DRD4

Summary

Gene Symbol: DRD4
Description: dopamine receptor D4
Alias: D4DR, D(4) dopamine receptor, D(2C) dopamine receptor, dopamine D4 receptor, seven transmembrane helix receptor
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of Novelty Seeking
    R P Ebstein
    Research Laboratory, S Herzog Memorial Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
    Nat Genet 12:78-80. 1996
  2. ncbi Association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and approach-related personality traits: meta-analysis and new data
    Marcus R Munafo
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 63:197-206. 2008
  3. ncbi The impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase and dopamine D4 receptor genotypes on neurophysiological markers of performance monitoring
    Ulrike M Krämer
    Department of Neuropsychology, Otto von Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 27:14190-8. 2007
  4. ncbi Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    G J LaHoste
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California, Irvine 92717 4550, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 1:121-4. 1996
  5. ncbi Further evidence for a modulation of Novelty Seeking by DRD4 exon III, 5-HTTLPR, and COMT val/met variants
    A Strobel
    Mol Psychiatry 8:371-2. 2003
  6. doi Smoking status moderates the association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene VNTR polymorphism with selective processing of smoking-related cues
    Marcus R Munafo
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 12a Priory Road, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK
    Addict Biol 13:435-9. 2008
  7. pmc Assortative human pair-bonding for partner ancestry and allelic variation of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene
    Dan T A Eisenberg
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 5:194-202. 2010
  8. ncbi Long forms of the dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene VNTR are more prevalent in substance abusers: no interaction with functional alleles of the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) gene
    D J Vandenbergh
    Molecular Neurobiology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Am J Med Genet 96:678-83. 2000
  9. ncbi Family-based and case-control association studies of DRD4 and DAT1 polymorphisms in Chinese attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients suggest long repeats contribute to genetic risk for the disorder
    Qiujin Qian
    Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing 100 083, China
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 128:84-9. 2004
  10. ncbi DRD4 and novelty seeking: results of meta-analyses
    J A Schinka
    James A Haley Veteran Administration Medical Center, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA
    Am J Med Genet 114:643-8. 2002

Detail Information

Publications262 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of Novelty Seeking
    R P Ebstein
    Research Laboratory, S Herzog Memorial Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel
    Nat Genet 12:78-80. 1996
  2. ncbi Association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and approach-related personality traits: meta-analysis and new data
    Marcus R Munafo
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 63:197-206. 2008
    Two variants in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene have been reported to be associated with human approach-related traits such as novelty seeking and extraversion. However, the strength of evidence for this association remains uncertain.
  3. ncbi The impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase and dopamine D4 receptor genotypes on neurophysiological markers of performance monitoring
    Ulrike M Krämer
    Department of Neuropsychology, Otto von Guericke University, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany
    J Neurosci 27:14190-8. 2007
    ..dopaminergic functioning in the prefrontal cortex [catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158Met and dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-521] on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring...
  4. ncbi Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    G J LaHoste
    Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California, Irvine 92717 4550, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 1:121-4. 1996
    ..The dopamine D4 receptor, which is preferentially distributed in cortical and limbic regions of the brain, is currently of major ..
  5. ncbi Further evidence for a modulation of Novelty Seeking by DRD4 exon III, 5-HTTLPR, and COMT val/met variants
    A Strobel
    Mol Psychiatry 8:371-2. 2003
  6. doi Smoking status moderates the association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene VNTR polymorphism with selective processing of smoking-related cues
    Marcus R Munafo
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Bristol, 12a Priory Road, Bristol BS8 1TU, UK
    Addict Biol 13:435-9. 2008
    Recently, a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been reported to be associated with greater craving and more attention to smoking cues, following a cue-elicited craving ..
  7. pmc Assortative human pair-bonding for partner ancestry and allelic variation of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene
    Dan T A Eisenberg
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
    Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 5:194-202. 2010
    ..However, replications and extensions of this study are needed and the way ancestry/race is assessed must be carefully considered...
  8. ncbi Long forms of the dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene VNTR are more prevalent in substance abusers: no interaction with functional alleles of the catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) gene
    D J Vandenbergh
    Molecular Neurobiology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA
    Am J Med Genet 96:678-83. 2000
    ..We now show that the long form of the DRD4 gene is more frequent in individuals with high quantity/frequency of drug use compared to controls (chi(2) = 5...
  9. ncbi Family-based and case-control association studies of DRD4 and DAT1 polymorphisms in Chinese attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients suggest long repeats contribute to genetic risk for the disorder
    Qiujin Qian
    Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing 100 083, China
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 128:84-9. 2004
    ..have implicated the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms of two candidate genes, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1)...
  10. ncbi DRD4 and novelty seeking: results of meta-analyses
    J A Schinka
    James A Haley Veteran Administration Medical Center, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA
    Am J Med Genet 114:643-8. 2002
    Studies of the association between polymorphisms within and near the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and novelty seeking (NS) have produced inconsistent results, raising questions about the strength of the relationship and the ..
  11. pmc The dopamine D Receptor (DRD4) gene exon III polymorphism, problematic alcohol use and novelty seeking: direct and mediated genetic effects
    Lara A Ray
    Brown University, Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, USA
    Addict Biol 14:238-44. 2009
    ..study sought to integrate convergent lines of research on the associations among the dopamine D(4) receptor (DRD4) gene, novelty seeking and drinking behaviors with the overall goal of elucidating genetic influences on ..
  12. ncbi DRD4 VNTR polymorphism is associated with transient fMRI-BOLD responses to smoking cues
    F Joseph McClernon
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27708, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 194:433-41. 2007
    A dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism has been related to reactivity to smoking cues among smokers, but the effect of this genetic variation on brain responses to smoking cues has not been evaluated.
  13. pmc Interaction between the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism and proximal and distal environments in alcohol dependence during emerging and young adulthood
    Aesoon Park
    Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 120:585-95. 2011
    ..developmental approach, we characterized interaction between the dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism and developmentally specific environmental factors (childhood adversity, college/Greek ..
  14. ncbi Human personality dimensions of persistence and harm avoidance associated with DRD4 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms
    A Szekely
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Eotvos Lorand University, Izabella u 46, Budapest 1064, Hungary
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 126:106-10. 2004
    ..traits as measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) with two genetic polymorphisms, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene exon III repeat polymorphism (VNTR) and the serotonin transporter-linked functional ..
  15. ncbi Further evidence for the role of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene in attachment disorganization: interaction of the exon III 48-bp repeat and the -521 C/T promoter polymorphisms
    K Lakatos
    Social Development Group, Institute of Psychology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, POB 398, Hungary 1394
    Mol Psychiatry 7:27-31. 2002
    ..Here we report further evidence for the involvement of the dopamine D4 receptor gene in attachment disorganization...
  16. ncbi Allelic variants interaction of dopamine receptor D4 polymorphism correlate with personality traits in young Korean female population
    Heon Jeong Lee
    Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Anam Hospital, 126 1, 5 Ka, Anam Dong, Sungbuk Ku, Seoul 136 705, Korea
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 118:76-80. 2003
    Polymorphism in exon III of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been implicated to be associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking (NS)...
  17. ncbi High prevalence of rare dopamine receptor D4 alleles in children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
    D L Grady
    Department of Biological Chemistry, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 8:536-45. 2003
    Associations have been reported of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with both the personality trait of novelty seeking and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  18. ncbi A novel A/G SNP in the -615th position of the dopamine D4 receptor promoter region as a source of misgenotyping of the -616 C/G SNP
    Z Ronai
    Institute of Medical Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Pathobiochemistry, Semmelweis University, Puskin u 9, H 1088 Budapest, Hungary
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 126:74-8. 2004
    The polymorphic 5' upstream region of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene containing several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has recently become a focus of association studies in psychiatric genetics...
  19. pmc Genetic variation in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and smoking cessation: follow-up of a randomised clinical trial of transdermal nicotine patch
    S P David
    Brown Medical School Memorial Hospital of Rhode Island, Pawtucket, RI, USA
    Pharmacogenomics J 8:122-8. 2008
    ..variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) and a C to T transition at position -521 (C-521T)) in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) gene...
  20. pmc Dopamine D4 receptor gene associated with fairness preference in ultimatum game
    Songfa Zhong
    Department of Economics, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
    PLoS ONE 5:e13765. 2010
    ..The D4 receptor (DRD4) exon3 is a well-characterized functional polymorphism, which is known to be associated with attention deficit ..
  21. pmc Variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms of DRD4: re-evaluation of selection hypothesis and analysis of association with schizophrenia
    Eiji Hattori
    Laboratory for Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama, Japan
    Eur J Hum Genet 17:793-801. 2009
    ..have been reported between the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms in the exon 3 of dopamine D4 receptor gene gene and multiple psychiatric illnesses/traits...
  22. ncbi Association between the type 4 dopamine receptor gene polymorphism and novelty seeking
    Liisa Keltikangas-Jarvinen
    Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Psychosom Med 65:471-6. 2003
    Mixed results have been reported on the association between the type 4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) and the temperament dimension of novelty seeking. We tested this association by specifying the analysis to components of novelty seeking.
  23. doi Effects of an attachment-based intervention on daily cortisol moderated by dopamine receptor D4: a randomized control trial on 1- to 3-year-olds screened for externalizing behavior
    Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
    Centre for Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Dev Psychopathol 20:805-20. 2008
    ..in the intervention group showed lower cortisol levels, with a moderating role of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) VNTR exon III polymorphism...
  24. pmc Evidence of positive selection acting at the human dopamine receptor D4 gene locus
    Yuan Chun Ding
    Department of Biological Chemistry, College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:309-14. 2002
    Associations have been reported of the seven-repeat (7R) allele of the human dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the personality trait of novelty seeking...
  25. ncbi A meta-analysis of the association between DRD4 polymorphism and novelty seeking
    A N Kluger
    School of Business Administration, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mt Scopus, Jerusalem, Israel
    Mol Psychiatry 7:712-7. 2002
    A meta-analytical review of 20 studies (n = 3907) of the association between DRD4 polymorphism and novelty seeking suggests the following conclusions: (a) on average, there is no association between DRD4 polymorphism and novelty seeking (..
  26. ncbi Genetic polymorphisms and personality in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    M R Munafò
    Cancer Research UK GPRG, Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 8:471-84. 2003
    ..Pooled data using a fixed-effects model suggested significant associations between the 5HTT LPR, DRD4 c>t, DRD4 length, DRD2 A1/A2, DRD3 A1/A2 polymorphisms and personality traits...
  27. ncbi Dopamine receptor 4 (DRD4) 7-repeat allele predicts methylphenidate dose response in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pharmacogenetic study
    Stephanie Hamarman
    Department of Psychiatry, Stanley S Lamm Institute for Child Neurology and Developmental Medicine, Brooklyn, New York 11201, USA
    J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 14:564-74. 2004
    ..Since stimulant medications act through this system, we sought to determine if the 48 base pair VNTR polymorphism (7- repeat allele) of dopamine receptor gene DRD4 predicts methylphenidate responsiveness.
  28. ncbi Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) contribute to individual differences in human sexual behavior: desire, arousal and sexual function
    I Z Ben Zion
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Mol Psychiatry 11:782-6. 2006
    ..Recently, a specific dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) agonist was shown in rats to induce penile erection through a central mechanism...
  29. ncbi DRD4 exon 3 variants associated with delusional symptomatology in major psychoses: a study on 2,011 affected subjects
    A Serretti
    Department of Psychiatry, Vita Salute University, San Raffaele Institute, Milan, Italy
    Am J Med Genet 105:283-90. 2001
    We previously reported an association of DRD4 exon3 long allele variants with delusional symptomatology independently from diagnoses...
  30. ncbi The short DRD4 repeats confer risk to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a family-based design and impair performance on a continuous performance test (TOVA)
    I Manor
    Geha Mental Health Center, Petak Tikvah, Israel
    Mol Psychiatry 7:790-4. 2002
    One particular candidate gene, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), has been the focus of intense study regarding ADHD since the original investigation by La Hoste et al, an observation confirmed by a recent metaanalysis...
  31. ncbi Association of a duplicated repeat polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region of the DRD4 gene with novelty seeking
    Geraldine Rogers
    Department of Pathology, Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, PO Box 4345, Christchurch, New Zealand
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 126:95-8. 2004
    ..between a polymorphic 120 base pairs (bp) repeat that is located in the 5'-untranslated region of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and NS...
  32. doi Interaction effect of D4 dopamine receptor gene and serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism on the cortisol stress response
    D Armbruster
    Institute of Psychology II, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany
    Behav Neurosci 123:1288-95. 2009
    ..with fear- and anxiety-related behaviors, while a polymorphism in exon III of the D4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) has been linked to novelty seeking...
  33. doi Mothers' dopamine receptor polymorphism modulates the relation between infant fussiness and sensitive parenting
    Marsha Kaitz
    Department of Psychology, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
    Dev Psychobiol 52:149-57. 2010
    We determined whether the combination of the 48-bp variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine (DRD4) gene and infants' (fussy-difficult) temperament predicted parenting sensitivity...
  34. ncbi DRD4 promoter SNPs and gender effects on Extraversion in African Americans
    E B Bookman
    Department of Genetics and Human Genetics, Howard University, Washington, DC 20060, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 7:786-9. 2002
    There is strong evidence for genetic influences on personality traits. Interest in one such gene, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) grew after an exon III polymorphism was associated with Novelty Seeking and related measures of Extraversion...
  35. ncbi Nature and nurture in novelty seeking
    L Keltikangas-Jarvinen
    Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Mol Psychiatry 9:308-11. 2004
    ..over 14 years to determine whether the childhood environment moderated the effect of dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) polymorphism on novelty seeking (NS)...
  36. ncbi Genotypic interaction between DRD4 and DAT1 loci is a high risk factor for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Chilean families
    Ximena Carrasco
    Hospital Calvo Mackenna, Santiago, Chile
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 141:51-4. 2006
    ..out a family-based discordant sib-pair analysis to detect possible associations between dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and dopamine transporter 1 (DAT1) polymorphisms and ADHD in Chilean families...
  37. ncbi DRD4 gene variant associated with body mass: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health
    Guang Guo
    Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 3210, USA
    Hum Mutat 27:236-41. 2006
    In this article we report a novel statistically significant association between the D4.7/D4.7 genotype of the DRD4 gene and the body mass of black and Hispanic participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add ..
  38. ncbi Human dopamine D4 receptor gene: frequent occurrence of a null allele and observation of homozygosity
    M M Nöthen
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Germany
    Hum Mol Genet 3:2207-12. 1994
    We report a null mutation in the first exon of the human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene...
  39. ncbi Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D(4) receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
    S V Faraone
    Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Child Psychiatric Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston 02114, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 158:1052-7. 2001
    ..Although several studies have shown an association between ADHD and the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D(4) receptor gene (DRD4), several studies have not. Thus, the status of the ADHD-DRD4 association is uncertain.
  40. ncbi [Schizophrenia and dopamine D4 gene polymorphism in Chinese population: association analysis]
    Y Tang
    Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China
    Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 81:995-8. 2001
    To investigate the association of the 48 bp variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene exon III with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population.
  41. ncbi Ethnic heterogeneity in allele variation in the DRD4 gene in schizophrenia
    For Wey Lung
    Department of Psychiatry, Military Kaohsiung General Hospital, No 2 Chung Cheng 1st Rd, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Schizophr Res 57:239-45. 2002
    ..plus our own unpublished data to confirm and extend findings which indicate that the variation in the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene is best represented by a mixture of two different ethnic groups...
  42. pmc Mapping the genetic variation of executive attention onto brain activity
    Jin Fan
    Sackler Institute for Developmental Psychobiology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7406-11. 2003
    ..We previously reported that polymorphisms in dopamine receptor (DRD4) and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genes showed significant associations with efficiency of handling conflict as ..
  43. ncbi Olanzapine reduces craving for alcohol: a DRD4 VNTR polymorphism by pharmacotherapy interaction
    Kent E Hutchison
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 0345, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1882-8. 2003
    ..have suggested that olanzapine, a D4 antagonist, decreases craving after a priming dose of alcohol and that the DRD4 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism influences the expression of craving after a priming dose of ..
  44. ncbi Association of dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a high-risk community sample: a longitudinal study from birth to 11 years of age
    M El-Faddagh
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    J Neural Transm (Vienna) 111:883-9. 2004
    In recent years, a growing number of studies has focused on the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) as mediating the susceptibility to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  45. ncbi Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in Han Chinese children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): increased prevalence of the 2-repeat allele
    Patrick W L Leung
    Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 133:54-6. 2005
    There is an increased prevalence of the 7-repeat (7R) allele of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  46. ncbi Folding efficiency is rate-limiting in dopamine D4 receptor biogenesis
    Kathleen Van Craenenbroeck
    Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Center for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario M5T 1R8, Canada
    J Biol Chem 280:19350-7. 2005
    ..The D2 class of dopamine receptors (DRD2, -3, and -4) is the target for antipsychotic medication. DRD4 has been implicated in cognition, and genetic studies have found an association between a highly polymorphic repeat ..
  47. ncbi DRD4 gene variants and sustained attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): effects of associated alleles at the VNTR and -521 SNP
    Mark A Bellgrove
    Department of Psychology and Trinity College Institute of Neuroscience, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 136:81-6. 2005
    Associations between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and genetic variants within the dopamine D4 receptor gene have been much reported...
  48. ncbi Association between DRD4 gene and performance of children with ADHD in a test of sustained attention
    Christian Kieling
    Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre 90035 003, RS, Brazil
    Biol Psychiatry 60:1163-5. 2006
    ..The adoption of neuropsychological tests as endophenotypic measures can provide an increased sensitivity to specific dimensions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
  49. ncbi Dopamine D4 receptor gene and the -521C>T polymorphism of the upstream region of the dopamine D4 receptor gene in schizophrenia
    For Wey Lung
    Department of Psychiatry, Military Kaohsiung General Hospital, and Graduate Institute of Behavioral Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Psychiatr Genet 16:139-43. 2006
    The dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) is a candidate gene for increasing genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. A recent study found that a -521C>T promoter base pair change affects transcriptional regulation of the DRD4 gene...
  50. doi Association study of dopamine D2, D4 receptor gene, GABAA receptor beta subunit gene, serotonin transporter gene polymorphism with children of alcoholics in Korea: a preliminary study
    Kee Namkoong
    Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
    Alcohol 42:77-81. 2008
    ..In this study, we investigated the association of the polymorphism of the DRD2, Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4), GABRB3, 5-HTTLPR with the COAs...
  51. pmc Dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms and body composition in undernourished pastoralists: an exploration of nutrition indices among nomadic and recently settled Ariaal men of northern Kenya
    Dan T A Eisenberg
    Department of Anthropology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA
    BMC Evol Biol 8:173. 2008
    Minor alleles of the human dopamine receptor polymorphisms, DRD2/TaqI A and DRD4/48 bp, are related to decreased functioning and/or numbers of their respective receptors and have been shown to be correlated with body mass, height and food ..
  52. doi The dopamine D4 receptor activates intracellular platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta to stimulate ERK1/2
    Robin S Gill
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Cell Signal 22:285-90. 2010
    ..The DRD4-mediated ERK1/2 response was only partially blunted by PDGF-BB-mediated downregulation, but remained sensitive to ..
  53. ncbi Cloning of the gene for a human dopamine D4 receptor with high affinity for the antipsychotic clozapine
    H H Van Tol
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nature 350:610-4. 1991
    ..Recognition and characterization of this clozapine neuroleptic site may prove useful in the design of new types of drugs...
  54. ncbi Dopamine D4 receptors elevated in schizophrenia
    P Seeman
    Pharmacology Department, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nature 365:441-5. 1993
    ..This elevation, however, is only found in vivo using [11C]methylspiperone but not [11C]raclopride. The dopamine D4 receptor gene has not yet been excluded in schizophrenia because the 21 gene variants of D4 have not yet been tested...
  55. ncbi No association between a promoter dopamine D(4) receptor gene variant and schizophrenia
    E G Jönsson
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, SE 171, 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Am J Med Genet 105:525-8. 2001
    ..An association between a putative functional promoter polymorphism (-521C/T) in the dopamine D(4) receptor gene (DRD4) and schizophrenia was recently reported...
  56. ncbi The DRD4 VNTR polymorphism influences reactivity to smoking cues
    Kent E Hutchison
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309 0345, USA
    J Abnorm Psychol 111:134-43. 2002
    ..Given the potential role of dopamine in cue-elicited craving, the authors examined whether the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism is associated with cue-elicited craving for tobacco...
  57. ncbi D2 and D4 dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms and personality traits in a young Korean population
    Heon Jeong Lee
    Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 121:44-9. 2003
    The correlation between the D4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) and the D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) polymorphisms was investigated with personality traits...
  58. ncbi [Association studies of dopamine D4 receptor gene and dopamine transporter gene polymorphisms in Han Chinese patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder]
    Qiujin Qian
    Institute of Mental Health, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China
    Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao 35:412-8. 2003
    ..To investigate association of the 48 bp variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in the D4 receptor gene (DRD4) exon 3 and 40 bp VNTR polymorphism in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) 3' untranslated region with attention ..
  59. ncbi Association analysis of polymorphisms in the upstream region of the human dopamine D4 receptor gene in schizophrenia
    Qing He Xing
    Institute of Nutrition Science, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200031, Shanghai, China
    Schizophr Res 65:9-14. 2003
    Several studies have suggested that the transcriptional activity of the DRD4 gene may exert an important role in susceptibility to schizophrenia...
  60. ncbi Differential effects of DRD4 and DAT1 genotype on fronto-striatal gray matter volumes in a sample of subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, their unaffected siblings, and controls
    S Durston
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Rudolf Magnus Institute for Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
    Mol Psychiatry 10:678-85. 2005
    ..gene, a gene expressed predominantly in the basal ganglia, preferentially influences caudate volume, whereas the DRD4 gene, a gene expressed predominantly in the prefrontal cortex, preferentially influences prefrontal gray matter ..
  61. ncbi Genetic influences on quantity of alcohol consumed by adolescents and young adults
    Christian J Hopfer
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, Box C 268 35, Denver, CO 80262, USA
    Drug Alcohol Depend 78:187-93. 2005
    ..To examine genetic and environmental influences on drinking in a nationally representative study of genetically informative adolescents followed into young adulthood...
  62. ncbi Association between a dopamine-4 receptor polymorphism and blood pressure
    Srijan Sen
    Neuroscience Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA
    Am J Hypertens 18:1206-10. 2005
    ..The dopamine-4 receptor (DRD4) gene has a 16 amino acid (48 base pairs [bp]) repeat polymorphism located in exon 3 where a G-protein binding area ..
  63. ncbi Dopamine D4 receptor polymorphism modulates cue-elicited heroin craving in Chinese
    Chunhong Shao
    Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 186:185-90. 2006
    ..Dopamine pathway has been implicated in the mechanism underlying the cue-elicited craving for a variety of addictive substances...
  64. ncbi Gene-environment interaction of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and observed maternal insensitivity predicting externalizing behavior in preschoolers
    Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
    Center for Child and Family Studies, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    Dev Psychobiol 48:406-9. 2006
    Previous studies have related aggression and other externalizing problems in children to either dopamine D4 receptor polymorphisms or harsh and insensitive parenting...
  65. pmc Associations of the dopamine D4 receptor gene VNTR polymorphism with drug use in adolescent psychiatric inpatients
    John E McGeary
    Providence Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island, USA
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 86:401-6. 2007
    The VNTR polymorphism in the Dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) has been associated with differential urge for substances across multiple methodologies ranging from neuroimaging to assessment in the natural environment...
  66. ncbi Association between ADHD and smoking in adolescence: shared genetic, environmental and psychopathological factors
    M Laucht
    Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany
    J Neural Transm (Vienna) 114:1097-104. 2007
    ..Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses were obtained using standardized interviews. DNA was genotyped for the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene exon III polymorphism...
  67. ncbi Body mass, DRD4, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and family socioeconomic status: the add health study
    Guang Guo
    Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 3210, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 15:1199-206. 2007
    To investigate the joint role of the 48-base pair repeat polymorphism of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4) and environmental factors in body mass variation among an ethnically diverse sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults.
  68. ncbi Analysis of DRD4 and DAT polymorphisms and behavioral inhibition in healthy adults: implications for impulsivity
    Eliza Congdon
    Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 2500, USA
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147:27-32. 2008
    ..in a sample of healthy adults to investigate the influence of two candidate dopaminergic gene polymorphisms (DRD4 and DAT) on the endophenotype of impulsivity, which we operationalized as behavioral inhibition during the Stop-..
  69. pmc Genetic determinants of financial risk taking
    Camelia M Kuhnen
    Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 4:e4362. 2009
    ..neurotransmission and have been previously linked to emotional behavior, anxiety and addiction (5-HTTLPR and DRD4) are significant determinants of risk taking in investment decisions...
  70. doi Genetic variability in the dopamine system (dopamine receptor D4, catechol-O-methyltransferase) modulates neurophysiological responses to gains and losses
    Josep Marco-Pallares
    Department of Neuropsychology, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 66:154-61. 2009
    ..losses in normal human subjects are modulated as a function of two dopaminergic polymorphisms (catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT] valine [Val]158methionine [Met], dopamine receptor D4 [DRD4] single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] -521).
  71. pmc The DRD4 exon 3 VNTR polymorphism and addiction-related phenotypes: a review
    John McGeary
    Providence VA Medical Center and Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, United States
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 93:222-9. 2009
    In addition to the large literatures on associations of the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism with ADHD and personality traits, there is an emerging literature linking this variant to addiction and addiction-related phenotypes...
  72. doi Cognitive and emotional processing in high novelty seeking associated with the L-DRD4 genotype
    Panos Roussos
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
    Neuropsychologia 47:1654-9. 2009
    The personality trait of novelty seeking (NS) has been associated with the long variant of the dopamine D4 receptor (L-DRD4) VNTR polymorphism...
  73. doi Minor genetic variants of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) polymorphism are associated with novelty seeking in healthy Japanese subjects
    Shoko Tsuchimine
    Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, Japan
    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 33:1232-5. 2009
    Although an association between the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene and personality traits had been previously investigated, results from previous studies were not conclusive...
  74. doi The effects of COMT (Val108/158Met) and DRD4 (SNP -521) dopamine genotypes on brain activations related to valence and magnitude of rewards
    Estela Camara
    Department of Psicologia Basica, Faculty of Psychology, University of Barcelona, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
    Cereb Cortex 20:1985-96. 2010
    ..codon 158 polymorphism as well as homozygous for the C or T variant of the SNP -521 polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor. Participants took part in a gambling paradigm featuring unexpectedly high monetary gains and losses in ..
  75. doi A variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism in the dopamine D4 receptor gene affects social adaptation of alcohol use: investigation of a gene-environment interaction
    Helle Larsen
    Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Psychol Sci 21:1064-8. 2010
    ..Carrying the 7-repeat allele may increase the risk for heavy alcohol use or abuse in the company of heavy-drinking peers...
  76. doi Association study of polymorphisms in the promoter region of DRD4 with schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction
    J H Lai
    Key Laboratory of Ministry of Public Health for Forensic Science, Xi an Jiaotong University, Xi an 710061, China
    Brain Res 1359:227-32. 2010
    ..investigated the possible association between three functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction...
  77. doi Heritability of children's prosocial behavior and differential susceptibility to parenting by variation in the dopamine receptor D4 gene
    Ariel Knafo
    Psychology Department, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, Jerusalem 91905, Israel
    Dev Psychopathol 23:53-67. 2011
    ....
  78. doi L-DRD4 genotype not associated with sensation seeking, gambling performance and startle reactivity in adolescents: the TRAILS study
    Esther Nederhof
    University of Groningen, The Netherlands
    Neuropsychologia 49:1359-62. 2011
    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a length polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) was associated with approach related traits in adolescents...
  79. doi Is there a role for rare variants in DRD4 gene in the susceptibility for ADHD? Searching for an effect of allelic heterogeneity
    L Tovo-Rodrigues
    Departament of Genetics, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    Mol Psychiatry 17:520-6. 2012
    ..7-repeat (7R) allele in the 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) in the exon 3 at dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), others failed to replicate this finding...
  80. doi Effect of model choice in genetic association studies: DRD4 exon III VNTR and cigarette use in young adults
    Debjani Das
    John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia
    Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 156:346-51. 2011
    ..vast literature associating the highly polymorphic 48 bp VNTR in exon III of the human dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) with various behavioral phenotypes is the lack of concordance between studies...
  81. pdf Dopamine D4 receptor gene DRD4 and its association with psychiatric disorders
    Radek Ptacek
    Clinic of Psychiatry, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic
    Med Sci Monit 17:RA215-20. 2011
    ..b>DRD4 influences the postsynaptic action of dopamine and is implicated in many neurological processes, exhibits ..
  82. ncbi SH3 binding domains in the dopamine D4 receptor
    J Oldenhof
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Biochemistry 37:15726-36. 1998
    The dopamine D4 receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that belongs to the dopamine D2-like receptor family. Functionally, the D2-like receptors are characterized by their ability to inhibit adenylyl cyclase...
  83. ncbi Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the dopamine D4 receptor gene: evidence of association but no linkage in a UK sample
    J Mill
    Social, Genetic, and Development Psychiatry Research Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    Mol Psychiatry 6:440-4. 2001
    ..attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the 7-repeat allele of a 48 base-pair repeat in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4)...
  84. ncbi Transmission disequilibrium testing of dopamine-related candidate gene polymorphisms in ADHD: confirmation of association of ADHD with DRD4 and DRD5
    V Kustanovich
    Department of Human Genetics, Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, UCLA School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 9:711-7. 2004
    ..important for the synthesis, uptake, transport and receptor binding of dopamine in the etiology of ADHD, including DRD4, DAT1, DRD2, and DRD5...
  85. ncbi Pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT) replicates association and linkage between DRD4 and ADHD in multigenerational and extended pedigrees from a genetic isolate
    M Arcos-Burgos
    National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 1852, USA
    Mol Psychiatry 9:252-9. 2004
    Association/linkage between dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) polymorphisms and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been suggested by case-control- and nuclear-family-based studies...
  86. ncbi No association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) and -521 C/T promoter polymorphisms with infant attachment disorganization
    M J Bakermans-Kranenburg
    Attach Hum Dev 6:211-8; discussion 219-22. 2004
    ..genetic study Lakatos and colleagues found an association between attachment disorganization and the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphism, in particular in the presence of the -521 T allele in the promoter region of the ..
  87. ncbi A birth-season/DRD4 gene interaction predicts weight gain and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder: A seasonal thrifty phenotype hypothesis
    Robert D Levitan
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:2498-503. 2006
    ..recently described an association between the hypofunctional 7-repeat allele (7R) of the dopamine-4 receptor gene (DRD4), weight gain, and obesity in women with seasonal affective disorder (SAD)...
  88. ncbi Meta-analysis shows significant association between dopamine system genes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Dawei Li
    Bio X Life Science Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Hao Ran Building, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai 200030, China
    Hum Mol Genet 15:2276-84. 2006
    ..in the 3'-untranslated region of dopamine transporter gene (DAT1), a VNTR in exon 3 of dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4) and a microsatellite polymorphism located at 18.5 kb from the 5' end of dopamine receptor 5 gene (DRD5)...
  89. ncbi Age at first sexual intercourse, genes, and social context: evidence from twins and the dopamine D4 receptor gene
    Guang Guo
    Department of Sociology and Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 27599 3210, USA
    Demography 43:747-69. 2006
    ..between age at first sexual intercourse and the 48-bp repeat polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4)...
  90. pmc Moderators of naltrexone's effects on drinking, urge, and alcohol effects in non-treatment-seeking heavy drinkers in the natural environment
    Jennifer W Tidey
    Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, USA
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:58-66. 2008
    ..Polymorphisms in the D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene and the mu-opiate receptor (OPRM1) gene, family history of alcohol problems, age of onset of alcoholism and ..
  91. pmc Genes implicated in serotonergic and dopaminergic functioning predict BMI categories
    Bernard F Fuemmeler
    Department of Community and Family Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:348-55. 2008
    This study addressed the hypothesis that variation in genes associated with dopamine function (SLC6A3, DRD2, DRD4), serotonin function (SLC6A4, and regulation of monoamine levels (MAOA) may be predictive of BMI categories (obese and ..
  92. doi A role for the DRD4 exon III VNTR in modifying the association between nicotine dependence and neuroticism
    J A Ellis
    Environmental and Genetic Epidemiology Research, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Children s Hospital, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
    Nicotine Tob Res 13:64-9. 2011
    ..The 7-repeat allele of a Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism in DRD4 (and evolutionary derivatives 5, 6, and 8 repeats; 7R+) is associated with reduced dopamine receptor function...
  93. doi The interleukin 10 promoter haplotype ACA and the long-form variant of the DRD4 uVNTR polymorphism are associated with vulnerability to schizophrenia
    For Wey Lung
    Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Armed Forces General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
    Psychiatry Res 188:294-6. 2011
    ..of 934 patients with schizophrenia and 433 controls were genotyped for the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter and DRD4 uVNTR polymorphisms...
  94. doi COMT x DRD4 epistasis impacts prefrontal cortex function underlying response control
    Sebastian Heinzel
    Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy, University of Wurzburg, 97080 Wurzburg, Germany
    Cereb Cortex 23:1453-62. 2013
    ..Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; Val158Met) and DA D4-receptor (DRD4; 48 bp VNTR) genotypes were analyzed for effects on behavioral and neural correlates of prefrontal response control ..
  95. ncbi Multiple dopamine D4 receptor variants in the human population
    H H Van Tol
    Laboratory for Molecular Neurobiology, Clarke Institute of Psychiatry, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    Nature 358:149-52. 1992
    The dopamine D4 receptor structurally and pharmacologically resembles the dopamine D2 and D3 receptors...
  96. ncbi Identification of two novel polymorphisms and a rare deletion variant in the human dopamine D4 receptor gene
    S Cichon
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, Germany
    Psychiatr Genet 5:97-103. 1995
    ..to 42 coding for amino acids Ala-Ala-Leu-Val-Gly-Gly-Val located in the first transmembrane domain of the dopamine D4 receptor. The mutation was identified in a single individual suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic ..
  97. ncbi Association between Novelty Seeking and the -521 C/T polymorphism in the promoter region of the DRD4 gene
    Z Ronai
    Institute of Medical Chemistry, Molecular Biology and Pathobiochemistry, Semmelweis University, Budapest POB 260, 1444, Hungary
    Mol Psychiatry 6:35-8. 2001
    Association between the human personality trait 'Novelty Seeking' and the polymorphism of the DRD4 gene was first reported by Ebstein and Benjamin in 1996...
  98. ncbi The association of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the serotonin transporter promoter gene (5-HTTLPR) with temperament in 12-month-old infants
    J G Auerbach
    Department of Behavioral Sciences, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel
    J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42:777-83. 2001
    This study examined the association between two common polymorphisms, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) gene and temperament in 61 infants aged 12 months...
  99. ncbi The DRD4 VNTR polymorphism moderates craving after alcohol consumption
    Kent E Hutchison
    Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Boulder, 80309 0345, USA
    Health Psychol 21:139-46. 2002
    ..Because the D4 dopamine receptor gene, variable numbers of tandem repeats (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism putatively expresses functional differences in dopamine receptors, the present study tested ..
  100. ncbi No association between dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III and -521C/T polymorphism and novelty seeking
    A Strobel
    Mol Psychiatry 7:537-8. 2002
  101. ncbi Lack of association between polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene and personality
    Alexander Strobel
    Institute of Psychology II, Dresden University of Technology, D 01062 Dresden, Germany
    Neuropsychobiology 47:52-6. 2003
    Recent studies have suggested a role of two polymorphisms of the dopamine D(4) receptor gene (DRD4 exon III and -521C/T) in the modulation of personality traits such as "novelty seeking" or "extraversion", which are supposed to be ..

Research Grants69

  1. MOLECULAR BASIS OF SELECTED GXE EFFECTS IN COMBINED TYPE ADHD
    Alexandre A Todorov; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..in the presence of maternal smoking during pregnancy and certain genotypes of dopamine pathway genes (including the DRD4, dopamine transporter and CHRNA4 genes)...
  2. The Influence of Dopaminergic Genetic Variants on D2-like Receptors in Drinkers
    Amira K Brown; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..Met, DRD4 VNTR 7-repeat allele and DAT VNTR SCL39 9-repeat (vs...
  3. Behavioral Genetics of Mood-Induced Smoking
    KENNETH ALAN PERKINS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These include: dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4 VNTR), dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2 C957T SNP [rs6277] and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA SNP [rs1800497]), the ..
  4. Characterizing Two Distinct ADHD Neurobiologies with fMRI
    Michael C Stevens; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..cognitive domains, fMRI measurement of response inhibition and reward system brain activity, and genotyping DAT1, DRD4, plus several other dopamine-related genetic markers previously linked to ADHD...
  5. Polymorphisms Related to Dopamine Receptor Function and Smoking
    ERIC CHRISTIAN DONNY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..human laboratory procedures and functional neuroimaging to rigorously assess the impact of DRD2/ANKK1 Taq IA and DRD4 VNTR polymorphisms on the processing of both smoking and non-smoking rewards, and ultimately, the ability to ..
  6. Methylphenidate Use to Improve Outcomes in Geriatric Depression
    Helen Lavretsky; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..e., COMT, DAT1, DRD4) and sertonergic neurotransmission (i.e...
  7. Pharmacogenetics, Emotional Reactivity & Smoking
    Paul Cinciripini; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We will also characterize other potential markers for neurotransmitter function (DRD4, DAT, SERT, NET) in terms of differences in both baseline emotional reactivity, and response to pharmacotherapy vs: ..
  8. Bio-Behavioral Smoking Profiles in Mexican Origin Youth
    ANNA VICTORIA WILKINSON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..tendencies, participation in physical activities, and by completing additional genotyping on DRD2, DRD4, and the dopamine transporter gene...
  9. Medication Response in Children with Predominantly Inattentive Type ADHD
    TANYA ELIZABETH FROEHLICH; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..e., DRD4 and ADRA2A) on TvIPH response in children with PIT (n=120), examining both magnitude of symptom change and dose ..
  10. Genetic by Context Influence on Trajectories of Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors
    Vangie A Foshee; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA), the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT), the type 4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4), and a series of tag SNPs in a high LD region on chromosome 15 overlapping three nicotine receptors (CHRNA5-CHRNA3-..
  11. Christine L Larson; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..with greater amygdala and reduced rostral anterior cingulate activation during affective challenge and the DRD4 dopamine receptor gene has been linked with extinction learning...
  12. Multi-level Modular Agent-based Modeling for the Study of Childhood Obesity
    LAURETTE DUBE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..interactions influencing eating behaviors and body weight (BMI): (1) genetics (dopaminergic gene systems DRD2 DRD4);(2) neurobiology (dopamine-striatal and executive control functions);(3) psychological predisposition (restraint/ ..
  13. Multi-level Modular Agent-based Modeling for the Study of Childhood Obesity
    LAURETTE DUBE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..interactions influencing eating behaviors and body weight (BMI): (1) genetics (dopaminergic gene systems DRD2 DRD4);(2) neurobiology (dopamine-striatal and executive control functions);(3) psychological predisposition (restraint/ ..
  14. Smoking, Neurocircuitry, and Genes in Adult ADHD
    JEAN G GEHRICKE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Prefrontal-limbic brain activity will be examined via fMRI. Candidate genes will be the dopamine receptor (DRD4) and transporter (DAT1)...
  15. Kent A Kiehl; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..and matched healthy participants for investigation of dopamine transporter (SLC6A3) and receptor (DRD2 and DRD4) genotypes...
  16. Genetic Imaging of Working Memory and Interference Control in ADHD
    Larry J Seidman; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Several genes related to the neurotransmission of dopamine, including DRD4, SLC6A3 and SNAP-25, have been associated with ADHD via meta-analyses and animal models...
  17. Alcohol and HIV risk: Genetic and endophenotype approaches
    Christian S Hendershot; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Specific hypotheses concerning the moderating effect of the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism on alcohol-related sexual risk behavior will be evaluated...
  18. HIV prevention with adolescents: Neurocognitive deficits and treatment response
    Angela D Bryan; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..g., DRD4, Swanson et al., 2007) that may be associated with high risk behavior...
  19. Cumulative Genetic and Environmental Predictors of Youth Substance Use
    JENNIFER LYNN CARRANO; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..and empirically-supported genetic risk polymorphisms in the dopaminergic system (measured in the DRD2, DRD4, DAT1, and MAO-A genes);(b) cumulative environmental risk;and (c) cumulative environmental promotive factors on ..
  20. NATHANIEL ERIK ANDERSON; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Specifically, 5HTT, MAOA, DAT, DRD2, and DRD4 are featured prominently in this literature and impact monoaminergic signaling pathways responsible for modulating ..
  21. Kim Fromme; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..on a panel of 63 polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes related to cholinergic (CHRM2), opioid (OPRM1), dopaminergic (DRD4), serotonergic (SLC64A), and GABA- ergic (GABRA2) neurotransmission, plus an array of Ancestry Informative Markers (..
  22. Etiology of Adolescent Depression: Gene and Social Environment Interactions
    ERIN CATHLEEN DUNN; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..to investigate the following aims: (1) examine whether three genes found to be linked to depression (SLC6A4, DATI, DRD4) modify the association between proximal family environments (characterized by parental abuse and maltreatment of ..
  23. Genes, Gendered Contexts, and Substance Use Outcomes
    Edelyn Verona; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..various gene by environment (GxE) effects on drug use outcomes, by examining different monoamine genes (5HTT, DRD4, MAO-A) and incorporating gendered environmental risk factors that are not commonly included in studies of drug use ..
  24. Behavioral Genetics of Impulsivity
    Lynn Fairbanks; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..dopaminergic pathways (serotonin transporter, tryptophan hydroxylase, dopamine transporter and dopamine receptor DRD4 genes) for use in candidate gene linkage analysis...
  25. Stephen V Faraone; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..These studies have already produced several meta-analytic findings implicating the DRD4, DAT1, DRD5, SNAP-25, and 5HT1B genes in the etiology of ADHD...
  26. Genetic and Caregiving Effects on Disordered Attachment
    Karlen Lyons Ruth; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..demonstrated a genetic contribution to disorganized attachment behavior related to polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4)...
  27. GENETIC FACTORS IN THE MODULATION OF MOOD BY NICOTINE
    Paul Cinciripini; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..In exploratory analyses, we will also assess the modulating effects of other candidate genes (DRD4 and SLC6A3) on these relationships...
  28. SMOKING CESSATION, REWARD MOTIVATION AND IMPULSIVITY
    Jane Powell; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Smoking characteristics, dopamine-related genotypes (including DRD4, DRD2, and DATI), and personality measures relating to impulsivity (e.g...
  29. D4 Receptor-Mediated Effects of Methylphenidate in Mice
    David Grandy; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..subtypes, recent family and twin studies have revealed an association between an allele of the human DA D4R gene (DRD4.7) and ADHD. Anatomically, D4Rs are expressed in brain regions thought to be relevant to ADHD...
  30. MOLECULAR GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY STUDY OF ADHD/DRD4
    Robert Moyzis; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..We have chosen to examine Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the dopamine receptor gene DRD4. We first reported the association of ADHD with the D4...
  31. Searching for ADHD Susceptibility Genes
    Stephen V Faraone; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..a family- based association study to search for variants that result in increased susceptibility to ADHD for the DRD4, SLC6A3, DRD5, SNAP25 and HTR1B genes...
  32. EPIGENETIC MODEL OF ADOLESCENT CIGARETTE SMOKING
    Thomas Wills; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Blood samples will be genotyped for dopamine receptors DRD2 and DRD4, COMT, and serotonin transporter...
  33. Genetics of Executive Functions in ADHD & Non-ADHD
    Alysa Doyle; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Candidate genes to be examined are DRD4, DAT and DRD5 because of their neurobiologic relevance to ADHD and because meta-analyses of extant association ..
  34. Gene x Environment Interactions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    Holly Barnard; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The genotypes will include polymorphisms in the DRD2, DRD4, DRD5, DAT1, 5HTT, ADRA2C and DBH genes, with plans to add genotyping of polymorphisms in SNAP-25, HTR1B, ADRA2A, ..
  35. Gene x Environment Factors in Smoking Cessation
    Andrew Hyland; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..aim is to examine patterns of tobacco use in relation to genetic factors including the following genes: DRD2 and DRD4 (dopamine receptor); SLC6A3 (dopamine transporter); DBH, COMT, MAOA (dopamine metabolism); 5-HTT (serotonin ..
  36. Dopamine D4 Receptor in Sustained Attention
    Kehong Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..biology have revealed that such a genetic component is based partially upon the polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4)...
  37. Dopamine and ADHD: A Research Infrastructure Network
    Jeffrey Newcorn; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..testing, FMRI (adults and children) and PET (adults only), genotyping and sequencing of naturally occurring DAT and DRD4 variants, genetic manipulation in animals via "knock-out' and "knock-in" technology, and in vivo microdialysis...
  38. ADHD Phenotype Network: Animal Model to Clinical Trial
    Floyd Sallee; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The lead-exposed ADHD phenotype we propose as a prototype for determining the interaction of DA genotype (DRD4, DRD5, DAT) and environment producing ADHD symptoms and impairment...
  39. Molecular Genetics of Inattention in Australia
    THEODORE CICERO; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..sample as will single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of 15 well-documented candidate genes (including the DRD4, DRD5, DAT, SNAP-25 and CHRNA4 genes)...
  40. NICOTINE--ATTENTION, AFFECT, GENES, AND VULNERABILITY
    David Gilbert; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..During both phases, we will also genotype two specific dopamine receptors (DRD2 and DRD4)...
  41. Biobehavioral Model of Smoking By Russians with Cancer
    Paul Engstrom; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Most research in this area has assessed polymorphisms on dopamine receptor genes DRD2 and DRD4 and polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene SLC6A3...
  42. LINKAGE & ASSOCIATION IN OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
    Marco Grados; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..b) linkage using affected-relative pairs to 4 candidate gene regions (SLC6A4-serotonin transporter, COMT, MAOA, DRD4) using 3 SNP biallelic markers and 4 flanking microsatellite markers; c) complex segregation analysis to obtain the ..
  43. GENETICS OF SMOKING AND NICOTINE DEPENDENCE IN FAMILIES
    Ovide Pomerleau; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Genotypic information will consist of candidate-gene markers for smoking risk factors, DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3 [DAT1], and SLC6A4 [5-HTT] (polymorphisms associated with increased risk of depression, attention deficit, ..
  44. Effects of genetic variation in dopamine on language
    Jennifer Ganger; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..to test whether normal variation in genes that encode the brain's response to dopamine (including DRD2, DRD4, DAT, and COMT) is correlated with variation in performance on rule-based but not memory-based language processing ..
  45. DRD4 and Behavior in the Oldest-old
    Robert Moyzis; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Specifically, we will investigate the effect of DRD4 allelic variation on the personality trait of novelty-seeking and it's relationship to behavior/quality of ..
  46. A New Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Dependence: Olanzapine
    Kent E Hutchison; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e., cue-elicited craving for alcohol) and determine whether the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism is a marker for the effectiveness of olanzapine...
  47. Dependence of the Development of Attention on Genotype
    John Fossella; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..A study of several dopaminergic genes that have been associated with developmental disabilities showed that the DRD4 and MAOA genes showed associations with efficiency of executive attention and that frontal midline regions ..
  48. Progression of Craving and Addiction: Genetic Factors
    Kent Hutchison; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Our preliminary research has suggested that the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism influences cue-elicited craving for tobacco and alcohol and that this effect is specifically ..
  49. Neurotransmitter Genes in Personality Trait Variation
    Srijan Sen; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..with a study design that addresses the problem of previous studies b) explore a possible association between DRD4 and alcohol use and c) explore the possibility of a novel association between polymorphisms in the Brain-Derived ..
  50. Social and Demographic Context and Heritability
    Guang Guo; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  51. Age at First Sex, Genes, Religion, and Other Social and Demographic Context
    Guang Guo; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..These analyses will consider polymorphisms in SLC6A3, DRD4, DRD2, SLC6A4, & MAOA as well as measures of religiosity and other social and demographic context including ..
  52. TEST OF A DISSONANCE EATING DISORDER PREVENTION PROGRAM
    Eric Stice; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Thus, the proposed study should be the definitive test of this new promising eating disorder prevention program and should significantly advance our knowledge regarding the prevention of this pervasive psychiatric problem. ..
  53. Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents
    Eric Stice; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Thus, the proposed project should provide a rigorous evaluation of this promising brief prevention program and should advance knowledge regarding the prevention of this pernicious psychiatric problem. [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  54. ETIOLOGY OF BULIMIC PATHOLOGY--MULTIMETHOD INVESTIGATION
    Eric Stice; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Agras' and Taylor's labs, (2) learn state-of- the-art treatments for eating pathology and other adolescent psychopathology, (3) take courses in quantitative techniques, methodology, and ethics, and (4) receive training in grant writing. ..
  55. Eating Disorder Prevention Program Effectiveness Trial
    Eric Stice; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..g. will use random assignment, an attention control condition, blinded diagnostic interviews, multiple-reporter data, and a long-term follow-up). ..
  56. Risk and Maintenance Factors for Bulimic Pathology
    Eric Stice; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  57. Epidemiological Investigations of ADHD
    RICHARD TODD; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..abstract_text> ..
  58. RESPONSE VARIABILITY IN STIMULANT TREATMENT OF ADHD
    James McGough; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In addition to funding the candidate's transition to independent research the proposed study would also contribute to our knowledge of the basis of individual response to medication in psychiatric disorders. ..
  59. DISCRIMINATIVE STIMULUS EFFECTS OF NICOTINE
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ....
  60. SEX DIFFERENCES IN NICOTINE REINFORCEMENT: HUMAN/ANIMAL
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ....
  61. INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN NICOTINE SENSITIVITY IN HUMANS
    Kenneth Perkins; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..e., in nicotine-naive individuals). Results will provide directions for future research on vulnerability to tobacco dependence and for targeted efforts to prevent smoking onset. ..
  62. 2/5-The Psychiatric GWAS Consortium: Integrated & Coordinated GWAS Meta-Analyses
    Stephen Faraone; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Finally, the PGC proposes to abide as fully as possible with the NIH's GWAS data sharing policies and we provide a detailed data sharing plan and timetable. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  63. AN ECOGENETIC STUDY OF ADHD
    Stephen Faraone; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Furthermore, no studies have used an ecogenetic approach to sharpen the accuracy of risk prediction. ..
  64. Brown University Shared DNA Sequencer
    John McGeary; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  65. TESTING THE VALIDITY OF ADULT ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER
    Stephen Faraone; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Thus, if founded, we expect that the proposed work will lead to a program of research that can both clarify the nosological complexities of adult ADHD and clarify the nature of genes that are risk factors for the disorder. ..
  66. Analysis of an ADHD Whole Genome Association Scan
    Stephen Faraone; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..All genotype data generated by the GAIN whole genome association scan will be made available to the scientific community by GAIN as soon as the genotypes are completed. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  67. Validating Novel Familial Phenotypes of Drug Abuse
    Stephen Faraone; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..State of the art statistical techniques will be employed. ..
  68. Molecular Epidemiology of Alcoholism 2- Big Sibships
    Andrew Heath; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  69. Mutation Screening of Nicotine and Alcohol Dependence
    RICHARD TODD; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..