Universite de Montpellier II, CP089, 34095 Cedex 5, Montpellier, France
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 123:41-52. 2000
    ..We observed a gradual increase in GluR2/3, NR2A, NR2B and NR2C levels of expression in the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei during the first 3 weeks ..
  97. pmc Novel toxicity of the unedited GluR2 AMPA receptor subunit dependent on surface trafficking and increased Ca2+-permeability
    S S Mahajan
    The Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 1006, USA
    Mol Cell Neurosci 35:470-81. 2007
    RNA editing modifies the GluR2 AMPA receptor subunit pore loop at the Q/R site and limits receptor Ca(2+) permeability. Editing failure is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
  98. ncbi Ca2+ permeability of KA-AMPA--gated glutamate receptor channels depends on subunit composition
    M Hollmann
    Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA 92037
    Science 252:851-3. 1991
    ..propionic acid (AMPA) are formed by the glutamate receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3...
  99. ncbi Anandamide inhibition of recombinant AMPA receptor subunits in Xenopus oocytes is increased by forskolin and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP
    B E Akinshola
    Department of Pharmacology, Howard University College of Medicine, Washington, DC 20059, USA
    Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 360:242-8. 1999
    ..Anandamide directly inhibited kainate (KA) activated homomeric GluR1; GluR3 and heteromeric GluR1/3; GluR2/3 receptor currents with IC50 values of 161+/-19, 143+/-12, 148+/-10 and 241+/-107 microM, respectively...
  100. doi A specific class of interneuron mediates inhibitory plasticity in the lateral amygdala
    Jai S Polepalli
    Queensland Brain Institute and School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane QLD 4072, Australia
    J Neurosci 30:14619-29. 2010
    ..LTP is maintained by trafficking of GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors that require an interaction with SAP97 and the actin cytoskeleton...
  101. pmc Gender differences in neurotrophin and glutamate receptor expression in cholinergic nucleus basalis neurons during the progression of Alzheimer's disease
    Scott E Counts
    Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
    J Chem Neuroanat 42:111-7. 2011
    ..In addition, we found a female-selective reduction in GluR2 AMPA glutamate receptor subunit expression in NB neurons in AD...

Research Grants63

  1. Characterizing an AMPA Receptor Splice Modulator in Preventing Epileptogenesis
    Melanie K Tallent; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons, AMPA receptors are comprised largely of GluR1/GluR2 and GluR2/GluR3 heteromeric tetramers...
  2. Regulation of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors in associative memory
    ROGER LEE CLEM; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..AMPARs that lack the GluR2 subunit are commonly referred to as calcium- permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPARs) due to their unique conductance ..
  3. Mechanisms controlling AMPA receptor subunit composition
    Steven J Tavalin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..C (PKC) to GluA2, protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) is thought to stabilize PKC phosphorylation of GluR2 which serves to signal endocytosis of GluA2-containing AMPARs...
  4. Anatomy of postsynaptic plasticity in hippocampus
    Richard J Weinberg; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Excitatory synapses in hippocampus express AMPARs comprising GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3 subunits;GluR2 and GluR3 are trafficked and anchored at the synapse by the same mechanisms, distinct ..
  5. AMYGDALA AMPA GLUR2 DELETION AND OPIOID DEPENDENCE
    Michael J Glass; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The AMPA-GluR2 (GluR2) receptor subunit is a major component of AMPA receptors, determines calcium permeability, has been ..
  6. GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS AND OPIOID DEPENDENCE: MOLECULES, CIRCUITS AND BEHAVIOR
    Michael J Glass; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3 will test the hypothesis that acute opioid exposure can affect the trafficking of the AMPA-GluR2 receptor subunit at postsynaptic sites in CeA neurons, a process that can be inhibited by local NR1 gene deletion...
  7. Molecular Anatomy of Mature and Immature Glutamate Receptors
    Terunaga Nakagawa; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..which are critical for understanding synaptic plasticity, we propose to compare the 3D EM structure of the mature GluR2 tetramer with those of dimeric biosynthetic intermediates...
  8. Allosteric Modulators of Glutamate Receptors
    Robert E Oswald; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We have determined the crystal structure of one AMPA receptor-binding domain (GluR2 S1S2) with six different allosteric activators and studied some of the complexes using NMR spectroscopy...
  9. Defining the epitope in anti-AMPA receptor encephalitis
    DAVID ROBINSON LYNCH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Patients with this syndrome make antibodies to the extracellular portion of the AMPAR subunits GluR1 and/or GluR2. Our new preliminary data have identified structural determinants in the amino terminal domain (ATD) of GluR1/2 ..
  10. Role of AMPA receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell in morphine depedence
    Elena Chartoff; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..2005). Prior work has demonstrated that elevating GluR1 levels in the NASh decreases, and GluR2 increases, the rewarding effects of cocaine and lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation (Kelz et al...
  11. BAR proteins linking membrane and cytoskeleton dynamics
    Roberto Dominguez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Full-length PICK1 was crystallized with bound Ca2+ and the GluR2 AMPA receptor tail. The structure of the BAR domain of PInB is nearly finished...
  12. Dynamic properties of a glutamate binding domain
    Robert E Oswald; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..previous granting period, backbone and sidechain dynamics were studied with a series of partial agonists bound to GluR2 S1S2 using NMR spectroscopy...
  13. AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Signaling Complexes
    Edward B Ziff; Fiscal Year: 2010
    We will study the mechanism of trafficking of the GluR2 subunit of the AMPA receptor to synapses in cultured hippocampal neurons...
  14. Molecular Mechanisms of Cocaine-Induced Alterations in Accumbens AMPA Receptors
    Rachel J Smith; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..integrin was identified as playing a key role in maintaining surface expression of AMPA receptors containing the GluR2 subunit...
  15. Regulation and Neural Function of Atypical PKC
    Todd C Sacktor; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..strength by increasing the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) through interactions between the AMPAR GluR2 subunit and the trafficking protein NSF...
  16. Addiction Propensity After Prenatal Ethanol Exposure
    Roh Yu Shen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..leads to a rectification of AMPA receptor-mediated current, suggesting an increased expression of high conductance GluR2 subunit-lacking AMPA receptors...
  17. Regulation and Neural Function of Atypical PKC
    Todd C Sacktor; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..strength by increasing the number of postsynaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) through interactions between the AMPAR GluR2 subunit and the trafficking protein NSF...
  18. Neurochemical and metabolic regulation in the visual cortex
    MARGARET TT WONG-RILEY; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..They will also provide the basis for future gene therapy for visual deficits resulting from faulty energy metabolism. ..
  19. Calcium Permeable AMPA Receptors: Signaling, Toxicity and Control
    Edward B Ziff; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..b>GluR2 when modified by RNA editing dominantly blocks the Ca2+ conductance of AMPAR channels...
  20. The Role of GluR2-dependent Synaptic Scaling in Development and Plasticity
    MELANIE GAINEY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..can be blocked in single cultured cortical neurons with an RNAi hairpin that targets the AMPA receptor subunit, GluR2, suggesting that GluR2 is critical for expression of scaling...
  21. The maintenance of fear memories in the amygdala
    RYAN PARSONS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..also test the hypothesis that the maintenance of fear memory in the amygdala is supported by the trafficking of GluR2 containing 1-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors, which is thought to be controlled ..
  22. TREATMENT OF STATUS EPILEPTICUS
    Jaideep Kapur; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In biochemical analysis GluR2 subunit surface expression was reduced compared in SE-treated animals to that in control animals...
  23. PKMzeta involvement in cocaine sensitization
    CARLOS A JIMENEZ-RIVERA; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..peptide Tat-GluR23y and rectification index curves in whole cell patch recordings to examine the contribution of GluR2-dependent and GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors in maintaining PKM? effects in cocaine sensitization...
  24. Role of AMPA Receptor Reverse Signaling in Synapse Stability
    Anirvan Ghosh; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We have identified LRRTM2 as a GluR2-interacting transmembrane protein that affects synapse stability...
  25. CENTER FOR NEUROSCIENCE EXCELLENCE
    Rodney L Parsons; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Miguel Martin-Caraballo: Developmental regulation of GluR2 AMPA receptor subunit expression, 3) Dr. Jeffrey Spees: Adult Bone Marrow Stem Cells For CMS Repair, and 4) Dr...
  26. The biochemical correlates of sleep homeostasis
    Anna Kalinchuk; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will infuse iNOS inhibitor or A1R antagonist to the PFC/FC during SD and measure the changes in GluR1 and GluR2 phosphorylation. Our PD show that iNOS blocking reverses SD-induced effects. SA4...
  27. NEUROBIOLOGY OF NICOTINE REWARD AND WITHDRAWAL
    Athina Markou; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 3 will assess the effects of viral-vector mediated increased expression of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) in the NAcc core and shell on extinction training and subsequent cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking...
  28. NEUROPATHOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF HUNTINGTON' DISEASE
    Anton Reiner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..2) A preponderance of GluR2 containing AMPARs in striatal neurons projecting to the internal pallidal segment accounts for their lesser ..
  29. PKC-dependent GluR2 internalization in the spinal cord by persistent pain
    Yuan Xiang Tao; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit, through its binding to GRIP and PICK1, may function in the synaptic AMPA receptor trafficking that is ..
  30. RNA editing of AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 in ischemia
    YouMing Lu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Ca2+ permeability of the channels is dominated by GluR2 RNA editing at the Q/R site;edited GluR2(R) subunits form Ca2+-impermeable channels, whereas unedited GluR2(Q) ..
  31. The Role of AMPA Receptors with Q/R-Unedited GluR2 in Neurogenesis
    Nicholas Whitney; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have found that human NPC express calcium-permeable AMPA receptors containing Q/R-unedited GluR2 subunits;whereas, NPC differentiated to neurons and astrocytes express calcium-impermeable AMPA receptors ..
  32. Control of AMPAR Trafficking by NMDAR-Mediated PKD1 Translocation
    EVA S LADOW; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specific Aim 1. Elucidate the mechanisms by which PKD1 regulates GluR2 trafficking. Specific Aim 2. Characterize the functional significance of PKD1 regulation of GluR2 trafficking...
  33. Ethanol, Dependence and Mesolimbic Plasticity
    Richard A Morrisett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In aim 2, we will determine whether interference with GluR2 internalization alters operant self-administration behavior in mice...
  34. Parvalbumin-Containing Neurons in Schizophrenia
    Tsung Ung W Woo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..other glutamate receptor subunits, including the AMPA (1-amino- 3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate) GluR2 subunit and the metabotropic group I glutamate receptor mGluR1 or 5 subunit, or the dopamine D1 receptor may ..
  35. Role of CREST in cortical development and plasticity
    Massimo Scanziani; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The goals of the project are: (i) To examine the role of CREST in activity-dependent down-regulation of GluR2 expression;(ii) To examine the role CREST in activity-dependent regulation of NR2B expression;(iii) To examine the ..
  36. Dissecting the role of one neuronal RhoGEF amongst many: the Kalirin-7 null mouse
    Richard E Mains; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The role of Kal7 in spine formation in response to proteins such as Shank3, GluR2 and Neuroligin-1 will be assessed...
  37. Glutamate-Dopamine Plasticity in Nigrostriatal Injury: Excerise Enhanced Recovery
    John P Walsh; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..medium spiny neurons indicated altered glutamatergic neurotransmission specifically increased expression of GluR2 subunits, an important member of the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptor...
  38. Functional Characterization of synaptic calcium/calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) acc
    Jacqueline K Rose; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As well, investigation into expression levels of other synaptic proteins (e.g., GluR2, and NMDA receptor subunits) following L-IPS translocation of CaMKII will be conducted...
  39. Mechanisms of feedback from retinal horizontal to cone cells
    Tzu Ming Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To examine the importance of HC calcium influx in initiating this feedback, transgenic zebrafish expressing GluR2 in HCs have been created...
  40. Imaging the antipsychotic actions of metabotropic glutamate receptor-2 activators
    John C Gore; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will correlate the imaging findings with treatment effects on cognition tasks. Normalization of resting state brain fluctuations may be an important biomarker of the therapeutic efficacy of antipsychotic agents. ..
  41. Molecular and Cellular Analysis of Brain Enriched PTP's
    Paul J Lombroso; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Over the last cycle, we have discovered that STEP also induces NR1/NR2B and GluR1/GluR2 internalization...
  42. Target Validation byAccumbal Plasticity Screening
    Richard A Morrisett; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Furthermore, disruption of the processes underlying the changes in glutamate receptor location and function (GluR2 subunit internalization) modulates behavioral responses to such reinforcers...
  43. Structure, function and dynamics of a glutamate receptor
    Robert Oswald; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The crystal structure of the S1S2 domain of the GluR2 subunit has been solved by E. Gouaux and collaborators...
  44. Impact of early life seizures on glutamate receptors and synaptic function
    Timothy Benke; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Contrary to prior biochemical studies suggesting isolated down-regulation of GluR2, our electrophysiological data suggests synaptic GluR1 is transiently up-regulated shortly after ELS but later ..
  45. MYELIN PROTEIN GENE EXPRESSION IN DYSMYELINATING MUTANTS
    Wendy B Macklin; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will analyze Plp-null, v integrin null and GluR2-null mice, after crossing our Plp-Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) transgene into them...
  46. Distinct role of Neurabin and Spinophilin in Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity
    Houhui Xia; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e, Ser657 on PKC[unreadable] (and indirectly on Ser880 on GluR2) and Ser831 on GluR1, respectively...
  47. PKC-Dependent Spinal GluR2 Internalization Triggered by NMDARs in Chronic Pain
    Yuan Xiang Tao; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit, through its binding to GRIP and PICK1, may function in the synaptic AMPA receptor trafficking that is ..
  48. GENE EXPRESSION IN SINGLE AGING NEURONS AND GLIA
    James H Eberwine; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..bind to three RNAs that are targeted to and differentially translated in neuronal dendrites, those that encode the GluR2, GluR4 and the NMDA-R1 receptor subunit proteins...
  49. Oligonucleotides for turning genes on and off with light
    IVAN JULIAN DMOCHOWSKI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..will be tested and optimized in leukemia cells (against c-myb), zebrafish (against chordin), and neurons (against GluR2). Several additional genes, including GFP, will be upregulated as proof-of-concept in these biological systems...
  50. SYNAPTIC HOMEOSTASIS IN NEOCORTICAL NEURONS
    Gina G Turrigiano; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Recently we found that synaptic scaling up is transcription-dependent, and requires the GluR2 subunit of the AMPAR for its expression, indicating that transcription of a factor or factors results in enhanced ..
  51. Impact of stress on GluR2 transcription and learning-induced synaptic plasticity
    Siqiong June Liu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have recently shown that noradrenaline released during an acute olfactory stress in mice promotes GluR2 gene transcription and alters excitatory synaptic transmission onto cerebellar inhibitory interneurons...
  52. Markers of olfactory neurotransmission in Schizophrenia
    Lise Rioux; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..with T7 polymerase (IDAT) to investigate a shift in subunit composition away from NMDAR2 B subtype and toward gluR2 subtype...
  53. NMDA RECEPTOR--AGONIST AFFINITY, EFFICACY/TRANSDUCTION
    Antonius VanDongen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The recently published crystal structure of the ligand binding domains of a related glutamate receptor (GluR2) predicts which amino acids are in direct contact with the agonists...
  54. Preclinical Evaluation of GluR2-3Y Peptide as a Potential New Medication for Poly
    Yu Tian Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ....
  55. THE MECHANISM AND FUNCTION OF A TO I RNA EDITING
    Jinghua Yang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The proposed experiments will provide fundamental information regarding the role of A-to-I pre-mRNA editing in mammalian gene expression and regulation that could be used to combat disease. ..
  56. Cochlear Nucleus Proteomics in a Mouse Model of Age-Related Hearing Loss
    Xian Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..protein that changed during AHL progression based on our electrophysiological data -- the ionotropic glutamate receptor 2. Since isoform variation and posttranslational modification of this protein is known to affect its activity,..
  57. EAA RECEPTOR PLASTICITY AFTER SPINAL CORD CONTUSION
    JEAN WRATHALL; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We will focus on injury-induced alterations in the GluR2 subunit which regulates the calcium permeability of alpha- amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (..
  58. BIOBEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS OF DRUG REWARD AND ADDICTION
    WILLIAM CARLEZON; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..In Aim 2, we will use viral-mediated gene transfer to selectively alter expression of GluR1 and GluR2 in the BLA and NASh to examine the relevance of altered GluR expression on cocaine reward...
  59. Limbic-cortical involvement in drug seeking
    Janet Neisewander; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..D1, D2, or D3 receptors, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2C, and 5-HT4 receptors, and glutamate AMPA receptor subunits GluRl, GluR2, and GluR3 using double-labeling in situ hybridization...
  60. Regulation of NSF and AMPA receptor by serum inducible kinase
    DANIELLE MARIE EVERS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..in neurons, 2) determine the influence of SNK binding NSF on NSF interaction with the AMPA receptor subunit, GluR2 and 3) examine if SNK-NSF interaction disrupts stability of AMPA receptors at the cell surface...
  61. Impact of Early-Life Seizures on Synaptic Plasticity
    Timothy Benke; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..LTD), and the consequences of epileptogenesis: LTD induces a near complete removal of a specific GluR subunit (GluR2) from synapses by an N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) -dependent mechanism while epileptiform ..
  62. Glutamate receptors in pain and addictive behaviors
    Charles Inturrisi; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Both projects are designed to test the hypothesis that glutamatergic receptors composed of NR1 or GluR2 subunits are necessary for the neuronal plasticity that is manifest as injury-induced pain (nociception) and the ..
  63. Regulation of GluR2 expression by synaptic activity
    Stephanie Gardner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..are to elucidate the protein-protein interactions and signal transduction pathways involved in the recruitment of GLuR2-containing receptors in response to high frequency stimulation to synapses that formerly lacked them...