env

Summary

Gene Symbol: env
Description: gp160; envelope glycoprotein
Alias: gp160, envelope glycoprotein, Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160, precursor
Species: Human immunodeficiency virus 1

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Induction of apoptosis and endothelin-1 secretion in primary human lung endothelial cells by HIV-1 gp120 proteins
    Georgette D Kanmogne
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 333:1107-15. 2005
  2. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 uses lipid raft-colocalized CD4 and chemokine receptors for productive entry into CD4(+) T cells
    Waldemar Popik
    Oncology Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    J Virol 76:4709-22. 2002
  3. pmc The mannose-dependent epitope for neutralizing antibody 2G12 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120
    Rogier W Sanders
    Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Virol 76:7293-305. 2002
  4. ncbi HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites
    Peter D Kwong
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 420:678-82. 2002
  5. ncbi Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1
    Xiping Wei
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 720 South 20th Street, Kaul 816, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0024, USA
    Nature 422:307-12. 2003
  6. pmc Structure of HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 domain with broadly neutralizing antibody PG9
    Jason S McLellan
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 480:336-43. 2011
  7. pmc HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein biosynthesis, trafficking, and incorporation
    Mary Ann Checkley
    Virus Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, NCI Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Mol Biol 410:582-608. 2011
  8. pmc Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection
    Brandon F Keele
    Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35223, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7552-7. 2008
  9. ncbi HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor
    Y Feng
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 272:872-7. 1996
  10. pmc Structural definition of a conserved neutralization epitope on HIV-1 gp120
    Tongqing Zhou
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 445:732-7. 2007

Detail Information

Publications222 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Induction of apoptosis and endothelin-1 secretion in primary human lung endothelial cells by HIV-1 gp120 proteins
    Georgette D Kanmogne
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 333:1107-15. 2005
    ..These data suggest that secreted HIV gp120 proteins induce lung endothelial cell injury and could contribute to the development of HIV-associated pulmonary hypertension...
  2. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 uses lipid raft-colocalized CD4 and chemokine receptors for productive entry into CD4(+) T cells
    Waldemar Popik
    Oncology Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    J Virol 76:4709-22. 2002
    ..the luciferase reporter gene and pseudotyped with HIV-1 HXB2 envelope or vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein (VSV-G)...
  3. pmc The mannose-dependent epitope for neutralizing antibody 2G12 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120
    Rogier W Sanders
    Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    J Virol 76:7293-305. 2002
    ..Computational analyses were used to position the epitope in the context of the virion-associated envelope glycoprotein complex, to determine the variability of the surrounding surface, and to calculate the surface ..
  4. ncbi HIV-1 evades antibody-mediated neutralization through conformational masking of receptor-binding sites
    Peter D Kwong
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 420:678-82. 2002
    ..is paradoxical, given the functional conservation and exposure of receptor-binding sites on the gp120 envelope glycoprotein, which are larger than the typical antibody footprint and should therefore be accessible for antibody ..
  5. ncbi Antibody neutralization and escape by HIV-1
    Xiping Wei
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 720 South 20th Street, Kaul 816, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 0024, USA
    Nature 422:307-12. 2003
    ..Escape virus contained mutations in the env gene that were unexpectedly sparse, did not map generally to known neutralization epitopes, and involved primarily ..
  6. pmc Structure of HIV-1 gp120 V1/V2 domain with broadly neutralizing antibody PG9
    Jason S McLellan
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 480:336-43. 2011
    Variable regions 1 and 2 (V1/V2) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gp120 envelope glycoprotein are critical for viral evasion of antibody neutralization, and are themselves protected by extraordinary sequence diversity and N-..
  7. pmc HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein biosynthesis, trafficking, and incorporation
    Mary Ann Checkley
    Virus Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, NCI Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Mol Biol 410:582-608. 2011
    ..The Env glycoproteins are synthesized as a polyprotein precursor (gp160) that is cleaved by cellular proteases to the mature surface glycoprotein gp120 and the transmembrane glycoprotein ..
  8. pmc Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection
    Brandon F Keele
    Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35223, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7552-7. 2008
    The precise identification of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) responsible for productive clinical infection could be instrumental in elucidating the molecular basis of HIV-1 transmission and in designing effective vaccines...
  9. ncbi HIV-1 entry cofactor: functional cDNA cloning of a seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor
    Y Feng
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 272:872-7. 1996
    ..Recombinant fusin enabled CD4-expressing nonhuman cell types to support HIV-1 Env-mediated cell fusion and HIV-1 infection...
  10. pmc Structural definition of a conserved neutralization epitope on HIV-1 gp120
    Tongqing Zhou
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 445:732-7. 2007
    ..glycosylation and conformational flexibility of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env), including substantial rearrangement of the gp120 glycoprotein upon binding the CD4 receptor, allow it to evade ..
  11. pmc Molecular architecture of native HIV-1 gp120 trimers
    Jun Liu
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nature 455:109-13. 2008
    The envelope glycoproteins (Env) of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) mediate virus binding to the cell surface receptor CD4 on target cells to initiate infection...
  12. pmc HIV-1 adaptation to NK-cell-mediated immune pressure
    Galit Alter
    Ragon Institute at MGH, MIT and Harvard, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02129, USA
    Nature 476:96-100. 2011
    ..NK cells might therefore have a previously underappreciated role in contributing to viral evolution...
  13. pmc Structure of HIV-1 gp120 with gp41-interactive region reveals layered envelope architecture and basis of conformational mobility
    Marie Pancera
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:1166-71. 2010
    ..A "layered" gp120 architecture thus allows movement among alternative glycoprotein conformations required for virus entry and immune evasion, whereas a beta-sandwich clamp maintains gp120-gp41 interaction and regulates gp41 transitions...
  14. pmc Molecular architectures of trimeric SIV and HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins on intact viruses: strain-dependent variation in quaternary structure
    Tommi A White
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001249. 2010
    ..immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) occurs with the binding of trimeric envelope glycoproteins (Env), composed of heterodimers of the viral transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) and surface glycoprotein (gp120) to ..
  15. doi HIV-1 envelope protein binds to and signals through integrin alpha4beta7, the gut mucosal homing receptor for peripheral T cells
    James Arthos
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Nat Immunol 9:301-9. 2008
    ..On CD4+ T cells, engagement of alpha4beta7 by gp120 resulted in rapid activation of LFA-1, the central integrin involved in the establishment of virological synapses, which facilitate efficient cell-to-cell spreading of HIV-1...
  16. doi Innate signaling in HIV-1 infection of dendritic cells
    Michiel van der Vlist
    Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine and Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 6:348-52. 2011
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge of innate signaling events that are involved in HIV-1 infection. We here focus on dendritic cells, which are among the first cells that encounter HIV-1 after exposure...
  17. pmc Human monoclonal antibody 2G12 defines a distinctive neutralization epitope on the gp120 glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    A Trkola
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA
    J Virol 70:1100-8. 1996
    ..consistent with this, antibodies able to block 2G12 binding to recombinant gp120 were not detected in significant quantities in 16 HIV-positive human serum samples...
  18. pmc Structures of the CCR5 N terminus and of a tyrosine-sulfated antibody with HIV-1 gp120 and CD4
    Chih Chin Huang
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 317:1930-4. 2007
    The CCR5 co-receptor binds to the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein and facilitates HIV-1 entry into cells. Its N terminus is tyrosine-sulfated, as are many antibodies that react with the co-receptor binding site on gp120...
  19. pmc Structural basis of immune evasion at the site of CD4 attachment on HIV-1 gp120
    Lei Chen
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 326:1123-7. 2009
    ..This incompatibility, the consequence of slight differences in CD4BS recognition, renders HIV-1 resistant to all but the most accurately targeted antibodies...
  20. pmc Characteristics of the earliest cross-neutralizing antibody response to HIV-1
    Iliyana Mikell
    Seattle BioMed, Seattle, Washington, USA
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001251. 2011
    ..coincides with the appearance of antibody specificities to a single or multiple regions of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env)...
  21. pmc Recurrent signature patterns in HIV-1 B clade envelope glycoproteins associated with either early or chronic infections
    S Gnanakaran
    Theoretical Biology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002209. 2011
    Here we have identified HIV-1 B clade Envelope (Env) amino acid signatures from early in infection that may be favored at transmission, as well as patterns of recurrent mutation in chronic infection that may reflect common pathways of ..
  22. pmc Subunit organization of the membrane-bound HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer
    Youdong Mao
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 19:893-9. 2012
    The trimeric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike is a molecular machine that mediates virus entry into host cells and is the sole target for virus-neutralizing antibodies...
  23. ncbi DC-SIGN, a dendritic cell-specific HIV-1-binding protein that enhances trans-infection of T cells
    T B Geijtenbeek
    Department of Tumor Immunology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Cell 100:587-97. 2000
    ..C-type lectin, DC-SIGN, that is highly expressed on DC present in mucosal tissues and binds to the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120...
  24. pmc Cell-cell spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 overcomes tetherin/BST-2-mediated restriction in T cells
    Clare Jolly
    MRC Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, Windeyer Building, London, United Kingdom
    J Virol 84:12185-99. 2010
    ..If so, inhibition of tetherin activity by Vpu may balance requirements for efficient cell-free virion production and cell-to-cell transfer of HIV-1 in the face of antiviral immune responses...
  25. pmc Quantitative multicolor super-resolution microscopy reveals tetherin HIV-1 interaction
    Martin Lehmann
    Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University Hospital and Medical School of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002456. 2011
    ..Together, our super-resolution microscopy analysis of HIV-1 interactions with tetherin provides new insights into the mechanism of tetherin-mediated HIV-1 restriction and paves the way for future studies of virus-host interactions...
  26. ncbi C-type lectin DC-SIGN modulates Toll-like receptor signaling via Raf-1 kinase-dependent acetylation of transcription factor NF-kappaB
    Sonja I Gringhuis
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Immunity 26:605-16. 2007
    ..Thus, this pathway is involved in regulation of adaptive immunity by DCs to bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens...
  27. pmc Trimeric HIV-1 glycoprotein gp140 immunogens and native HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins display the same closed and open quaternary molecular architectures
    Audray Harris
    Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108:11440-5. 2011
    ..step in HIV-1 infection occurs with the binding of cell surface CD4 to trimeric HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env), a heterodimer of a transmembrane glycoprotein (gp41) and a surface glycoprotein (gp120)...
  28. pmc IL-7 is a potent and proviral strain-specific inducer of latent HIV-1 cellular reservoirs of infected individuals on virally suppressive HAART
    Feng Xiang Wang
    Center for Human Virology and Biodefense, Division of Infectious Diseases and Environmental Medicine, Department of Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    J Clin Invest 115:128-37. 2005
    ....
  29. pmc Fine mapping of the interaction of neutralizing and nonneutralizing monoclonal antibodies with the CD4 binding site of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120
    Ralph Pantophlet
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 77:642-58. 2003
    ..These reengineered gp120s are prospective immunogens that may prove capable of eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies...
  30. ncbi Structural basis for coreceptor selectivity by the HIV type 1 V3 loop
    Timothy Cardozo
    Department of Pharmacology and New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:415-26. 2007
    ..The results have additional implications for the design of HIV therapeutics, vaccines, and strategies for monitoring disease progression...
  31. pmc Crystal structure of HIV-1 gp41 including both fusion peptide and membrane proximal external regions
    Victor Buzon
    Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions UMI 3265, Université Joseph Fourier EMBL CNRS, Grenoble, France
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000880. 2010
    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) composed of the receptor binding domain gp120 and the fusion protein subunit gp41 catalyzes virus entry and is a major target for therapeutic intervention and for neutralizing antibodies...
  32. pmc Envelope glycans of immunodeficiency virions are almost entirely oligomannose antigens
    Katie J Doores
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:13800-5. 2010
    ..roles in infection and immune evasion, the chemical structures of the glycans on the native viral envelope glycoprotein gp120--as opposed to recombinantly generated gp120--have not been described...
  33. pmc MPER-specific antibodies induce gp120 shedding and irreversibly neutralize HIV-1
    Claudia R Ruprecht
    Institute of Medical Virology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland
    J Exp Med 208:439-54. 2011
    ....
  34. pmc Breaking down the barrier: the effects of HIV-1 on the blood-brain barrier
    Marianne Strazza
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Center for Molecular Virology and Translational Neuroscience, Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA
    Brain Res 1399:96-115. 2011
    ....
  35. pmc Conformational changes induced in the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein by soluble CD4 binding
    Q J Sattentau
    Academic Department of Genito Urinary Medicine, University College and Middlesex School of Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    J Exp Med 174:407-15. 1991
    ..and other cells of the immune system via a high affinity interaction between CD4 and the HIV outer envelope glycoprotein, gp120...
  36. ncbi The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates
    H Choe
    Division of Human Retrovirology Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 85:1135-48. 1996
    ..the target cell depended upon the sequence of the third variable (V3) region of the HIV-1 gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. The ability of various members of the chemokine receptor family to support the early stages of HIV-1 ..
  37. doi HIV-1 exploits innate signaling by TLR8 and DC-SIGN for productive infection of dendritic cells
    Sonja I Gringhuis
    Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Nat Immunol 11:419-26. 2010
    ..Binding of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 to DC-SIGN induced kinase Raf-1-dependent phosphorylation of the NF-kappaB subunit p65 at Ser276, ..
  38. pmc LIM kinase 1 modulates cortical actin and CXCR4 cycling and is activated by HIV-1 to initiate viral infection
    Paul J Vorster
    Department of Molecular and Microbiology, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia 20110, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:12554-64. 2011
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that HIV hijacks LIMK to control the cortical actin dynamics for the initiation of viral infection of CD4 T cells...
  39. pmc Comprehensive cross-clade neutralization analysis of a panel of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 monoclonal antibodies
    James M Binley
    IMM2, Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 N Torrey Pines Rd, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Virol 78:13232-52. 2004
    ..As well as the significance for vaccine design, our data have implications for passive-immunization studies in countries where clade C viruses are common, given that only MAbs b12 and 4E10 were effective against viruses from this clade...
  40. pmc Coreceptor tropism in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype D: high prevalence of CXCR4 tropism and heterogeneous composition of viral populations
    Wei Huang
    Monogram Biosciences, 345 Oyster Point Blvd, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    J Virol 81:7885-93. 2007
    ....
  41. pmc The genotype of early-transmitting HIV gp120s promotes α (4) β(7)-reactivity, revealing α (4) β(7) +/CD4+ T cells as key targets in mucosal transmission
    Fatima Nawaz
    Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1001301. 2011
    ..Understanding the structural features that characterize early-transmitting gp120s may aid in the design of an effective gp120-based subunit vaccine...
  42. ncbi Dissociation of gp120 from HIV-1 virions induced by soluble CD4
    J P Moore
    Chester Beatty Laboratories, Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom
    Science 250:1139-42. 1990
    ..This may represent the initial stage in virus-cell and cell-cell fusion. Shedding of gp120 from virions induced by sCD4 may also contribute to the mechanism by which these soluble receptor molecules neutralize HIV-1...
  43. ncbi Delineation of a region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 glycoprotein critical for interaction with the CD4 receptor
    L A Lasky
    Cell 50:975-85. 1987
    The primary event in the infection of cells by HIV is the interaction between the viral envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and its cellular receptor, CD4...
  44. pmc HIV-1 gp120 mannoses induce immunosuppressive responses from dendritic cells
    Meimei Shan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e169. 2007
    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 is a vaccine immunogen that can signal via several cell surface receptors...
  45. pmc Dendritic cells preferentially transfer CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants to CD4+ T lymphocytes in trans
    Thijs van Montfort
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 82:7886-96. 2008
    ....
  46. pmc Llama antibody fragments with cross-subtype human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-neutralizing properties and high affinity for HIV-1 gp120
    Anna Forsman
    MRC UCL Centre for Medical Molecular Virology, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF, United Kingdom
    J Virol 82:12069-81. 2008
    ..Antienvelope VHH might also prove useful in defining neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 envelope proteins, with implications for HIV-1 vaccine design...
  47. pmc Chemokine coreceptor signaling in HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis
    Yuntao Wu
    Department of Molecular and Microbiology, George Mason University, Manassas, Virginia, USA
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000520. 2009
    ..In this review, we summarize past and present studies on HIV coreceptor signaling. We also discuss possible roles of coreceptor signaling in facilitating viral infection and pathogenesis...
  48. pmc Anti-phospholipid human monoclonal antibodies inhibit CCR5-tropic HIV-1 and induce beta-chemokines
    M Anthony Moody
    Duke Human Vaccine Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Exp Med 207:763-76. 2010
    ..The release of these beta-chemokines explains both the specificity for R5 HIV-1 and the activity of these mAbs in PBMC cultures containing both primary lymphocytes and monocytes...
  49. pmc HIV-1 envelope subregion length variation during disease progression
    Marcel E Curlin
    Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001228. 2010
    The V3 loop of the HIV-1 Env protein is the primary determinant of viral coreceptor usage, whereas the V1V2 loop region is thought to influence coreceptor binding and participate in shielding of neutralization-sensitive regions of the ..
  50. pmc Mutagenesis of tyrosine and di-leucine motifs in the HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic domain results in a loss of Env-mediated fusion and infectivity
    Sushma J Bhakta
    Emory Vaccine Center at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA
    Retrovirology 8:37. 2011
    The gp41 component of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein (Env) contains a long cytoplasmic domain (CD) with multiple highly conserved tyrosine (Y) and dileucine (LL) motifs...
  51. pmc Longer V1V2 region with increased number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites in the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein protects against HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies
    Marit J van Gils
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, M01 120, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands
    J Virol 85:6986-95. 2011
    ..variable loops and an increased number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites (PNGS) in the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) and, in particular, in variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2)...
  52. pmc Genotypic prediction of HIV-1 subtype D tropism
    Stéphanie Raymond
    INSERM, U1043, Toulouse, F 31300 France
    Retrovirology 8:56. 2011
    ..Recent studies indicate that the genotypic algorithms used routinely to assess HIV-1 tropism may lack accuracy for non-B subtypes. Little is known about the genotypic determinants of HIV-1 subtype D tropism...
  53. pmc HIV-1 Group P is unable to antagonize human tetherin by Vpu, Env or Nef
    Daniel Sauter
    Institute of Molecular Virology, Ulm University Medical Center, 89069, Ulm, Germany
    Retrovirology 8:103. 2011
    ..Thus far, three SIV/HIV gene products (vpu, nef and env) are known to have the potential to counteract primate tetherin proteins, often in a species-specific manner...
  54. pmc V3 determinants of HIV-1 escape from the CCR5 inhibitors Maraviroc and Vicriviroc
    Reem Berro
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Virology 427:158-65. 2012
    ..In summary, VVC and MVC trigger the evolution of distinct HIV-1 resistance patterns in V3...
  55. pmc Structural dynamics of HIV-1 envelope Gp120 outer domain with V3 loop
    Masaru Yokoyama
    Laboratory of Viral Genomics, Pathogen Genomics Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 4 7 1 Gakuen, Musashi Murayama shi, Tokyo, Japan
    PLoS ONE 7:e37530. 2012
    ..The net charge of the hypervariable V3 loop on the HIV-1 envelope gp120 outer domain plays a key role in modulating viral phenotype. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the modulation remain poorly understood...
  56. ncbi Structure of an HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein in complex with the CD4 receptor and a neutralizing human antibody
    P D Kwong
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Nature 393:648-59. 1998
    ..of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into cells requires the sequential interaction of the viral exterior envelope glycoprotein, gp120, with the CD4 glycoprotein and a chemokine receptor on the cell surface...
  57. pmc The crown and stem of the V3 loop play distinct roles in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein interactions with the CCR5 coreceptor
    Emmanuel G Cormier
    Microbiology and Immunology Department, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Virol 76:8953-7. 2002
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 interacts with CD4 and the CCR5 coreceptor in order to mediate viral entry...
  58. pmc Methamphetamine alters blood brain barrier permeability via the modulation of tight junction expression: Implication for HIV-1 neuropathogenesis in the context of drug abuse
    Supriya D Mahajan
    Department of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, 301 Multi Research Building, Buffalo General Hospital, 100 High Street, Buffalo, NY 14203, USA
    Brain Res 1203:133-48. 2008
    ..An understanding of the mechanisms of BBB breakdown that lead to neurotoxicity is crucial to the development of therapeutic modalities for Meth abusing HAD patients...
  59. pmc HIV envelope-CXCR4 signaling activates cofilin to overcome cortical actin restriction in resting CD4 T cells
    Alyson Yoder
    Department of Molecular and Microbiology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
    Cell 134:782-92. 2008
    ..Conversely, induction of active cofilin greatly facilitates it. These findings shed light on viral exploitation of cellular machinery in resting T cells, where chemokine receptor signaling becomes obligatory...
  60. ncbi HIV-1 gp41 fusogenic function triggers autophagy in uninfected cells
    Melanie Denizot
    CPBS, UM1, UM2, CNRS, Institut de Biologie, Montpellier, France
    Autophagy 4:998-1008. 2008
    Cell-expressed HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (gp120 and gp41, called Env) induce autophagy in uninfected CD4 T cells, leading to their apoptosis, a mechanism most likely contributing to immunodeficiency...
  61. pmc Role of complex carbohydrates in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and resistance to antibody neutralization
    James M Binley
    Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    J Virol 84:5637-55. 2010
    ..Endoglycosidase H treatment resulted in the removal of outer domain glycans from the GnTI- but not the parent Env trimers, and this was associated with a rapid and complete loss in infectivity...
  62. pmc Role of Abl kinase and the Wave2 signaling complex in HIV-1 entry at a post-hemifusion step
    Brooke Harmon
    Division of Molecular Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1000956. 2010
    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) commences with binding of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) to the receptor CD4, and one of two coreceptors, CXCR4 or CCR5...
  63. pmc Deep sequencing to infer HIV-1 co-receptor usage: application to three clinical trials of maraviroc in treatment-experienced patients
    Luke C Swenson
    BC Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Vancouver, Canada
    J Infect Dis 203:237-45. 2011
    ..We retrospectively examined the performance of a genotypic tropism assay based on deep sequencing of the HIV env V3 loop in predicting virologic response to maraviroc in these trials.
  64. pmc Anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies display broad neutralizing activities against multiple HIV-1 subtypes
    Catarina E Hioe
    Department of Pathology, New York University Langone School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 5:e10254. 2010
    The V3 loop of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoprotein gp120 was identified as the "principal neutralizing domain" of HIV-1, but has been considered too variable to serve as a neutralizing antibody (Ab) target...
  65. ncbi The V3 domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein is critical for chemokine-mediated blockade of infection
    F Cocchi
    Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nat Med 2:1244-7. 1996
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the third hypervariable domain of the gp 120 envelope glycoprotein is a critical determinant of the susceptibility of HIV-1 to chemokines...
  66. ncbi HIV-1 gp120- and gp160-induced apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells is mediated by caspases
    C K Ullrich
    Divisions of Experimental Medicine and Hematology Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Blood 96:1438-42. 2000
    ..Blood. 2000;96:1438-1442)..
  67. pmc Mobility of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receptor CD4 and coreceptor CCR5 in living cells: implications for HIV fusion and entry events
    Carolyn M Steffens
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
    J Virol 78:9573-8. 2004
    ..Interestingly, our findings also suggest that the seven-span transmembrane coreceptor is significantly more mobile than CD4 and requires membrane cholesterol for mobility...
  68. pmc Cryptic nature of a conserved, CD4-inducible V3 loop neutralization epitope in the native envelope glycoprotein oligomer of CCR5-restricted, but not CXCR4-using, primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains
    Paolo Lusso
    Unit of Human Virology, Department of Biological and Technological Research DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy
    J Virol 79:6957-68. 2005
    The external subunit of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env), gp120, contains conserved regions that mediate sequential interactions with two cellular receptor molecules, CD4 and a chemokine ..
  69. ncbi Endocytosis of endogenously synthesized HIV-1 envelope protein. Mechanism and role in processing for association with class II MHC
    J F Rowell
    Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Immunol 155:473-88. 1995
    CD4+ T cell clones specific for the HIV-1 envelope (env) protein are able to recognize not only uninfected APC that have taken up and processed exogenous env protein, but also virally infected cells expressing the env protein...
  70. ncbi Membrane expression of HIV envelope glycoproteins triggers apoptosis in CD4 cells
    A G Laurent-Crawford
    Institut Pasteur, Department of AIDS and Retroviruses, UA CNRS 1157, Paris, France
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9:761-73. 1993
    ..Indeed, expression of the HIV env gene alone in the CD4+ T cell line (CEM) was sufficient for the induction of apoptosis...
  71. ncbi CD4-independent association between HIV-1 gp120 and CXCR4: functional chemokine receptors are expressed in human neurons
    J Hesselgesser
    Department of Immunology, Berlex Biosciences, Richmond, California 94804, USA
    Curr Biol 7:112-21. 1997
    ..We have shown previously that chemokine receptors including the interleukin-8 receptor B (CXCR2) and the Duffy blood group antigen are expressed on subsets of neurons in various regions of the adult nervous system...
  72. pmc Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to CD4 and CXCR4 receptors differentially regulates expression of inflammatory genes and activates the MEK/ERK signaling pathway
    W Popik
    Oncology Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA
    J Virol 72:6406-13. 1998
    ....
  73. pmc The highly conserved C-terminal dileucine motif in the cytosolic domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein is critical for its association with the AP-1 clathrin adaptor [correction of adapter]
    S Wyss
    Institute of Microbiology, University of Lausanne, CH 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Virol 75:2982-92. 2001
    ..residues Y712 (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) and Y721 (simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) in the envelope glycoprotein (Env) of the primate lentiviruses are crucial for the association of Env with clathrin-associated adaptor [..
  74. ncbi Apoptotic effects in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures caused by exposure to virion-associated and cell membrane-associated HIV-1 gp120
    M B Huang
    Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 27:213-21. 2001
    ..Apoptosis was observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures exposed to gp160-transfected Jurkat cells as well as to virion particles with gp120 on their surface...
  75. ncbi DC-SIGN: a novel HIV receptor on DCs that mediates HIV-1 transmission
    T B H Geijtenbeek
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center Amsterdam, Van de Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 276:31-54. 2003
    ....
  76. ncbi Maturation of the viral core enhances the fusion of HIV-1 particles with primary human T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages
    Jiyang Jiang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, A 5301 Medical Center North, Nashville, TN 37232 2363, USA
    Virology 346:460-8. 2006
    ..show that maturation enhances the fusion of a variety of recombinant viruses bearing primary and laboratory-adapted Env proteins with primary human CD4+ T cells...
  77. pmc A conserved dileucine motif mediates clathrin and AP-2-dependent endocytosis of the HIV-1 envelope protein
    Rahel Byland
    Cell Biology Unit, MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    Mol Biol Cell 18:414-25. 2007
    ..For the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), sorting of the viral envelope proteins (Env) to assembly sites is directed by trafficking signals located in the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane ..
  78. pmc Coreceptor tropism can be influenced by amino acid substitutions in the gp41 transmembrane subunit of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein
    Wei Huang
    Monogram Biosciences, 345 Oyster Point Blvd, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    J Virol 82:5584-93. 2008
    ..that the third variable region (V3) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein (Env) is a major determinant of coreceptor tropism...
  79. pmc Constrained use of CCR5 on CD4+ lymphocytes by R5X4 HIV-1: efficiency of Env-CCR5 interactions and low CCR5 expression determine a range of restricted CCR5-mediated entry
    Lamorris M Loftin
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Virology 402:135-48. 2010
    ..Thus, the degree to which R5X4 HIV-1 use primary lymphocyte CCR5 is determined by low CCR5 expression coupled with variations in the efficiency of Env-CCR5 interactions, which is in part governed by V3 sequences.
  80. pmc Structural characterization of HIV gp41 with the membrane-proximal external region
    Wuxian Shi
    Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:24290-8. 2010
    Human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (gp120/gp41) plays a critical role in virus infection and pathogenesis...
  81. ncbi A conserved HIV gp120 glycoprotein structure involved in chemokine receptor binding
    C D Rizzuto
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 280:1949-53. 1998
    ..of primate immunodeficiency viruses into target cells depends on a sequential interaction of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein with the cellular receptors, CD4 and members of the chemokine receptor family...
  82. pmc Interactions of the cytoplasmic domains of human and simian retroviral transmembrane proteins with components of the clathrin adaptor complexes modulate intracellular and cell surface expression of envelope glycoproteins
    C Berlioz-Torrent
    CJF 97 03 INSERM, Interactions Moléculaires, Hôte Pathogène, Institut Cochin de Genetique Moleculaire, 75014 Paris, France
    J Virol 73:1350-61. 1999
    ..virus (SIV), and human T-leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) TM-CDs in the cell surface expression of the envelope glycoprotein. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies showed that this motif is a major determinant of the cell ..
  83. pmc Analysis of the critical domain in the V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 involved in CCR5 utilization
    C S Hung
    Departments of Medicine, Pathology, and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 73:8216-26. 1999
    ..These findings highlight the critical residues in the V3 loop that mediate HIV-1 infection...
  84. pmc Identification of two sequences in the cytoplasmic tail of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein that inhibit cell surface expression
    A Bultmann
    Max von Pettenkofer Institut, Genzentrum, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    J Virol 75:5263-76. 2001
    ..synthesis and export of protein, the majority of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env glycoprotein gp160 is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently ubiquitinated and degraded by proteasomes...
  85. pmc Redox-triggered infection by disulfide-shackled human immunodeficiency virus type 1 pseudovirions
    James M Binley
    Departments of Immunology and Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Virol 77:5678-84. 2003
    ..Overall, this disulfide-shackled virus is a unique tool with potential utility in vaccine design, drug discovery, and elucidation of the HIV-1 entry process...
  86. pmc Targeting of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope to the trans-Golgi network through binding to TIP47 is required for env incorporation into virions and infectivity
    Guillaume Blot
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Institut Cochin, INSERM U567, CNRS UMR 8104, Université R Descartes Paris V, 75014 Paris, France
    J Virol 77:6931-45. 2003
    Here, we report that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Env glycoprotein is located mainly in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) due to determinants present in the cytoplasmic domain of the transmembrane gp41 glycoprotein (TMgp41)...
  87. pmc Cooperative effects of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope variable loops V1 and V3 in mediating infectivity for T cells
    A Carrillo
    Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 70:1310-6. 1996
    ..cultures of Jurkat cells revealed a specific mutation that changed a highly conserved Asn residue in the V1 loop of Env to an Asp residue (N-136-->D)...
  88. doi HIV-1 triggers apoptosis in primary osteoblasts and HOBIT cells through TNFalpha activation
    Davide Gibellini
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Microbiology Section, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    J Med Virol 80:1507-14. 2008
    ..As a whole, these results indicate that HIV-1 may impair bone mass structure homeostasis by TNFalpha regulated osteoblast apoptosis...
  89. pmc Stimulation of glycoprotein gp120 dissociation from the envelope glycoprotein complex of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by soluble CD4 and CD4 peptide derivatives: implications for the role of the complementarity-determining region 3-like region in m
    E A Berger
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:8082-6. 1991
    We have used a recombinant vaccinia virus vector encoding the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to study receptor-induced structural changes related to membrane fusion...
  90. ncbi Induction of CD4-dependent cell fusion by the HTLV-III/LAV envelope glycoprotein
    J D Lifson
    Nature 323:725-8. 1986
    ..Utilizing a recombinant vaccinia virus containing the gene for the envelope glycoprotein of HTLV-III/LAV, we demonstrate that cell-surface expression of this protein, in the absence of other HTLV-..
  91. pmc Envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: profound influences on immune functions
    N Chirmule
    Department of Pediatrics, North Shore University Hospital Cornell University Medical College, Manhasset, New York 11030, USA N_Chirmule or
    Microbiol Rev 60:386-406. 1996
    ..The specific binding of the viral external envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1, gp120, to the CD4 molecules initiates viral entry...
  92. ncbi CD4-induced interaction of primary HIV-1 gp120 glycoproteins with the chemokine receptor CCR-5
    L Wu
    LeukoSite, Inc, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA
    Nature 384:179-83. 1996
    ..Here we show that a complex of gp120, the exterior envelope glycoprotein, of macrophage-tropic primary HIV-1 and soluble CD4 interacts specifically with CCR-5 and inhibits the ..
  93. ncbi In vivo evolution of HIV-1 co-receptor usage and sensitivity to chemokine-mediated suppression
    G Scarlatti
    Unit of Immunobiology of HIV, DIBIT, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy
    Nat Med 3:1259-65. 1997
    ..The third variable region (V3) of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 has been fingered as a critical determinant of the co-receptor choice...
  94. pmc Biological analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 R5 envelopes amplified from brain and lymph node tissues of AIDS patients with neuropathology reveals two distinct tropism phenotypes and identifies envelopes in the brain that confer an enhanced
    Paul J Peters
    Program in Molecular Medicine and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester MA 01605, USA
    J Virol 78:6915-26. 2004
    ..These envelopes are able to infect cells that express low levels of CD4 and/or CCR5 and may have adapted for replication in brain macrophages and microglia, which are known to express limited amounts of CD4...
  95. ncbi Apoptosis induced in synchronized human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells is detected after the peak of CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss and is dependent on the tropism of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein
    Victoria A Lawson
    AIDS Cellular Biology Laboratory, Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Virology 327:70-82. 2004
    ..This demonstrated that CD4+ T-lymphocyte loss was due to the gp120 region of Env and was replication independent...
  96. ncbi Potency of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 antibodies to inhibit the interaction of DC-SIGN with HIV-1 gp120
    Annemarie N Lekkerkerker
    Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Virology 329:465-76. 2004
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that DC-SIGN binding to gp120 enhanced CD4 binding, suggesting that DC-SIGN induces conformational changes in gp120, which may provide new targets for neutralizing antibodies...
  97. ncbi HIV gp41-induced apoptosis is mediated by caspase-3-dependent mitochondrial depolarization, which is inhibited by HIV protease inhibitor nelfinavir
    Himanshu Garg
    NCI Frederick, P O Box B, Building 469, Room 152, Miller Drive, Frederick, MD 21702 1201, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 79:351-62. 2006
    ..The Env glycoprotein has been implicated in apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells via gp120 binding to CD4/CXC chemokine ..
  98. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor switching: V1/V2 gain-of-fitness mutations compensate for V3 loss-of-fitness mutations
    C Pastore
    The Scripps Research Institute, Dept of Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Virol 80:750-8. 2006
    ..HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120) has five variable loops, of which three (V1/V2 and V3) influence the binding of either CCR5 or ..
  99. pmc Stable exposure of the coreceptor-binding site in a CD4-independent HIV-1 envelope protein
    T L Hoffman
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:6359-64. 1999
    ..To address the underlying mechanism, a cloned Env from the IIIBx swarm (8x) was used to produce soluble gp120...
  100. pmc Determinants of CD4 independence for a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variant map outside regions required for coreceptor specificity
    C C LaBranche
    Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA
    J Virol 73:10310-9. 1999
    ..Although infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) typically requires an interaction between the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), CD4, and a chemokine receptor, CD4-independent isolates of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus ..
  101. ncbi Maturation of HIV envelope glycoprotein precursors by cellular endoproteases
    M Moulard
    Department of Immunology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1469:121-32. 2000
    ..The envelope glycoprotein complex controls viral tropism and promotes the membrane fusion process...

Research Grants65

  1. Pathogenesis of Macrophage Tropic HIV-1
    Paul Gorry; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..We predict that enhanced M-tropism results from adaptive evolution of HIV-1 Env species during the course of infection to variants better able to utilize low levels of CD4 and/or coreceptor for ..
  2. HIV-1 gp120-induced Endothelial Cell Dysfunction
    GEORGETTE KANMOGNE; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ....
  3. NeuroAIDS in Cameroon: Molecular determinants
    GEORGETTE KANMOGNE; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..It will provide knowledge on the epidemiology of neuroAIDS in Cameroon and build the capacity for future neuroAIDS research and therapeutic testing in Cameroon. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  4. CC Chemokine Secretion to Protect Antigen-Specific CD4 T Cells from HIV
    Catarina E Hioe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e.. We hypothesize that To test these hypotheses, we will define a panel of helper epitopes from HIV-1 envelope (Env) gp120 and gp41 antigens and characterize them in terms of their ability to stimulate CD4 T cells to express ..
  5. Targeting Brain Macrophages by a novel lentiviral vector
    Yuntao Wu; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  6. SELECTING ENV TRIMERS IN HIV-VLP VACCINE PRESENTATIONS
    James Binley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Examples of non-functional forms of Env include monomeric gp120, uncleaved gp160 precursor and gp41 from which gp120 has dissociated...
  7. Determine the Transcriptional Activity of Non-integrated HIV-1 DNA
    Yuntao Wu; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Additionally, non-integrated viral DNA could serve as clinical markers for disease progression in certain situation. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  8. HIV Vaccines that Elicit Immune Responses to Virus Env
    Catarina E Hioe; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These studies will provide information about how to design more immunogenic forms of gp120, how to better stimulate gp120-specific CD4 T cell responses, and how to use the mutated gp120 constructs as HIV vaccines. ..
  9. Apoptotic Mediators in HIV Associated Dementia
    Gwenn Garden; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..How p53 may promote neurodegeneration through the modulation of caspase enzyme activity will also be studied. ..
  10. CASPASE ENZYMES & APOPTOSIS IN HIV INDUCED NEURAL INJURY
    Gwenn Garden; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  11. Olympus FV-1000 Confocal Microscope
    Gwenn Garden; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  12. HEROIN AIDS ENCEPHALOPATHY--NEUROPATHOGENESIS MECHANISMS
    Madhavan Nair; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Further studies will elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the immuno- and neuropathogenic effects of heroin use in HIV-l infection, and may yield novel therapies for the treatment of heroin using, HIV-infected patients. ..
  13. 7th International Symposium on NeuroVirology
    Brian Wigdahl; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..It is anticipated that approximately 350 individuals will attend the 7th International Symposium on NeuroVirology with more than 250 abstracts and greater than 50 oral presentations. [unreadable]..
  14. IMMUNOFOCUSING TO A NEUTRALIZING EPITOPE ON GP120
    Dennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Many features of HIV envelope glycoproteins (Env), the target of neutralizing antibodies, make this a difficult goal...
  15. DELETION MUTAGENESIS WITHIN NONCODING SEGMENTS OF HIV1
    Mark Wainberg; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..6. To determine whether these attenuated SIV constructs may protect against subsequent challenge with virulent forms of SIV and SIV/HIV hybrids. ..
  16. Opiate's Effects on the Inflammation and Cytotoxicity in HIV-1 Transgenic Rat
    SULIE CHANG; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  17. ANTIBODY EFFECTOR FUNCTION IN PROTECTION AGAINST HIV-1
    Dennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The results will help clarify how antibodies protect against HIV and may have implications for vaccine design and microbicide development. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  18. Immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection: Role of Methamphetamine
    Madhavan P Nair; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ....
  19. Cross-reactive HERV immunity to combat HIV-1 infection
    Donald E Mosier; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The result will be "cross-protective" immunity, as best exemplified by the eradication of smallpox by vaccination with the related cowpox virus. ..
  20. Mechanisms of Cocaine-Induced HIV-1 infection in NHA
    Jessica Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  21. Recombinant CCR5 Inhibitors for Topical Microbicides
    Donald Mosier; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  22. Proteolytic Antibody HIVcides
    Sudhir Paul; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These studies may identify proteolytic antibodies suitable for further development as a topical HIVcide. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  23. Neurotrophic factors and HIV-mediated neuronal injury
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 has been suggested to be one of the causal agents of neuronal loss observed in these patients...
  24. Augmentation of DNA Vaccine-Elicited Immunity to HIV/SIV
    DAN BAROUCH; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The long-term objectives of these studies are to develop novel vaccine regimens that recruit APCs to the site of inoculation in animal models and to consider advancing the most promising strategies into clinical trials. ..
  25. Modulation of Cystatins and Cathepsins in HIV-1 Neuropathogenesis
    Loyda M Melendez; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This study may elucidate novel targets for diagnosis and therapy. ..
  26. Molecular basis of neuronal dysfunction in AIDS
    Francesca Peruzzi; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The outcome of these studies will provide a new information on the pathways which are affected by HIV-1 Tat, and will assist to improve our effort for developing strategies against HIV-1 induced neuronal cell injury. ..
  27. Mechanism of Antibody Neutralization of Viruses
    Xinzhen Yang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..HIV-1 virions carry very few Env spikes, 10 on average, thus theoretically limiting the neutralization target size relative to other enveloped virus...
  28. Defensins in STI-mediated enhancement of HIV Infection
    Theresa Chang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..A longer term outcome could be the development of novel prevention strategies. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  29. Molecular and Cellular mechanisms of dendritic cell mediated HIV transmission
    David McDonald; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..We will identify the key players in the routing of the virus inside the DCs with the goal of devising new treatment strategies to prevent DC mediated infections. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  30. Single Chain Complex Vaccines and Protective Immunity
    Anthony Devico; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Vaccinated animals will then receive a rectal challenge with the R5 SHIV162P3 to assess protection. Aim 2 will be to characterize cellular and humoral anti-envelope responses in the animals in order to identify correlates of protection. ..
  31. Interaction of AIDS-associated microbes with radiation
    Ekaterina Dadachova; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Such knowledge will contribute to development of a novel therapeutic modality based on radioimmunotherapy for treatment of currently incurable or multidrug-resistant AIDS-associated opportunistic infections. ..
  32. BIOCHEMICAL MECHANISM OF HIV DNA INTEGRATION
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..abstract_text> ..
  33. Cytokine-Augmented DNA Vaccine-Elicited Immunity to HIV
    DAN BAROUCH; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Raphael Dolin, Dean for Clinical Programs, Harvard Medical School, will guide Dr. Barouch's development as an independent investigator. In addition, a committee of distinguished scientists will oversee his progress toward independence. ..
  34. Radioimmunotherapy of opportunistic infections
    Ekaterina Dadachova; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..It will also provide some understanding of the fundamentals of interactions between microorganisms and antibodies radiolabeled with particulate-emitting radioisotopes in vitro and in vivo. ..
  35. BCL2 AND BECLIN AND ALPHAVIRUS PATHOGENESIS
    Beth Levine; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The proposed studies will provide novel insights into host cellular mechanisms that regulate whether neurons live or die in responses to viral infection. ..
  36. Rhenium-188 therapy of NIS-expressing breast tumors
    Ekaterina Dadachova; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The long-term goal of this research is to contribute to the development of a novel cost-effective radionuclide therapy for treatment of breast cancer and, possibly, for other NIS-expressing cancers such as thyroid cancer. ..
  37. ANTI-HIV-1 ACTIVITY OF MANNAN-BINDING LECTIN
    Gregory Spear; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..3. Utilize inhibitors of glycosylation to enhance biological effects of MBL. Exarnine the interaction of MBL with anti-viral antibodies in mediating anti-viral effects. Deterrnine the interaction of HIV-1 with MBL in vivo. ..
  38. Imaging Technology for HIV Nuclear Import Inhibitors
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The imaging technology will greatly augment the value of the project by adding a superior method for analyzing the activity of the drugs. ..
  39. MACROPHAGE DERIVED CHEMOKINE AND HIV INFECTION
    Anthony Devico; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies promise to reveal a new mechanism for HIV suppression by chemokines, potentially involving a novel co-receptor, that is commonly related to the infection of macrophages as well as T cells. ..
  40. THE ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY OF ANTIBODIES TO A FILOVIRUS
    Dennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..activity of the human neutralizing monoclonal antibody KZ52; (2) to study the immunogenicity of the envelope glycoprotein GP by using various preparations of GP to immunize mice, rabbits and macaques and to select from human and ..
  41. Iron and Vitamin E in Childhood HIV-Associated Renal Disease
    Patricio Ray; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed studies should have a substantial impact on the goals of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine and NIH, according to the program announcement PA-02-124. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  42. Gamma Delta T Cells and Innate Immunity in AIDS
    C Pauza; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..These indirect mechanisms likely have substantial impact on disease progression, and additional work in this area will help to highlight special mechanisms that render HIV a difficult target for therapies and vaccines. ..
  43. COOPERATIVE HUMORAL & CELLULAR IMMUNITY AGAINST HIV/SIV
    Dennis Burton; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This will provide us with the first opportunity to look at the effects of potent human mAbs on established infection in the presence of functional T cells. ..
  44. Leukocyte recruitment by cyclophilinc-CD147 interaction
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This exploratory proposal is fully consistent with the goals of this PA as it extends our previous discovery toward new directions related to regulation of inflammatory responses. ..
  45. LEDGF-Integrase Structural Biology
    Alan Engelman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  46. Novel Animal Model System of AIDS-Kaposi Sarcoma
    Patricio Ray; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  47. CD4+ memory T cell recruitment by cyclophilin
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Therefore, the R03 mechanism appears highly appropriate. If proven, this hypothesis will serve as a foundation for a new research program, which might suggest novel approaches to treatment of HIV-1 infection. ..
  48. Antidepressants and Fibroblast Growth Factor
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Data from this proposal may help elucidate the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressants in affective disorders. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  49. Mechanism of HIV-1 inhibition by alpha-defensin-1
    Theresa Chang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  50. Role of fitness in HIV protease inhibitor resistance
    Ronald Swanstrom; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Finally, we will develop SIVsm as a resistance/fitness model to prepare for future studies that will allow a formal test of the contribution of attenuated replication capacity to reduced pathogenicity. ..
  51. AIDS encephalopathy and HIV disease: role of opioids
    Madhavan Nair; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  52. RECOMBINANT SINGLE DOMAIN & HYBRID PEPTIDASE ANTIBODIES
    Sudhir Paul; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  53. IONIC CONDUCTANCES AND CD4 LYMPHOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION
    Bruce Freedman; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The central hypothesis of this proposal is that the TCR-mediated calcium response regulates CD4plus lymphocyte differentiation, and that Kv channel regulate the secondary responses of differentiated cells to antigen. ..
  54. HIV Impairs Reverse Cholesterol Transport
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies are expected to yield sufficient information upon which to base a well-planned and rigorous series of further investigations. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  55. NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATION OF HIV 1 GENOME AS A DRUG TARGET
    Michael Bukrinsky; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Upon completion, these studies are expected to define potent anti-HIV compounds working through a novel mechanism different from that of any other currently used drug. ..
  56. Vaccinia Inhibition of gd T cells is a Immune Evasion Mechanism
    CHARLES PAUZA; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable]..
  57. HIV ENV & MACROPHAGE CHEMOKINE RECEPTOR IONIC SIGNALING
    Bruce Freedman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Our hypothesis is that HIV-1 Env initiates intracellular signals in macrophages through the co-receptors that lead to critical alterations in ..
  58. In Vitro Model of the Human Blood Brain Barrier to study
    Monique Stins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..We showed that HIV- I envelope glycoprotein gpl2O, which is shed into the circulation of HIV- I infected patients is able to activate HBMEC, e.g...
  59. beta-Amyloid Antibodies with Specific Proteolytic Activity
    Sudhir Paul; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Proteolytic anti-Abeta Abs capable of preventing the deposition of Abeta and cognitive decline would be candidates for passive immunotherapy of humans with AD. ..
  60. Receptor Binding of Neurotropic HIV Envelopes
    JULIO MARTIN GARCIA; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ....
  61. A longitudinal study of HIV-1 infection in Uganda
    MARCEL CURLIN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Preliminary work suggests a pattern of evolution within the envelope gene of the HIV-1 genome (env) during the course of progressive infection characterized by early expansion of genetic diversity and divergence, ..
  62. Binding of Epigallocatechin Gallate to CD4
    CHRISTINA NANCE; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Furthermore, knowledge of the binding mechanism is expected to provide the construct for future usage of EGCG in the clinical management of HIV-1 infection in concert with conventional antiretroviral therapy. ..