CYP2D6

Summary

Gene Symbol: CYP2D6
Description: cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily D member 6
Alias: CPD6, CYP2D, CYP2D7AP, CYP2D7BP, CYP2D7P2, CYP2D8P2, CYP2DL1, CYPIID6, P450-DB1, P450C2D, P450DB1, cytochrome P450 2D6, cholesterol 25-hydroxylase, cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6, cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 7 pseudogene 2, cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 8 pseudogene 2, cytochrome P450, subfamily II (debrisoquine, sparteine, etc., -metabolising), polypeptide 7 pseudogene 2, cytochrome P450, subfamily IID (debrisoquine, sparteine, etc., -metabolising), polypeptide 8 pseudogene 2, cytochrome P450, subfamily IID (debrisoquine, sparteine, etc., -metabolizing), polypeptide 6, cytochrome P450, subfamily IID (debrisoquine, sparteine, etc., -metabolizing)-like 1, cytochrome P450-DB1, debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase, flavoprotein-linked monooxygenase, microsomal monooxygenase, nonfunctional cytochrome P450 2D6, xenobiotic monooxygenase
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. doi Cytochrome P450 2D6 and outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy: results of a meta-analysis
    Bostjan Seruga
    Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9, Canada
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 122:609-17. 2010
  2. ncbi Quantitative effect of CYP2D6 genotype and inhibitors on tamoxifen metabolism: implication for optimization of breast cancer treatment
    Silvana Borges
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 46202, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:61-74. 2006
  3. ncbi Response to antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected individuals with allelic variants of the multidrug resistance transporter 1: a pharmacogenetics study
    Jacques Fellay
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Lancet 359:30-6. 2002
  4. ncbi Cytochrome P450 2D6.1 and cytochrome P450 2D6.10 differ in catalytic activity for multiple substrates
    Y Ramamoorthy
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Pharmacogenetics 11:477-87. 2001
  5. ncbi Association of genetic variation in tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes with overall survival and recurrence of disease in breast cancer patients
    Susan A Nowell
    Department of Epidemiology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 91:249-58. 2005
  6. ncbi Comparative metabolic capabilities and inhibitory profiles of CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10, and CYP2D6.17
    Hongwu Shen
    Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhangjiang Hi Tech Park, Shanghai, China
    Drug Metab Dispos 35:1292-300. 2007
  7. doi Systematic polymorphism analysis of the CYP2D6 gene in four different geographical Han populations in mainland China
    Shengying Qin
    Bio X Life Science Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Hao Ran Building, Shanghai 200030, China
    Genomics 92:152-8. 2008
  8. pmc Metabolism of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine by mitochondrion-targeted cytochrome P450 2D6: implications in Parkinson disease
    Prachi Bajpai
    Department of Animal Biology and Marie Lowe Center for Comparative Oncology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6046, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:4436-51. 2013
  9. ncbi CYP2D6 genotype, antidepressant use, and tamoxifen metabolism during adjuvant breast cancer treatment
    Yan Jin
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 97:30-9. 2005
  10. pmc Inherited amplification of an active gene in the cytochrome P450 CYP2D locus as a cause of ultrarapid metabolism of debrisoquine
    I Johansson
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:11825-9. 1993

Research Grants

  1. Pharmacogenetics of Methadone
    C Devane; Fiscal Year: 2003
  2. YVONNE SARAH LIN; Fiscal Year: 2014
  3. Mariana Cherner; Fiscal Year: 2014
  4. Tamoxifen biotransformation pathway pharmacogenomics
    MATTHEW PHILIP GOETZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. Mariana Cherner; Fiscal Year: 2015
  6. John A Zebala; Fiscal Year: 2016
  7. Targeted Pharmacologic Interventions for Autism
    Christopher J McDougle; Fiscal Year: 2011
  8. Impact CYP2D6 Phenotype on Response to Methamphetamine in Humans
    Alison Oliveto; Fiscal Year: 2013
  9. Genetics of Monooxygenase Activity & Methamphetamine-Related Brain Injury in HIV
    Mariana Cherner; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. CYTOCHROME P450 2D6 VARIANTS IN NEUROTOXICITY
    Timothy Macdonald; Fiscal Year: 1999

Detail Information

Publications224 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Cytochrome P450 2D6 and outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy: results of a meta-analysis
    Bostjan Seruga
    Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9, Canada
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 122:609-17. 2010
    Pharmacological evidence shows that cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) function is important in the conversion of tamoxifen to its active metabolites...
  2. ncbi Quantitative effect of CYP2D6 genotype and inhibitors on tamoxifen metabolism: implication for optimization of breast cancer treatment
    Silvana Borges
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 46202, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:61-74. 2006
    ..We conducted a prospective trial in 158 patients with breast cancer who were taking tamoxifen to further understand the effect of CYP2D6 genotype and concomitant medications on endoxifen plasma concentrations.
  3. ncbi Response to antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected individuals with allelic variants of the multidrug resistance transporter 1: a pharmacogenetics study
    Jacques Fellay
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Lancet 359:30-6. 2002
    ..This variability could have a genetic basis. We did a pharmacogenetics study to analyse the association between response to antiretroviral treatment and allelic variants of several genes...
  4. ncbi Cytochrome P450 2D6.1 and cytochrome P450 2D6.10 differ in catalytic activity for multiple substrates
    Y Ramamoorthy
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
    Pharmacogenetics 11:477-87. 2001
    b>CYP2D6 is involved in the metabolism of several classes of drugs, including tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and various amphetamines...
  5. ncbi Association of genetic variation in tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes with overall survival and recurrence of disease in breast cancer patients
    Susan A Nowell
    Department of Epidemiology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 91:249-58. 2005
    ..We examined functional polymorphisms in CYP2D6, the P450 catalyzing the formation of active tamoxifen metabolites, and UGT2B15, a Phase II enzyme facilitating ..
  6. ncbi Comparative metabolic capabilities and inhibitory profiles of CYP2D6.1, CYP2D6.10, and CYP2D6.17
    Hongwu Shen
    Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhangjiang Hi Tech Park, Shanghai, China
    Drug Metab Dispos 35:1292-300. 2007
    Polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene are a major cause of pharmacokinetic variability in human...
  7. doi Systematic polymorphism analysis of the CYP2D6 gene in four different geographical Han populations in mainland China
    Shengying Qin
    Bio X Life Science Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Hao Ran Building, Shanghai 200030, China
    Genomics 92:152-8. 2008
    In this study, we systematically screened the polymorphisms of the whole CYP2D6 gene in the populations of four different geographical locations in China, namely, Shanghai, Shantou, Shenyang, and Xi'an, using a sample of 100 subjects from ..
  8. pmc Metabolism of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine by mitochondrion-targeted cytochrome P450 2D6: implications in Parkinson disease
    Prachi Bajpai
    Department of Animal Biology and Marie Lowe Center for Comparative Oncology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 6046, USA
    J Biol Chem 288:4436-51. 2013
    ..Here, we demonstrate that mitochondrion-targeted human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), supported by mitochondrial adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, can efficiently catalyze the ..
  9. ncbi CYP2D6 genotype, antidepressant use, and tamoxifen metabolism during adjuvant breast cancer treatment
    Yan Jin
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 97:30-9. 2005
    ..We examined the effects of concomitant use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, which are CYP2D6 enzyme inhibitors commonly prescribed to treat hot flashes in women who take tamoxifen, and genotypes for genes ..
  10. pmc Inherited amplification of an active gene in the cytochrome P450 CYP2D locus as a cause of ultrarapid metabolism of debrisoquine
    I Johansson
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90:11825-9. 1993
    ..These individuals (poor metabolizers) carry deficient CYP2D6 gene variants and have an impaired metabolism of severely commonly used drugs...
  11. pmc A novel mutant variant of the CYP2D6 gene (CYP2D6*17) common in a black African population: association with diminished debrisoquine hydroxylase activity
    C Masimirembwa
    Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 42:713-9. 1996
    1. The debrisoquine hydroxylase (CYP2D6) is polymorphically distributed...
  12. pmc Methadone N-demethylation in human liver microsomes: lack of stereoselectivity and involvement of CYP3A4
    D J Foster
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005, Australia
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 47:403-12. 1999
    ..To investigate the kinetics of CYP-mediated N-demethylation of methadone in human liver microsomes, and examine the role of stereoselectivity and CYP isoforms involved...
  13. ncbi Expression, purification, biochemical characterization, and comparative function of human cytochrome P450 2D6.1, 2D6.2, 2D6.10, and 2D6.17 allelic isoforms
    Aiming Yu
    Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 9530, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 303:1291-300. 2002
    Polymorphism at the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) locus is one of the most widely known causes of pharmacogenetic variability in humans...
  14. ncbi The association of CYP2D6 *10 polymorphism with breast cancer risk and clinico-pathologic characteristics in Chinese women
    Hongxia Li
    Breast Centre, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Peking University School of Oncology, Beijing, PR China
    Acta Oncol 45:597-601. 2006
    A relatively little is known of whether CYP2D6 *10 (188 C to T) polymorphism mediates susceptibility to breast cancer...
  15. doi Effect of concomitant CYP2D6 inhibitor use and tamoxifen adherence on breast cancer recurrence in early-stage breast cancer
    Vincent O Dezentjé
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Toxicology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    J Clin Oncol 28:2423-9. 2010
    The use of cytochrome P450 2D6-inhibiting drugs (CYP2D6 inhibitors) during tamoxifen treatment leads to a decrease in plasma concentration of endoxifen, the major active tamoxifen metabolite...
  16. pmc Deletion of the entire cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 gene as a cause of impaired drug metabolism in poor metabolizers of the debrisoquine/sparteine polymorphism
    A Gaedigk
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany
    Am J Hum Genet 48:943-50. 1991
    ..The gene controlling the P450IID6 protein, CYP2D6, is located on the long arm of chromosome 22...
  17. ncbi Identification of a new variant CYP2D6 allele lacking the codon encoding Lys-281: possible association with the poor metabolizer phenotype
    R Tyndale
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Medical Sciences Center, Canada
    Pharmacogenetics 1:26-32. 1991
    A variant CYP2D6(C) P450 protein was found in a liver characterized by deficient microsomal metabolism of bufuralol and sparteine, prototypical substrates for the debrisoquine-sparteine drug oxidation polymorphism...
  18. ncbi Multiple mutations of the human cytochrome P450IID6 gene (CYP2D6) in poor metabolizers of debrisoquine. Study of the functional significance of individual mutations by expression of chimeric genes
    M Kagimoto
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Basel, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 265:17209-14. 1990
    ..Moreover, two mutant alleles of the P450IID6 gene locus (CYP2D6) were identified by restriction fragment length analysis to be associated with the PM phenotype...
  19. ncbi Localization of the CYP2D gene locus to human chromosome 22q13.1 by polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and linkage analysis
    A C Gough
    Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Human Genetic Resources, Clare Hall Laboratories, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom
    Genomics 15:430-2. 1993
    ..cell hybrids, in situ hybridization, and linkage mapping, we have been able to localize the cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 gene to chromosome 22 in the region q13.1...
  20. ncbi CYP2D6 genotyping strategy based on gene copy number determination by TaqMan real-time PCR
    Elke Schaeffeler
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart, Germany
    Hum Mutat 22:476-85. 2003
    The genetic polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP2D6, comprises at least 43 alleles giving rise to distinct drug metabolism phenotypes termed ultrarapid, extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizers...
  21. ncbi The impact of cytochrome P450 2D6 metabolism in women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen
    Matthew P Goetz
    Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 101:113-21. 2007
    Tamoxifen is biotransformed to the potent anti-estrogen, endoxifen, by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 enzyme. CYP2D6 genetic variation and inhibitors of the enzyme markedly reduce endoxifen plasma concentrations in tamoxifen-treated ..
  22. ncbi Isolation, sequence and genotyping of the drug metabolizer CYP2D6 gene in the Colombian population
    C A Isaza
    Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Pereira Technological University Medical School, Pereira, Colombia
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 22:695-705. 2000
    b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 monooxygenase metabolizes several commonly used drugs, particularly psychotropics and cardiovascular agents...
  23. ncbi CYP2D6 polymorphism, pesticide exposure, and Parkinson's disease
    Alexis Elbaz
    National Institute of Health and Medical Research INSERM Unit 360, Hopital de la Salpetriere, 47 Boulevard de l Hopital, 75651 Paris Cedex 13, France
    Ann Neurol 55:430-4. 2004
    ..characterized by a high prevalence of pesticide exposure and studied the joint effect of pesticide exposure and CYP2D6. Although they are based on a small group of subjects with the joint exposure, our findings are consistent with a ..
  24. ncbi Effects of CYP2D6 and SULT1A1 genotypes including SULT1A1 gene copy number on tamoxifen metabolism
    J Gjerde
    The Hormone Laboratory, Haukeland University Hospital, N 5021 Bergen
    Ann Oncol 19:56-61. 2008
    ..Clinical studies indicate that CYP2D6 and SULT1A1 genotypes are predictors for treatment response to tamoxifen...
  25. doi Errors and reproducibility of DNA array-based detection of allelic variants in ADME genes: PHARMAchip
    Elisabet Cuyàs
    Human Pharmacology and Clinical Neurosciences Research Group of the Neuropsychopharmacology Program, Institut Municipal d Investigació Mèdica IMIM Hospital del Mar, Parc de Recerca Biomedica de Barcelona, c Dr Aiguader 88 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    Pharmacogenomics 11:257-66. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of PHARMAchip for the genotyping of polymorphisms of genes associated with drug metabolism and response as an alternative to Jurilab Ltd's DrugMEt Test...
  26. doi Lack of any association between functionally significant CYP2D6 polymorphisms and clinical outcomes in early breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment
    In Hae Park
    Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan ro, Ilsandong gu, Goyang si, Gyeonggi do 410 769, Korea
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 131:455-61. 2012
    Active metabolites of tamoxifen are formed mainly by the action of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6)...
  27. doi CYP2D6 polymorphisms influence tamoxifen treatment outcomes in breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis
    Zhiyu Zeng
    Department of Geriatrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, Guangxi, China
    Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 72:287-303. 2013
    To evaluate whether breast cancer (BC) patients with CYP2D6 gene variation have different clinical tamoxifen (TAM) treatment outcomes to those with normal function of CYP2D6.
  28. pmc The human CYP2D locus associated with a common genetic defect in drug oxidation: a G1934----A base change in intron 3 of a mutant CYP2D6 allele results in an aberrant 3' splice recognition site
    N Hanioka
    Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Am J Hum Genet 47:994-1001. 1990
    ..These compounds are metabolized by a form of cytochrome P450, designated CYP2D6. Some 5%-10% of Caucasians are unable to metabolize debrisoquine, because of mutant alleles of CYP2D6...
  29. ncbi An inactive cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 allele containing a deletion and a base substitution
    A K Daly
    Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Medical School, UK
    Hum Genet 95:337-41. 1995
    The cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 is a polymorphic enzyme, for which 5%-10% of Caucasians (poor metabolizers) lack activity...
  30. ncbi Polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 gene in a European population: characterization of 48 mutations and 53 alleles, their frequencies and evolution
    D Marez
    Laboratoire de Biochimie et Biologie Moleculaire, Hopital Calmette, Centre Hospitalier Regional, Lille, France
    Pharmacogenetics 7:193-202. 1997
    The polymorphic cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 is involved in the metabolism of various drugs of wide therapeutic use and is a presumed susceptibility factor for certain environmentally-induced diseases...
  31. ncbi The molecular and enzyme kinetic basis for the diminished activity of the cytochrome P450 2D6.17 (CYP2D6.17) variant. Potential implications for CYP2D6 phenotyping studies and the clinical use of CYP2D6 substrate drugs in some African populations
    Tashinga E Bapiro
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Biochem Pharmacol 64:1387-98. 2002
    In this study, the basis for the diminished capacity of CYP2D6.17 to metabolise CYP2D6 substrate drugs and the possible implications this might have for CYP2D6 phenotyping studies and clinical use of substrate drugs were investigated in ..
  32. ncbi Allele and genotype frequencies of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in an Italian population
    Maria Gabriella Scordo
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacology, University of Messina, Torre Biologica, Policlinico Universitario, Via Consolare Valeria Gazzi, 98125 Messina, Italy
    Pharmacol Res 50:195-200. 2004
    ..we determined the genotype profile of a random Italian population in order to compare the CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 allele frequencies among Italians with previous findings in other Caucasian populations...
  33. ncbi Novel nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene
    Akiko Soyama
    Project Team for Pharmacogenetics, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan
    Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 19:313-9. 2004
    ..The nonsynonymous SNPs in the CYP2D6 gene were as follows: 73 C>T (Arg25Trp, exon 1), 972 C>T (Ala90Val, exon 2), 1611 T>A (Phe120Ile, exon 3),..
  34. ncbi Sequence-based analysis of the CYP2D6*36-CYP2D6*10 tandem-type arrangement, a major CYP2D6*10 haplotype in the Japanese population
    Akiko Soyama
    Project Team for Pharmacogenetics, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tokyo 158 8501, Japan
    Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 21:208-16. 2006
    The frequency of the CYP2D6*10 allele (100C>T) in the Japanese is relatively high (0.3-0.4), and the two *10-related genes, Ch1 (currently *10B) and Ch2 (*36), and their tandem arrangement Ch(2)-Ch(1) (*36-*10B) have been reported...
  35. ncbi ABCB1 and cytochrome P450 genotypes and phenotypes: influence on methadone plasma levels and response to treatment
    Severine Crettol
    Unite de Biochimie et Psychopharmacologie Clinique, Centre de Neurosciences Psychiatriques, Département de Psychiatrie Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Hôpital de Cery, Prilly Lausanne, Switzerland
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 80:668-81. 2006
    ..The in vivo implication of various cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and of P-glycoprotein on methadone kinetics is unclear. We aimed to thoroughly examine the genetic factors influencing methadone kinetics and response to treatment...
  36. ncbi CYP2D6 worldwide genetic variation shows high frequency of altered activity variants and no continental structure
    Johanna Sistonen
    Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 17:93-101. 2007
    b>CYP2D6, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is responsible for the metabolism of about 25% of the commonly prescribed drugs...
  37. ncbi Concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol enantiomers in different CYP2D6 genotypes
    U M Stamer
    Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 82:41-7. 2007
    The influence of CYP2D6 genotype and CYP2D6 inhibitors on enantiomeric plasma levels of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol as well as response to tramadol was investigated...
  38. ncbi Lack of influence of CYP2D6 genotype on the clearance of (R)-, (S)- and racemic-methadone
    J K Coller
    Discipline of Pharmacology, Medical School North, University of Adelaide, Australia
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 45:410-7. 2007
    To investigate the influence of CYP2D6 genotype on the oral clearance of (R)-, (S)- and rac-methadone.
  39. ncbi Breast cancer treatment outcome with adjuvant tamoxifen relative to patient CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes
    Werner Schroth
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Auerbachstrasse 112, D 70376 Stuttgart, Germany
    J Clin Oncol 25:5187-93. 2007
    ..We investigated the predictive value of genetic variants of CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and three other cytochrome P450 enzymes for tamoxifen treatment outcome.
  40. doi Pharmacokinetics/genotype associations for major cytochrome P450 enzymes in native and first- and third-generation Japanese populations: comparison with Korean, Chinese, and Caucasian populations
    S P Myrand
    Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Global Research and Development PGRD, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 84:347-61. 2008
    ..The mean metabolic ratios (MRs) for the four ethnic groups were similar except for a lower activity of CYP2D6 in Caucasians and CYP2C19 in Asians...
  41. doi Functional characterization of 17 CYP2D6 allelic variants (CYP2D6.2, 10, 14A-B, 18, 27, 36, 39, 47-51, 53-55, and 57)
    Kanako Sakuyama
    Department of Clinical Pharmacotherapeutics, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, 4 4 1 Komatsushima, Aoba ku, Sendai 981 8558, Japan
    Drug Metab Dispos 36:2460-7. 2008
    b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme of potential importance for the metabolism of drugs used clinically, and it exhibits genetic polymorphism with interindividual differences in metabolic activity...
  42. doi Polymorphisms in genes encoding drugs and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in a Brazilian population
    Vanessa da Silva Silveira
    Department of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
    Biomarkers 14:111-7. 2009
    ..enzyme activity has been associated with polymorphic alleles, we evaluated the frequency of the polymorphisms of CYP2D6, EPHX1 and NQO1 genes in 361 Brazilian individuals separated by ethnicity (European and African ancestry), using ..
  43. doi Discovery of novel functional variants and extensive evaluation of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms in Koreans
    Su Jun Lee
    Department of Pharmacology and PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University College of Medicine, 633 165 Gaegum Dong, Jin gu, Busan 614 735, Korea
    Drug Metab Dispos 37:1464-70. 2009
    Our objectives were to identify CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms in a Korean population, to compare the allele frequencies with those of other ethnic groups, and to evaluate variant-induced functional variations in dextromethorphan (DM) ..
  44. doi CYP2D6 polymorphism screening in a selected population of Spain (La Alpujarra): no effect of geographical isolation
    Ana Fernández-Santander
    Universidad Europea de Madrid, Villaviciosa de Odón, Spain
    Ann Hum Biol 37:267-73. 2010
    There is growing interest in the CYP2D6 gene because of its key role in the metabolism of numerous commonly used drugs.
  45. doi Efficacy of tamoxifen based on cytochrome P450 2D6, CYP2C19 and SULT1A1 genotype in the Italian Tamoxifen Prevention Trial
    D Serrano
    Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy
    Pharmacogenomics J 11:100-7. 2011
    ..We used the AmpliChip CYP450 Test to screen 33 alleles of CYP2D6 and 3 of CYP2C19...
  46. pmc Genetic polymorphisms and drug interactions modulating CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities have a major effect on oxycodone analgesic efficacy and safety
    C F Samer
    Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology and Multidisciplinary Pain Centre, Department of Anaesthesiology, Pharmacology and Intensive Care, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
    Br J Pharmacol 160:919-30. 2010
    The major drug-metabolizing enzymes for the oxidation of oxycodone are CYP2D6 and CYP3A...
  47. pmc Association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and outcomes in breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment
    Hyung Seok Park
    Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    J Korean Med Sci 26:1007-13. 2011
    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and outcomes in breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment. We evaluated the CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms in 766 breast cancer patients...
  48. doi CYP 2D6 polymorphism: a predictor of susceptibility and response to chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer
    Pragya Shukla
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, India
    J Cancer Res Ther 8:40-5. 2012
    ..Pharmacogenetic variability associated with the drug metabolizing enzyme systems is a major determinant of variations in these outcomes...
  49. doi Complexities of CYP2D6 gene analysis and interpretation
    Andrea Gaedigk
    Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Innovative Therapeutics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Int Rev Psychiatry 25:534-53. 2013
    b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) plays an important role in the metabolism and bioactivation of about 25% of clinically used drugs including many antidepressants, antipsychotics and opioids...
  50. pmc Distribution of CYP2D6 alleles and phenotypes in the Brazilian population
    Deise C Friedrich
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
    PLoS ONE 9:e110691. 2014
    The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications...
  51. pmc Major antigen of liver kidney microsomal autoantibodies in idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis is cytochrome P450db1
    M P Manns
    W M Keck Autoimmune Disease Center, La Jolla, California
    J Clin Invest 83:1066-72. 1989
    ..Determination of the sequence of HLD8.2 revealed that it encodes a recently described cytochrome P450db1. A bacterial fusion protein constructed from HLD8.2 proved to be a specific and sensitive diagnostic reagent...
  52. pmc The human debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D) locus: sequence and identification of the polymorphic CYP2D6 gene, a related gene, and a pseudogene
    S Kimura
    Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Am J Hum Genet 45:889-904. 1989
    ..The defect is caused by several mutant alleles of the CYP2D6 gene, two of which are detected in about 70% of PMs...
  53. ncbi Evidence for a new variant CYP2D6 allele CYP2D6J in a Japanese population associated with lower in vivo rates of sparteine metabolism
    H Yokota
    Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892
    Pharmacogenetics 3:256-63. 1993
    A group of Japanese subjects were phenotyped for CYP2D6 activity by administration of sparteine and determination of urine metabolic ratios (MR)...
  54. ncbi Genotyping of CYP2D6 in Parkinson's disease
    M Stefanovic
    Clinical Institute of Chemistry, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb and Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia
    Clin Chem Lab Med 38:929-34. 2000
    Parkinson's disease is characterized by progressive degradation of dopaminergic neurons. Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most investigated and highly polymorphic isoforms, which metabolizes many drugs and is also involved in ..
  55. ncbi Parkinson's disease, CYP2D6 polymorphism, and age
    H Payami
    Department of Neurology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland 97201, USA
    Neurology 56:1363-70. 2001
    PD may be caused by genetic susceptibility to neurotoxins. CYP2D6 is a candidate gene for PD because it regulates drug and toxin metabolism, but association studies have been inconsistent...
  56. ncbi CYP2D6*4 polymorphism is not associated with Parkinson's disease and has no protective role against Alzheimer's disease in the Korean population
    S I Woo
    Department of Psychiatry, Gyeongsang National University, College of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Chinju, Korea
    Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 55:373-7. 2001
    b>CYP2D6*4 polymorphism is reported to be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to have protective role against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Such findings are not extensively studied in the Oriental population, especially Koreans...
  57. ncbi Characterization of the CYP2D6*29 allele commonly present in a black Tanzanian population causing reduced catalytic activity
    A Wennerholm
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Pharmacogenetics 11:417-27. 2001
    Debrisoquine metabolism among Tanzanians has been found to be slower than expected from the CYP2D6 genotype...
  58. ncbi Involvement of CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and CYP2D6 in the metabolism of (R)- and (S)-methadone in vitro
    Jun Sheng Wang
    Laboratory of Drug Disposition and Pharmacogenetics, Institute of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, 67 President St, Suite 246 North, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 31:742-7. 2003
    ..But for the metabolism of (S)-methadone, the roles of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 appeared equal. Although CYP2D6 is involved in the metabolism of (R)- and (S)-methadone, its role was smaller compared with CYP3A4 and CYP2C8...
  59. ncbi Increased incidence of CYP2D6 gene duplication in patients with persistent mood disorders: ultrarapid metabolism of antidepressants as a cause of nonresponse. A pilot study
    Chiaki Kawanishi
    Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Technology, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 59:803-7. 2004
    Recent studies have revealed that genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P(450) 2D6 (CYP2D6) are among the factors that determine the interindividual differences in the metabolism and response to antidepressants...
  60. pmc Genotype of metabolic enzymes and the benefit of tamoxifen in postmenopausal breast cancer patients
    Pia Wegman
    Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of Cellbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping, Sweden
    Breast Cancer Res 7:R284-90. 2005
    ..b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) are polymorphic and are involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen...
  61. ncbi LKM1 autoantibodies in chronic hepatitis C infection: a case of molecular mimicry?
    Gabriel Marceau
    Service de Gastroenterologie, Hepatologie et nutrition, Hopital Sainte Justine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Hepatology 42:675-82. 2005
    Anti-liver-kidney microsome type 1 (LKM1) autoantibodies directed against the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) are considered specific markers of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis, but are also found in 5% of sera from patients chronically ..
  62. ncbi Characterization of variant alleles of cytochrome CYP2D6 in a Spanish population
    Anna Menoyo
    Servei de Genètica, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain
    Cell Biochem Funct 24:381-5. 2006
    The CYP2D6 gene codes for a P450 monooxygenase which is involved in the biotransformation of a large number of commonly prescribed drugs. Adverse drug effects and therapeutic failure can be related to abnormal CYP2D6 activity...
  63. ncbi Polymorphisms in the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor and CytochromeP4502D6 genes synergistically predict fluvoxamine-induced side effects in japanese depressed patients
    Yutaro Suzuki
    Department of Psychiatry, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan
    Neuropsychopharmacology 31:825-31. 2006
    ..associated with the side effects induced by fluvoxamine, since the plasma fluvoxamine concentration depends on a CYP2D6 gene polymorphism...
  64. ncbi Crystal structure of human cytochrome P450 2D6
    Paul Rowland
    Department of Discovery Research, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 281:7614-22. 2006
    b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 is a heme-containing enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of at least 20% of known drugs. Substrates of 2D6 typically contain a basic nitrogen and a planar aromatic ring...
  65. ncbi Pharmacogenetics of tamoxifen biotransformation is associated with clinical outcomes of efficacy and hot flashes
    Matthew P Goetz
    Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    J Clin Oncol 23:9312-8. 2005
    ..Polymorphisms in tamoxifen metabolizing genes affect the plasma concentration of tamoxifen metabolites, but their effect on clinical outcome is unknown...
  66. ncbi Impact of the CYP2D6 polymorphism on steady-state plasma concentrations and clinical outcome of donepezil in Alzheimer's disease patients
    Federica Varsaldi
    DISCAFF Department, Amedeo Avogadro University of Eastern Piedmont, Via Bovio, 6, 28100 Novara, Italy
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 62:721-6. 2006
    The aims of this study were to evaluate the impact of the CYP2D6 polymorphism on both the steady-state plasma concentrations (Cp) and the clinical outcome of donepezil, a selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of ..
  67. ncbi Association of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizer genotype with deficient patient satisfaction regarding methadone maintenance treatment
    José Pérez de Los Cobos
    Addictive Behaviors Unit Psychiatry Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Avda Sant Antoni M Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona, Spain
    Drug Alcohol Depend 89:190-4. 2007
    The activity of cytochrome P-450 enzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6) could be related to heroin-dependent patient satisfaction with methadone maintenance treatment...
  68. pmc Genetic variants of CYP3A5, CYP2D6, SULT1A1, UGT2B15 and tamoxifen response in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer
    Pia Wegman
    Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, 581 85 Linkoping, Sweden
    Breast Cancer Res 9:R7. 2007
    ..the prognostic and/or predictive value of functional polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 3A5 CYP3A5 (*3), CYP2D6 (*4), sulphotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1; *2) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15 (UGT2B15; *2) in tamoxifen-treated ..
  69. ncbi Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) gene locus heterogeneity: characterization of gene duplication events
    A Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, The Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 81:242-51. 2007
    Duplications and multiplications of active CYP2D6 genes can cause ultrarapid drug metabolism and lead to therapeutic failure. Multiple functional and non-functional duplication alleles have been further characterized...
  70. ncbi [Polymorphisms in the genes of cytochrome oxidase P450 2D6 (CYP2D6), paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) as risk factors for Parkinson's disease]
    Gordana Durić
    Zdravstveni Centar Uzice, Uzice, Srbija
    Vojnosanit Pregl 64:25-30. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the effects of polymorphisms in the genes of cytohrome P450 2D6(CYP2D6), paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE), as risk factors for PD.
  71. ncbi Genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6 influences susceptibility to papillary thyroid cancer
    Manuel C Lemos
    Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde CICS, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, 6200 506 Covilha, Portugal
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 67:180-3. 2007
    ..A common polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) results in lack of enzyme activity and has been associated with an altered susceptibility to ..
  72. ncbi Clinical implications of CYP2D6 genotypes predictive of tamoxifen pharmacokinetics in metastatic breast cancer
    Hyeong Seok Lim
    Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Madu1 dong, Ilsan gu, Goyang si, Gyeonggi Do, Republic of Korea
    J Clin Oncol 25:3837-45. 2007
    The CYP3A and CYP2D6 enzymes play a major role in converting tamoxifen to its active metabolites. CYP3A is a highly inducible enzyme, regulated mainly by pregnane X receptor (PXR)...
  73. ncbi The CYP2D6 activity score: translating genotype information into a qualitative measure of phenotype
    A Gaedigk
    Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Children s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri, USA
    Clin Pharmacol Ther 83:234-42. 2008
    Inferring CYP2D6 phenotype from genotype is increasingly challenging, considering the growing number of alleles and their range of activity...
  74. doi Impact of CYP2D6*10 on recurrence-free survival in breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen therapy
    Kazuma Kiyotani
    Laboratory for Pharmacogenetics, SNP Research Center, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research RIKEN, Tokyo 108 8639, Japan
    Cancer Sci 99:995-9. 2008
    The clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen may be influenced by the activity of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme because tamixifen is metabolized by CYP2D6 to its active forms of antiestrogenic metabolite, ..
  75. doi Association between CYP2D6 *10 genotype and survival of breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen treatment
    Y Xu
    Breast Center
    Ann Oncol 19:1423-9. 2008
    Human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotype may affect the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment in Caucasian women with breast cancer. The most common polymorphism of CYP2D6 in Chinese women is variant 10 (188 C to T).
  76. pmc Pharmacogenomic variation of CYP2D6 and the choice of optimal adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer: a modeling analysis
    Rinaa S Punglia
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 44 Binney St, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    J Natl Cancer Inst 100:642-8. 2008
    ..could be due to differences in tamoxifen metabolism because levels of endoxifen, the active tamoxifen metabolite, vary with the number of mutant alleles, including the *4 allele, of the gene encoding cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6).
  77. doi Naturalistic pharmacogenetic study of treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in European-Brazilian schizophrenics
    Fabiana B Kohlrausch
    Department of Genetics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 18:599-609. 2008
    This study aimed to explore the influence of variation in DRD2, DRD3, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 genes on treatment resistance to typical neuroleptics in a Brazilian sample of patients with schizophrenia.
  78. doi Impaired tamoxifen metabolism reduces survival in familial breast cancer patients
    William G Newman
    Department of Medical Genetics, St Mary s Hospital, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom
    Clin Cancer Res 14:5913-8. 2008
    ..of tamoxifen to its active metabolite, endoxifen, is reduced by low activity of the cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2D6. We examined the effect of reduced CYP2D6 activity on the response to tamoxifen in patients with familial early-..
  79. doi Pharmacogenetic variation at CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 at global and microgeographic scales
    Johanna Sistonen
    Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 19:170-9. 2009
    CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 belong to a subfamily of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, associated mainly with the metabolism of exogenous compounds in the human body...
  80. pmc Association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen-induced hot flashes in a prospective cohort
    N Lynn Henry
    Breast Oncology Program, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 117:571-5. 2009
    Women with reduced CYP2D6 activity have low endoxifen concentrations and likely worse long term benefits from tamoxifen. We investigated the association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen-induced hot flashes in a prospective cohort...
  81. doi Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 10 and CYP2C19 2, 3 are not associated with prognosis, endometrial thickness, or bone mineral density in Japanese breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen
    Masatsugu Okishiro
    Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
    Cancer 115:952-61. 2009
    ..the impact of the genetic polymorphisms cytochrome P450 (CYP) family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6, allele 10 (CYP2D6 10) and CYP family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19, allele 2, 3 (CYP2C19 2, 3) on disease recurrence in patients ..
  82. doi Polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and DNA repair genes and outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia
    Vanessa da Silva Silveira
    Department of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
    Leuk Res 33:898-901. 2009
    ..We investigated whether ALL outcome was related to polymorphisms in genes CYP2D6, MPO, EPHX1, NQO1, TS, XPD and XRCC1 in 95 consecutive ALL children by PCR or PCR-FRLP techniques...
  83. pmc Novel variants of major drug-metabolising enzyme genes in diverse African populations and their predicted functional effects
    Alice Matimba
    African Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology AiBST, Harare, Zimbabwe
    Hum Genomics 3:169-90. 2009
    ..The aim of the present study was to search for novel variants of CYP2C9 , CYP2C19 , CYP2D6 and NAT2 genes in Africans, with a particular focus on their prevalence in different populations, their relevance ..
  84. ncbi DNA microarray technology in the clinical environment: the AmpliChip CYP450 test for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotyping
    Jose de Leon
    Mental Health Research Center, Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY 40508, USA
    CNS Spectr 14:19-34. 2009
    ..The objectives of this study were to identify CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 alleles and phenotypes in a psychiatric patient population in Kentucky, and to describe practical ..
  85. doi Impact of CYP2D6 polymorphisms in tamoxifen adjuvant breast cancer treatment
    T Ramon Y Cajal
    Servicio de Oncologia Medica, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 119:33-8. 2010
    The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of CYP2D6 genotyping in predicting disease-free survival and toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant tamoxifen...
  86. doi The CYP2D6*4 polymorphism affects breast cancer survival in tamoxifen users
    Monique J Bijl
    Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, P O Box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Breast Cancer Res Treat 118:125-30. 2009
    b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) plays an important role in the formation of endoxifen, the active metabolite of tamoxifen...
  87. doi Novel DNA sequence variations of cytochrome P450 genes in the Han Chinese population
    Hui Hung Wang
    Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, No 128, Sec 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
    Pharmacogenomics 10:359-74. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the DNA sequence variations in 14 cytochrome P450 genes relevant to drug metabolism in the Han Chinese population...
  88. doi No association between CYP2D6*10 genotype and survival of node-negative Japanese breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant tamoxifen treatment
    Tatsuya Toyama
    Department of Oncology, Immunology and Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan
    Jpn J Clin Oncol 39:651-6. 2009
    The CYP2D6 enzyme plays a major role in converting tamoxifen to its active metabolites. We investigated whether there is an association between the CYP2D6*10 allele and clinical outcome in node-negative Japanese breast cancer patients.
  89. doi Frequency of five important CYP2D6 alleles within an Iranian population (Eastern Azerbaijan)
    Hamed Kouhi
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran
    Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 13:665-70. 2009
    ..Human CYP2D6 enzyme is claimed to be polymorphically expressed among different ethnic groups...
  90. doi Impact of the CYP2D6 genotype on post-operative intravenous oxycodone analgesia
    S T Zwisler
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark
    Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 54:232-40. 2010
    ..Oxycodone is metabolized to its active metabolite oxymorphone by O-demethylation via the polymorphic CYP2D6. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CYP2D6 poor metabolizers (PMs) yield the same analgesia post-..
  91. doi Molecular diversity at the CYP2D6 locus in healthy and schizophrenic southern Brazilians
    Fabiana B Kohlrausch
    Departamento de Genetica, Instituto de Biociencias, UFRGS, 91501 970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
    Pharmacogenomics 10:1457-66. 2009
    ..and frequency is required to effectively translate pharmacogenetics to the clinic and given the paucity of CYP2D6 data in the Brazilian population, the purpose of this research was to characterize CYP2D6 alleles and genotype ..
  92. pmc Association between CYP2D6 polymorphisms and outcomes among women with early stage breast cancer treated with tamoxifen
    Werner Schroth
    Dr Margarete Fischer Bosch Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Auerbachstrasse 112, 70376 Stuttgart, Germany
    JAMA 302:1429-36. 2009
    ..The formation of active metabolites is catalyzed by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme.
  93. doi Polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 2D6 and its clinical significance: part II
    Shu Feng Zhou
    School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Clin Pharmacokinet 48:761-804. 2009
    ..of this article discussed the potential functional importance of genetic mutations and alleles of the human cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene...
  94. pmc Significant effect of polymorphisms in CYP2D6 and ABCC2 on clinical outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer patients
    Kazuma Kiyotani
    Laboratories for Pharmacogenetics, Genotyping Development, and Medical Informatics, RIKEN Center for Genomic Medicine, Yokohama, Japan
    J Clin Oncol 28:1287-93. 2010
    ..We investigated relationships of polymorphisms in transporter genes and CYP2D6 to clinical outcome of patients receiving tamoxifen.
  95. pmc Association of polymorphism in cytochrome P450 2D6 and N-acetyltransferase-2 with Parkinson's disease
    Madhu Singh
    Developmental Toxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research formerly Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, CSIR, PO Box 80, MG Marg, Lucknow 226 001, India
    Dis Markers 28:87-93. 2010
    The present case-control study was carried out to investigate the association of polymorphism in cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and N-acteyltransferase-2 (NAT2}, that are involved in the metabolism and detoxification of chemicals causing ..
  96. doi Limited effects of frequent CYP2D6*36-*10 tandem duplication allele on in vivo dextromethorphan metabolism in a Japanese population
    Kazuma Kiyotani
    Laboratory for Pharmacogenetics, RIKEN Center for Medicine, Yokohama 230 0045, Japan
    Eur J Clin Pharmacol 66:1065-8. 2010
    although CYP2D6*36 was thought to be one of the alleles causing the poor metabolizer phenotype, several in vitro studies clarified that the enzyme produced by CYP2D6*36 showed enzymatic activities...
  97. pmc CYP2D6 gene variants: association with breast cancer specific survival in a cohort of breast cancer patients from the United Kingdom treated with adjuvant tamoxifen
    Jean E Abraham
    Department of Oncology, Strangeways Research Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 2 Worts Causeway, Cambridge, CB1 8RN, UK
    Breast Cancer Res 12:R64. 2010
    ..Its metabolism involves the phase I enzyme, cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6), encoded by the highly polymorphic CYP2D6 gene...
  98. doi Impact of CYP2D6*4 genotype on progression free survival in tamoxifen breast cancer treatment
    Julia Carolin Stingl
    Institute of Pharmacology of Natural Compounds and Clinical Pharmacology, University Ulm, Germany
    Curr Med Res Opin 26:2535-42. 2010
    The cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) polymorphism was reported to have a significant impact on outcome of tamoxifen treatment in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients...
  99. doi Role of cytochrome P4502D6 functional polymorphisms in the efficacy of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease
    Davide Seripa
    Geriatric Unit and Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Sciences, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo FG, Italy
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 21:225-30. 2011
    ..Functional polymorphisms in the CYP2D6 gene may affect enzyme activity and thus, the metabolism of donepezil...
  100. pmc Novel cytochrome P450-2D6 promoter sequence variations in hepatitis C positive and negative subjects
    Martin T Ho
    Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 7610, USA
    Ann Hepatol 10:327-32. 2011
    CYP2D6 is a liver enzyme that metabolizes more that 25% of drugs and thus may play a pivotal role in drug-drug interactions. The promoter sequences of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene could impact metabolic activity.
  101. doi Effect of CYP2D6 polymorphisms on breast cancer recurrence
    Phuong K Morrow
    Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer 118:1221-7. 2012
    Previous studies evaluating the effect of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) polymorphisms on outcomes of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy have been conflicting due to differences in study design, concomitant medications that alter CYP2D6 metabolism,..

Research Grants64

  1. Pharmacogenetics of Methadone
    C Devane; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..AGP), 5) the cortisol ratio as a surrogate marker of cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 activity, and 6) genotype of CYP2D6. A rigorous pharmacokinetic study of methadone disposition will be completed in healthy volunteer women and the ..
  2. YVONNE SARAH LIN; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is involved in the metabolism of approximately 25% of drugs used clinically several of which are commonly used in children of various ages...
  3. Mariana Cherner; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..applicant): Despite being the primary enzyme involved in methamphetamine (meth) metabolism, cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6) has not been studied (outside of our own work) with regard to its role in meth-related brain dysfunction...
  4. Tamoxifen biotransformation pathway pharmacogenomics
    MATTHEW PHILIP GOETZ; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..clinical practice, and demonstrated a significantly higher risk of disease recurrence for women with decreased CYP2D6 metabolism...
  5. Mariana Cherner; Fiscal Year: 2015
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Although cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6) is the primary enzyme responsible for methamphetamine (meth) metabolism, no work has been conducted outside of our group on its role in meth-related brain ..
  6. John A Zebala; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..M1 and its opioid activity is critically dependent on the polymorphic isoenzyme of the debrisoquine-type, cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Approximately 10% of Caucasians have a genotype that results in reduced activity of CYP2D6...
  7. Targeted Pharmacologic Interventions for Autism
    Christopher J McDougle; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..4. Genetic polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 2D6 gene will be analyzed to determine their relationship to response and tolerability to atomoxetine...
  8. Impact CYP2D6 Phenotype on Response to Methamphetamine in Humans
    Alison Oliveto; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..METH is initially metabolized via the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme system, which has several clinically relevant genetic variants;however, to our knowledge, ..
  9. Genetics of Monooxygenase Activity & Methamphetamine-Related Brain Injury in HIV
    Mariana Cherner; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6) and flavin-containing monooxygenase-3 FMO3 are involved in the oxidative metabolism of a number of psychoactive ..
  10. CYTOCHROME P450 2D6 VARIANTS IN NEUROTOXICITY
    Timothy Macdonald; Fiscal Year: 1999
    DESCRIPTION: (Adapted from Applicant's Abstract): The goal of this research is to elucidate the role that cytochrome P450 2D6 variants may play in neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases...
  11. Breath Test to Rapidly Evaluate 2D6 Enzyme Activity
    MITCHELL ZAKIN; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..b>Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is a clinically important pathway that has been the subject of intense investigation by virtue of ..
  12. Overcoming Tramadol Resistance In CYP2D6 Poor Metabolizers
    John A Zebala; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..M1 and its opioid activity is critically dependent on the polymorphic isoenzyme of the debrisoquine-type, cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Approximately 10% of Caucasians have a genotype that results in reduced activity of CYP2D6...
  13. Jermaine D Jones; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..s opioid receptor (OPRM1), proinflammatory cytokine (IL-12), and cytochrome P450 hepatic metabolizing enzymes (CYP2D6)...
  14. Pharmacogenetic Optimization of Analgesic Prescribing in Sickle Cell Disease
    Cheedy Jaja; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The study is designed to test the central hypothesis that deficient cytochrome CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 metabolic phenotypes and suboptimal analgesic prescribing are positively associated with ED visits in SCD patients;..
  15. ANDREW CLARK DEAN; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..in Meth abuse is the gene which codes for the enzyme Cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6 (CYP2D6). CYP2D6 is the primary enzyme to catalyze Meth metabolism by hydroxylation and demethylation...
  16. Todd C Skaar; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..that are associated with the documented developmental changes in a single, but critical drug-metabolizing enzyme: CYP2D6. 4) To use in vitro miRNA bioassays to functionally test the predicted miRNA regulation of CYP2D6 expression...
  17. Pharmacogenetics of Tamoxifen and Chemotherapies and Risk of Contralateral Breast
    Jane C Figueiredo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..We consider functional polymorphisms in the following key genes involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen (i.e., CYP2D6, CYP3A5, SULT1A1, UGT2B15) and drugs commonly used in polychemotherapy regimens for breast cancer including: ..
  18. URGE
    Jennifer Marie Wu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specifically, fesoterodine is metabolized by a well characterized cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme, CYP2D6. The CYP2D6 gene has several genetic variants, which result in different metabolizer statuses...
  19. Clinical Relevance of Cytochrome P450 Pharmacogenetics
    David Flockhart; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..area of cytochrome P450 pharmacogenetics, focusing on two enzymes known to possess clear functional polymorphisms: CYP2D6 and CYP3A5, and one where more research is necessary: CYP2B6...
  20. Laura L Furge; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..b>CYP2D6 is one of the significant drug metabolizing enzymes responsible for metabolism of ~25% of pharmaceutical compounds ..
  21. Hyunyoung Jeong; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Of note, E2 and PRG do not recapitulate all the changes in drug metabolism during pregnancy, such as induction of CYP2D6 activity. This indicates that as yet unknown factors regulate CYP expression during pregnancy...
  22. Jashvant D Unadkat; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..and transport of both illicit and licit drugs in the liver or the placenta, namely CYP3A (Project 1), CYP2B6 and CYP2D6 (Project 2), P-gp and BCRP (Project 3), and OCTS, NET, and SERT (Project 4)...
  23. JUNG JA P KIM; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Aim 2: To determine the crystal structures of complexes of CYPOR with CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP2B4, and human HO-1...
  24. Twist-Biosensor: Novel single molecule microarray technology for DNA genotyping
    ALFREDO ANDRES CELEDON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Our approach will be to build and characterize a prototype device able to genotype three SNPs of the CYP2D6 gene, which is the most prevalent genomic biomarker found on drug labels. About 13% of patients in the U.S...
  25. Drug Interactions and Bioavailability of Cranberry
    Jennifer Donovan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The CYP isoforms to be studied, CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP1A2, are involved in the metabolism of >80% of marketed prescription and over the counter medications...
  26. GUALBERTO RUANO; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..RCT) to compare outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated according to the patient's CYP2D6 genotype status versus empiric "standard-of- care" psychotropic therapy...
  27. Kathleen E Malone; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The enzymes that most affect the conversion of TAM to its key metabolites are CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, but other important phase I and II enzymes include CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2B6, CYP1B1, UGT2B7, ..
  28. Jianping Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Specifically, patients with schizophrenia will be recruited and genotyped for CYP2D6 prospectively...
  29. AGING AND CYP-MEDIATED HERB-DRUG INTERACTIONS
    Bill Gurley; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..John's wort modulate specific hepatic CYP activities (i.e. CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4); and (2) whether aging potentiates the risk of CYP-mediated herb-drug interactions...
  30. DIET AND GENETIC RISKS FOR LUNG CANCER
    Ruth Patterson; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..e., CYP2D6, CYP2El, CYP1Al, GSTM1, GSTT1, and EH)...
  31. Effects of Ginseng and Ginkgo on Drug Disposition in Man
    Aryeh Hurwitz; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..will be given a 4-drug probe cocktail: caffeine to study cytochrome P4501A2 (CYP1A2), dextromethorphan for CYP2D6, buspirone (and endogenous cortisol) for CYP3A and fexofenadine for P-glycoprotein...
  32. FUNCTIONAL EFFECTS OF ALLELIC VARIATION IN HUMAN CYP2D6
    ROBERT HAINING; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..b>CYP2D6 is polymorphically expressed in human liver, lung and brain, with over 17 distinct alleles described in the ..
  33. Breath Test for CYP2D6 Activity in Candidates for Tamoxifen Therapy
    David Rosen; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..successfully demonstrating the feasibility of a rapid, 13C labeled dextromethorphan (DM) breath test to assess CYP2D6 enzyme activity...
  34. CYTOCHROME P450 ACTIVITY IN THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE
    JAMES LEEDER; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..applicant's description): This proposal targets the ontogeny of one specific P450, the polymorphically expressed CYP2D6, that is responsible for the biotransformation of approximately 25% of drugs used therapeutically...
  35. DEXTROMETHORPHAN--STIMULUS PROPERTIES & PHARMACOKINETICS
    WILLIAM WESSINGER; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..S. population are deficient in the liver enzyme that catalyzes its metabolism (CYP2D6)...
  36. Effect of Diet on Drug Metabolism in Infants
    Michael Blake; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..infants being administered caffeine for the treatment of apnea, 2) Determine the relative activity of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 between healthy breast-fed and formula-fed infants receiving subtherapeutic doses of caffeine and dextromethorphan,..
  37. Narayan G Avadhani; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Results also show that mt-CYP2D6 may have activity for the metabolism of neurotoxin MPTP and other drugs...
  38. Modification of tamoxifen effectiveness by gene polymorphisms and other drugs
    Timothy Lash; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the rates of breast cancer recurrence in women (1) with genetic polymorphisms that reduce the enzyme function of CYP2D6, CYP3A5, or CYP2C9 to the rates of breast cancer recurrence in women who do not have these polymorphisms, (2) with ..
  39. Sheila A Weinmann; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..is metabolized to the active metabolite endoxifen through enzymatic activity of a P450 gene, cytochrome 2D6 (CYP2D6), which has numerous variant alleles...
  40. Hepatic Metabolism and Susceptibility to Ecstasy Toxicity
    Terrence J Monks; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In humans, the phase I (CYP2D6) and phase II (COMT) enzymes responsible for MDMA metabolism are polymorphic, exhibiting significant inter-..
  41. Development of DNA Sequence Data-Quality Metrics for Personal Genomics
    BRIAN THOMAS NAUGHTON; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..g., GBA), paralogs (e.g., SMN1, CYP2D6) or for unknown reasons (e.g., APOE)...
  42. Vanessa B Sheppard; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..In an exploratory aim we will evaluate whether CYP2D6 polymorphisms are associated with side-effects among women on Tamoxifen, and if so, determine effect size ..
  43. Drug Metabolism and Chronic Liver Disease
    Robert Branch; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Part 1: A cocktail to include: caffeine (CYP1A2), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), mephenytoin (CYP2C19), debrisoquine (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone (CYP2E1) and dapsone (acetylation)...
  44. Eric C Strain; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The use of tramadol in this way is novel and innovative. In addition, the study includes CYP2D6 genotyping of participants, which will be used as a stratification variable given tramadol's metabolism by ..
  45. Comparative effectiveness in genomic & personalized medicine for colon cancer
    Evelyn P Whitlock; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..apply to other cancer-related genetic or molecular tests in the future, such as UGT1A1 testing, or Oncotype DX and CYP2D6 testing for breast cancer...
  46. Human Brain CYP P450s and Psychoactive Drug Metabolism
    HENRY STROBEL; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Recently a unique CYP2D form has been identified as expressed only in the brain of 9 out of 20 cadaveric donors examined...
  47. PHARMACOGENETICS AND RESPONSE TO THERAPY IN OLDER ADULTS
    SUSAN HECKBERT; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Genotypes of the cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 which are associated with slow metabolizer status may confer increased susceptibility to the adverse ..
  48. Absorption and Metabolism of Oral Codeine in Mechanically Ventilated Neonates
    Jacob Aranda; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Genotype analysis will comprise CYP2D6 and UGT2B7, the two major enzymes involved in the biotransformation of codeine and morphine...
  49. DRUG METABOLIZING ENZYMES-RISK FACTORS IN BLADDER CANCER
    Robert Branch; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..drug metabolizing enzymes using the Pittsburgh cocktail that comprises CYP1A2 (caffeine), CYP2C19 (S-mephenytoin), CYP2D6 (debrisoquine), CYP2E1 (chlorzoxazone) and CYP3A4 (dapsone), as well as mRNA concentrations for each of these CYP ..
  50. Maintenance Treatment for Smoking Cessation
    Joel Killen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..These include CYP2D6, the serotonin transporter, the dopamine transporter, dopamine D2 receptor, and the dopamine D4 receptor...
  51. STUDIES ON THE HALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS
    ALAN POLAND; Fiscal Year: 1990
    ..The induction of the microsomal monooxygenase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, and other coordinately expressed enzymes, and the ..
  52. PHARMACOGENETIC RISK FACTORS IN DRUG ABUSE--CYP VARIANTS
    Edward Sellers; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..Abstract) The objective of this work is to determine the importance of human polymorphic cytochrome P450 CYP2D6, CYP2A6 and CYP2C19 drug metabolizing enzymes in drug abuse and dependence...
  53. MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PROSTATE CANCER
    Timothy Rebbeck; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..These genes include cytochromes P450 (e.g. CYP1A1, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1) and the mu or theta classes of the glutathione-S-transferases...
  54. CHEMOPREVENTIVE AGENTS AND HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450 IN VIVO
    GRANT WILKINSON; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..in vivo probes will be CYP1A2 (caffeine), CYP2A6 (coumarin), CYP2C9 (tolbutamide), CYP2C19 (mephenytoin), CYP2D6 (debrisoquine), CYP2E1(chlorzoxazone) and CYP3A(midazolam)...
  55. Pharmacogenetics in Tourette Syndrom
    Harvey Singer; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In this study, genetic variations of metabolizing enzymes (CYP2D6), dopamine & serotonin transporters (DAT, 5-HTT) dopamine receptors (D2, D3, D4) and serotonin receptors (..
  56. CONTINUATION PHARMACOTHERAPY FOR AGITATION OF DEMENTIA
    Bruce Pollock; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..with inter-individual allelic variations in the serotonin transporter promoter, serotonin 2N2C receptors, and CYP2D6 drug metabolizing isoenzyme...
  57. Cytochrome P450 Polymorphism and Nicotine Metabolism
    HUIJUN RING; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The family of CYP450 enzymes, including CYP2A6, CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, play a pivotal role in nicotine metabolism...
  58. GENETIC DIFFERENCES IN ALZHEIMERS CASES AND CONTROLS
    Walter Kukull; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..will examine whether AD association with solvents or cigarette smoking is modified by polymorphic forms of CYP1A1, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and GST-T1...
  59. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF METHAMPHETAMINE STEREOISOMERS
    John Mendelson; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..be attenuated by a SSRI; and 5) methamphetamine clearance can be competitively inhibited by agents metabolized by CYP2D6. Four separate studies will be carried out in human volunteers experienced with methamphetamine effects...
  60. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN CYP25
    Norman Bell; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The fact that porcine CYP25 cDNA has 83 percent homology with human CYP2D6 cDNA, a cytochrome P450 microsomal enzyme that plays a role in drug metabolism, has interfered with cloning of ..
  61. Genetic Profiles for Perioperative Applications
    ROBERT KWIATKOWSKI; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..in patient responses to neuromuscular blocking agents (BChE, RYR1, CACNA1S), opioids and antiarrythmics (CYP2D6), nitrous oxide (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, CBS), volatile anesthetics (RYR1, CACNA1s), and the risk and severity of sepsis ..
  62. ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF BREAST CANCER
    Jo Freudenheim; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..genetic polymorphisms of enzymes involved in carcinogen metabolism and detoxification (the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP1A1, and glutathione-S-transferase) will be examined...
  63. Development of an animal model for autoimmune hepatitis
    Urs Christen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..of AIH is the presence of liver/kidney microsomal antibodies that recognize the cytochrome P450 isoform 2D6 (CYP2D6) as a major target autoantigen...
  64. Vascular depression and magnetic stimulation therapy
    Robert Robinson; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..treatment patients will be genotyped using P450 oligonucleotide microassays for substitutions that affect the CYP2D6 enzyme, which metabolizes nortriptyline...