CD68

Summary

Gene Symbol: CD68
Description: CD68 molecule
Alias: GP110, LAMP4, SCARD1, macrosialin, CD68 antigen, macrophage antigen CD68, scavenger receptor class D, member 1
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. doi Role of proinflammatory CD68(+) mannose receptor(-) macrophages in peroxiredoxin-1 expression and in abdominal aortic aneurysms in humans
    Ludovic Boytard
    INSERM U744 IPL, 1 rue du Professeur Calmette, 59019 Lille Cedex, France
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 33:431-8. 2013
  2. ncbi Multiple Ets factors and interferon regulatory factor-4 modulate CD68 expression in a cell type-specific manner
    Dawn O'Reilly
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:21909-19. 2003
  3. doi Prognostic significance of macrophage infiltration in leiomyosarcomas
    Cheng Han Lee
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 14:1423-30. 2008
  4. ncbi Permissive factors for HIV-1 infection of macrophages
    S M Wahl
    National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4352, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 68:303-10. 2000
  5. ncbi Why do anal wounds heal adequately? A study of the local immunoinflammatory defense mechanisms
    Pedro Roberto de Paula
    Departamento de Medicina, Universidade de Taubate, Taubate, Brazil
    Dis Colon Rectum 47:1861-7. 2004
  6. ncbi Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic profiles of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma and bacillary angiomatosis
    M Kostianovsky
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107
    Ultrastruct Pathol 16:629-40. 1992
  7. ncbi Angiogenic process in bacillary angiomatosis
    M Kostianovsky
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Ultrastruct Pathol 18:349-55. 1994
  8. ncbi True synovial metaplasia of breast implant capsules: a light and electron microscopic study
    A D del Rosario
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Samuel S Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, New York, USA
    Ultrastruct Pathol 19:83-93. 1995
  9. ncbi Granulomatous slack skin in childhood
    F M Camacho
    Department of Medical-Surgical Dermatology, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain
    Pediatr Dermatol 14:204-8. 1997
  10. ncbi Inflammatory cells in full-thickness anulus injury in pigs. An experimental disc herniation animal model
    A Habtemariam
    Research Laboratory, Spine Research Unit, Clinical Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 23:524-9. 1998

Research Grants

  1. Ovarian hormone suppression and regulation of adipogenesis in women
    Wendy M Kohrt; Fiscal Year: 2012
  2. Role of macrophages in MSC-mediated recovery of hematopoiesis after irradiation
    Manoj M Pillai; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. IRA JAY GOLDBERG; Fiscal Year: 2016
  4. Richard M Pope; Fiscal Year: 2014
  5. Role of Memory T Cells in Pathogenesis and Resolution of Inflammatory Diseases
    Richard B Bankert; Fiscal Year: 2010
  6. Kathryn J Moore; Fiscal Year: 2016
  7. Annexin 2 in Lymphoproliferative Angiogenesis
    Jia Ruan; Fiscal Year: 2012
  8. A novel and improved mouse system for studying macrophage specific gene deletion
    Christian Stehlik; Fiscal Year: 2012
  9. Luis J Montaner; Fiscal Year: 2015
  10. Imaging of Cardiac Transplant Rejection
    Matthias Nahrendorf; Fiscal Year: 2013

Detail Information

Publications589 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Role of proinflammatory CD68(+) mannose receptor(-) macrophages in peroxiredoxin-1 expression and in abdominal aortic aneurysms in humans
    Ludovic Boytard
    INSERM U744 IPL, 1 rue du Professeur Calmette, 59019 Lille Cedex, France
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 33:431-8. 2013
    ..The purpose of the study was to determine which subpopulation of macrophages is present in AAAs and is involved in upregulation of PRDX-1 in aneurysmal disease...
  2. ncbi Multiple Ets factors and interferon regulatory factor-4 modulate CD68 expression in a cell type-specific manner
    Dawn O'Reilly
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 278:21909-19. 2003
    b>CD68 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in all cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage including monocytes and tissue resident macrophages...
  3. doi Prognostic significance of macrophage infiltration in leiomyosarcomas
    Cheng Han Lee
    Department of Pathology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 14:1423-30. 2008
    ..Their presence is associated with poor clinical outcome in a variety of epithelial malignancies. The aim of this study is to examine the prognostic significance of tumor-associated macrophages in sarcomas...
  4. ncbi Permissive factors for HIV-1 infection of macrophages
    S M Wahl
    National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 4352, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 68:303-10. 2000
    ..avium and HIV-1 paralleled these in vitro findings. Furthermore, reduction in viral burden is associated with treatment of infected or inflamed tissues, underscoring the link between immune activation and viral replication...
  5. ncbi Why do anal wounds heal adequately? A study of the local immunoinflammatory defense mechanisms
    Pedro Roberto de Paula
    Departamento de Medicina, Universidade de Taubate, Taubate, Brazil
    Dis Colon Rectum 47:1861-7. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to identify the tissue defense immunoinflammatory mechanisms present in the healing process of anal region wounds resulting from hemorrhoidectomy by the open technique...
  6. ncbi Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic profiles of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma and bacillary angiomatosis
    M Kostianovsky
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107
    Ultrastruct Pathol 16:629-40. 1992
    ..Macrophage/monocyte markers used were alpha 1-antitrypsin, lysosome, Kp1 (CD68), and polyclonal factor XIIIa...
  7. ncbi Angiogenic process in bacillary angiomatosis
    M Kostianovsky
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    Ultrastruct Pathol 18:349-55. 1994
    ..The macrophage/monocyte markers used were alpha 1-antitrypsin, lysosome, kp1 (CD68), and polyclonal factor XIIIa; these revealed a sprinkle of positive cells ranging from 10% to 20% of the cell ..
  8. ncbi True synovial metaplasia of breast implant capsules: a light and electron microscopic study
    A D del Rosario
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Samuel S Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, New York, USA
    Ultrastruct Pathol 19:83-93. 1995
    ..Focal positive immunoreactivity was observed with alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichromotrypsin, lysozyme, and CD68. No immunoreactivity was observed with cytokeratin AE1/AE3, S-100 protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, or basement ..
  9. ncbi Granulomatous slack skin in childhood
    F M Camacho
    Department of Medical-Surgical Dermatology, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain
    Pediatr Dermatol 14:204-8. 1997
    ..The phenotype of the giant cells was lysozyme positive, CD68+ and Mac387-...
  10. ncbi Inflammatory cells in full-thickness anulus injury in pigs. An experimental disc herniation animal model
    A Habtemariam
    Research Laboratory, Spine Research Unit, Clinical Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 23:524-9. 1998
    ..method) using monoclonal anti-human antibodies applicable to porcine tissues, T lymphocytes (CD3), and macrophages (CD68). Cells were graded as: -, absent; (+), only a few scattered cells; and +, abundant cells...
  11. ncbi Inflammatory cells in experimental intervertebral disc injury
    A Kanerva
    Research Laboratory, University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 22:2711-5. 1997
    ..T lymphocytes and macrophages were located immunohistochemically using CD3 and CD68 antibodies, respectively...
  12. ncbi Expression of adhesion molecules in the host response to colon carcinoma
    B F Banner
    Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester 01655, USA
    Ultrastruct Pathol 19:113-8. 1995
    ..were stained by a labeled avidin-biotin technique using primary antibodies to LFA-1 (CD11a), CD2, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, HLA-DR, ICAM-1 (CD54), and VCAM-1...
  13. ncbi Estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in macrophages and regulation of hepatocyte growth factor by ovarian steroids in women with endometriosis
    Khaleque Newaz Khan
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Sakamoto, Nagasaki City, Japan
    Hum Reprod 20:2004-13. 2005
    ..Therefore, we investigated the regulation of HGF by steroid hormones in isolated macrophages and stromal cells derived from women with or without endometriosis...
  14. doi Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor enhanced the resolution of venous thrombi
    Yi kuan Chen
    Department of General Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Science, Chongqing, Peoples Republic of China
    J Vasc Surg 47:1058-65. 2008
    ....
  15. ncbi Glomerular expression of C-C chemokines in different types of human crescentic glomerulonephritis
    Zhi Hong Liu
    Research Institute of Nephrology, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, PR China
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 18:1526-34. 2003
    ..We attempted to study the expression of C-C chemokines and their correlation with CD68-positive macrophages in crescentic glomeruli to investigate further their possible roles in crescent formation and ..
  16. ncbi A controlled immunohistochemical study of inflammatory cells in disc herniation tissue
    M Gronblad
    Spine Research Unit, University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 19:2744-51. 1994
    ..The presence and abundance of inflammatory cells was studied immunocytochemically in lumbar disc herniations (DH) and macroscopically normal discs for comparison...
  17. ncbi Concordant upregulation of type II-TGF-beta-receptor, the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor P27Kip1 and cyclin E in human atherosclerotic tissue: implications for lesion cellularity
    C Ihling
    Department of Pathology, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Atherosclerosis 144:7-14. 1999
    ..9 +/- 3.7% of the cells; P < 0.002 versus control) specimens and localized to nuclei of macrophages (CD68-positive), vascular smooth muscle cells (alpha-actin positive), T-lymphocytes (CD3-positive) as well as to the ..
  18. ncbi Histopathologic maturation of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a short period
    Y Kubota
    Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Fukuoka University, Japan
    Pediatr Dermatol 18:127-30. 2001
    ..The initial biopsy specimen showed a dense collection of small histiocytes as evidenced by CD68 staining without either lipidization or giant cell formation, admixed with a small number of lymphocytes...
  19. ncbi Immunolocalization of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1), its receptor (FGFR-1), and fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1) in inflammatory renal disease
    Michele Rossini
    Department of Pathology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
    Kidney Int 68:2621-8. 2005
    ....
  20. pmc The immunopathology of regression in benign lichenoid keratosis, keratoacanthoma and halo nevus
    Ilene B Bayer-Garner
    Department of Pathology, Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, Wisconsin 54449, USA
    Clin Med Res 2:89-97. 2004
    ..Regression is a phenomenon present in a variety of cutaneous lesions. It is likely that similar immunologic mechanisms explain the phenomenon of spontaneous regression occurring in the various lesions...
  21. ncbi The sialoadhesin (CD169) expressing a macrophage subset in human proliferative glomerulonephritis
    Yohei Ikezumi
    Division of Pediatrics, Niigata University Medical and Dental Hospital, Asahimachi Dori, Niigata 951 8510, Japan
    Nephrol Dial Transplant 20:2704-13. 2005
    ..The current study examined the significance of Sn+ macrophages in human proliferative glomerulonephritis...
  22. ncbi Reduction of epithelial dendritic cells in keratotic lesion of oral lichen planus
    M Mravak-Stipetic
    Department of Oral Medicine, University School of Dentistry, Zagreb, Croatia
    Coll Antropol 22:103-9. 1998
    ..Cells were identified immunocytochemically by the presence of antigen CD68 and labeled with acid phosphatase (AP) and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) techniques...
  23. ncbi Uterine (CD56+) natural killer cells recruitment: association with decidual reaction rather than embryo implantation
    Jaume Ordi
    Department of Anatomical Pathology, Hospital Clinic, Institut d Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Am J Reprod Immunol 55:369-77. 2006
    ....
  24. ncbi Brain macrophage surface marker expression with HIV-1 infection and drug abuse: a preliminary study
    Paul Shapshak
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Comprehensive Drug Research Center, University of Miami School of Medicine, FL 33136, USA
    J NeuroAIDS 2:37-50. 2002
    ..We studied the expression of macrophage surface markers CD11c, CD14, CD68, and HLA-DR and T cell surface markers CD4, and CD8.
  25. pmc Macrophage invasion contributes to degeneration of stria vascularis in Pendred syndrome mouse model
    Sairam V Jabba
    Anatomy and Physiology Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
    BMC Med 4:37. 2006
    ..Here we determine the time course of hyperpigmentation and marginal cell disorganization, and test the hypothesis that inflammation contributes to this tissue degeneration...
  26. ncbi Increased T-cell sinusoidal lymphocytosis in liver biopsies in patients with chronic hepatitis C and mixed cryoglobulinemia
    Susanne Carmack
    Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 8023, USA
    Am J Gastroenterol 103:705-11. 2008
    ..sections were submitted for immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies against CD3, CD20, CD4, CD8, and CD68. Sinusoidal lymphocytes were counted in 5 hpf (40x) on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, and on CD3 and CD20 ..
  27. doi Macrophage subsets in mechanical brain injury (MBI)--a contribution to timing of MBI based on immunohistochemical methods: a pilot study
    M Oehmichen
    Institute of Legal Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Germany
    Leg Med (Tokyo) 11:118-24. 2009
    ..5 years PTI were examined by light microscopy and macrophages were labeled with CD68-, HLA-D-, HAM-56-, LN-5-, and 25F9-antibodies, while hemosiderin was detected by a Prussian-blue reaction...
  28. ncbi The involvement of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammation in lumbar disc herniation
    Y Matsui
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Toyohashi Municipal Hospital, Aichi, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 23:863-8; discussion 868-9. 1998
    ..or toluidine blue (for detection of proteoglycans) or were immunostained with monoclonal antibodies (CD68), antihuman interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1) and antihuman stromelysin (MMP-3)...
  29. ncbi HIV-associated multinucleated giant cells in lymphoid tissue of the Waldeyer's ring: a detailed study
    J L Dargent
    Department of Pathology, CHU Saint Pierre ULB Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels, Belgium
    Mod Pathol 13:1293-9. 2000
    ..These antigens included CD68, the macrophage marker 3A5, major histocompatibility complex Class II, S-100 protein, CD1a, and CD83...
  30. ncbi Histological and immunohistochemical characterisation of conjunctival graft vs host disease following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation
    Claudia Auw-Haedrich
    Eye Hospital, Albert Ludwigs University, Killianstrasse 5, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
    Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 245:1001-7. 2007
    ..We additionally propose an adaptive histological classification for cnGvHD analogous to Lerner's GvHD skin classification for predicting patient survival...
  31. ncbi Drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis and pancytopenia: a puzzling association
    Philippe Paquet
    Department of Dermatopathology, University Hospital of Liege, Liege, Belgium
    Int J Mol Med 16:29-33. 2005
    ..Immunohistochemistry was used to identify activated T lymphocytes (CD45R0), monocyte-macrophages (Mac 387, CD68), DD (Factor XIIIa), and Langerhans cells (CD1a)...
  32. doi Evaluation of the profile of the immune cell infiltrate in lichen planus, discoid lupus erythematosus, and chronic dermatitis
    Mahmoud Rezk A Hussein
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Assuit University Hospitals, Assuit, Egypt
    Pathology 40:682-93. 2008
    ..This investigation tries to test this hypothesis and to characterise immune cells in interface dermatitis...
  33. doi Phenotypic characterization of the infiltrating immune cells in normal prostate, benign nodular prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma
    Mahmoud Rezk A Hussein
    Departments of Pathology and Urology, Assir Central Hospital and King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
    Exp Mol Pathol 86:108-13. 2009
    ..This study elaborates on the cells of the immune system present in normal prostate, benign nodular prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma...
  34. ncbi Apoptotic macrophage-derived foam cells of human atheromas are rich in iron and ferritin, suggesting iron-catalysed reactions to be involved in apoptosis
    X M Yuan
    Department of Pathology II and the Clinical Research Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, Sweden
    Free Radic Res 30:221-31. 1999
    ..Anti-CD68 (macrophage marker) and anti-ferritin antibodies were applied to serial sections of the arterial wall segments, ..
  35. doi Immune cell profile in invasive cholesteatomas: preliminary findings
    Mahmoud Rezk Abdelwahed Hussein
    Pathology Department, Assuit University Hospitals, Sohag University, Egypt
    Exp Mol Pathol 88:316-23. 2010
    ..Cholesteatoma consists of keratinizing squamous epithelium, granulation tissue and keratin plugs. The pathogenesis of cholesteatoma may be related to alterations in the stromal immune cell infiltrate...
  36. ncbi The immunology of fibrogenesis in alcoholic liver disease
    Antonio Chedid
    Department of Pathology, Rosalind Franklin University Chicago Medical School, North Chicago, Ill 60064, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 128:1230-8. 2004
    ..During the past decade, several animal models and human studies have attributed fibrogenesis in the liver to the role played by hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, endothelial cells, and especially stellate cells...
  37. pmc Beta-endorphin, Met-enkephalin and corresponding opioid receptors within synovium of patients with joint trauma, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis
    Shaaban A Mousa
    Klinik fur Anaesthesiologie und operative Intensivmedizin, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, D 12200 Berlin, Germany
    Ann Rheum Dis 66:871-9. 2007
    ..Therefore, the expression of beta-endorphin (END), Met-enkephalin (ENK), and mu and delta opioid receptors (ORs) within synovium of patients with joint trauma (JT), osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were examined...
  38. ncbi Complement activation upon binding of mannan-binding protein to HIV envelope glycoproteins
    J S Haurum
    Department of Immunology, University of Aarhus, Denmark
    AIDS 7:1307-13. 1993
    ..Retroviruses can activate the complement system in the absence of antibodies, and the purpose of this study was to examine whether the serum collection, mannan-binding protein (MBP), could mediate such complement activation...
  39. pmc Analysis of the mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate in the normal breast, benign proliferative breast disease, in situ and infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas: preliminary observations
    M R Hussein
    Department of Histopathology, Assir Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
    J Clin Pathol 59:972-7. 2006
    ..Mammary carcinogenesis is a multistep process entailing the transition from normal breast to benign proliferative breast disease (ductal hyperplasia) to ductal carcinoma in situ to infiltrating ductal carcinoma...
  40. ncbi Dermal dendrocytes in Dupuytren's disease: a link between the skin and pathogenesis?
    P Sugden
    Department of Pathological Sciences, University of Manchester, Salford, UK
    J Hand Surg Br 18:662-6. 1993
    ..Immunohistochemistry was performed using a panel of antibodies for factor XIIIa, macrophages (CD68 and MAC387) and MHC II...
  41. pmc Increased immunoendocrine cells in intestinal mucosa of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome patients 3 years after acute Shigella infection--an observation in a small case control study
    Hee Sun Kim
    Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
    Yonsei Med J 51:45-51. 2010
    ..We aimed to investigate histological changes in colon and rectum of PI-IBS subjects after long term period of infection...
  42. ncbi Detection of secondary thalamic degeneration after cortical infarction using cis-4-18F-fluoro-D-proline
    Karl Josef Langen
    Institute of Neuroscience and Biophysics Medicine, Research Centre Julich, D 52425 Julich, Germany
    J Nucl Med 48:1482-91. 2007
    ..In this study we explored the cerebral uptake of D-cis-(18)F-FPro in rats with focal cortical infarctions...
  43. doi Genomic instability in giant cell tumor of bone. A study of 52 cases using DNA ploidy, relocalization FISH, and array-CGH analysis
    Linda Moskovszky
    1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Ulloi ut 26, Budapest 1085, Hungary
    Genes Chromosomes Cancer 48:468-79. 2009
    ..A relocalization technique allowed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of CD68-negative neoplastic cells for numerical changes of chromosomes X, 3, 4, 6, 11, and telomeric association on 11p...
  44. ncbi Usefulness of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) maintenance therapy for patients with H. pylori-negative recurrent peptic ulcer after eradication therapy for H. pylori: pathophysiological characteristics of H. pylori-negative recurrent ulcer scars and beyond ac
    Tadashi Ohara
    Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Dental College, Chiba Hospital, Chiba, Japan
    Hepatogastroenterology 51:338-42. 2004
    ....
  45. ncbi Polymorphonuclear neutrophils and their mediators in gingival tissues from generalized aggressive periodontitis
    R K Liu
    Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, China
    J Periodontol 72:1545-53. 2001
    ..Since these PMN mediators were reported to be produced mainly by macrophages, the association between the expression of these PMN mediators and the distribution of macrophages was also investigated...
  46. ncbi Comparison of the distribution and numbers of antigen-presenting cells among T-lymphocyte-mediated dermatoses: CD1a+, factor XIIIa+, and CD68+ cells in eczematous dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen planus and graft-versus-host disease
    Masatoshi Deguchi
    Department of Dermatology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1 1 Seiryo machi, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8574, Japan
    Arch Dermatol Res 294:297-302. 2002
    ..the distribution and numbers of epidermal and dermal CD1a(+) dendritic cells (DCs), factor XIIIa(+) dermal DCs, and CD68(+) macrophages in five T-cell-mediated inflammatory skin diseases...
  47. doi Colocalization of C4d deposits/CD68+ macrophages in rheumatoid nodule and granuloma annulare: immunohistochemical evidence of a complement-mediated mechanism in fibrinoid necrosis
    M Knoess
    Department of Pathology, Institute of Pathology, Max Planck Strasse 18 20, Trier, Germany
    Pathol Res Pract 204:373-8. 2008
    ..In addition, all specimens were stained immunohistochemically with antibodies against CD68. Five GA and five RN were analyzed immunohistochemically with antibodies against C4d and CD68, and evaluated using ..
  48. pmc Progressive changes in microglia and macrophages in spinal cord and peripheral nerve in the transgenic rat model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    David J Graber
    Department of Pathology, Dartmouth Medical School, One Medical Center Drive, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756, USA
    J Neuroinflammation 7:8. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study was to gain further knowledge by characterizing the immunological changes during disease progression in the spinal cord and peripheral nerve using the more recently developed hmSOD1 rat transgenic model of ALS...
  49. ncbi Factor XIIIa positive dendritic cells are a major accessory cell population in the elicitation phase of DNCB-induced contact hypersensitivity
    E Jorundsson
    Department of Morphology, Genetics and Aquatic Biology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo
    Vet Immunol Immunopathol 71:99-113. 1999
    ..The other markers were less prominent, and whereas CD1+ cells and CD68+ cells showed a reaction pattern similar to the FXIIIa+ cells, CD14+ cells were found scattered predominantly in ..
  50. ncbi Immunocompetent cells in the pulp of human deciduous teeth
    A Angelova
    Developmental Oral Health Science, Department of Orofacial Development and Function, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 5 45 Yushima 1 chome, Bunkyo ku, 113 8549, Tokyo, Japan
    Arch Oral Biol 49:29-36. 2004
    ..stages of resorption were subjected to immunoperoxidase staining with the use of antibodies directed to HLA-DR, CD68, factor XIIIa and lymphocyte subsets...
  51. doi Lymphocyte sub-populations and non-Langerhans' cell monocytoid cells in pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis
    R Nagarjun Rao
    Department of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
    Pathol Res Pract 204:315-22. 2008
    ..with a panel of antibodies for lymphohistiocytic markers: CD1a, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD15, CD20, CD56, TIA-1, CD68-PGM1, Mac387, and mast cell tryptase. Double immunolabeling was performed with CD1a/Mac387...
  52. pmc Intervertebral disc cells as competent phagocytes in vitro: implications for cell death in disc degeneration
    Philip Jones
    Centre for Spinal Studies, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital NHS Trust, Oswestry, Shropshire, UK
    Arthritis Res Ther 10:R86. 2008
    ..We investigated whether disc cells themselves can be induced to become phagocytic and so have the ability to ingest and remove apoptotic disc cells, minimising the damage to their environment...
  53. doi Predictors for treatment success and expression of glucocorticoid receptor in giant cell arteritis and polymyalgia rheumatica
    Niko Braun
    Division of General Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Robert Bosch Hospital Stuttgart, 70376 Stuttgart, Germany
    J Rheumatol 36:2269-76. 2009
    ....
  54. ncbi Histologic evidence of absorption of sequestration-type herniated disc
    T Ito
    Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 21:230-4. 1996
    ..In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that many spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like cells were positive for CD68, a marker of macrophages. No fibrous scar formation was observed in any region...
  55. doi Does tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor infliximab induce histological resolution of pulmonary sarcoid granulomas?
    Nils Milman
    Department of Medicine B, Division of Lung Transplantation, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
    Clin Respir J 1:106-13. 2007
    ....
  56. ncbi CD40L (CD154) expression in human liver allografts during chronic ductopenic rejection
    A S Gaweco
    Liver Transplant Program, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153, USA
    Liver Transpl Surg 5:1-7. 1999
    ..001). The CD40L+ KCs and macrophages were shown to be CD68+ after immunohistochemical analysis of serial sections with anti-CD68 monoclonal antibody...
  57. ncbi Microglia in the human fetal spinal cord--patterns of distribution, morphology and phenotype
    P Rezaie
    Department of Neuropathology, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8JN, UK
    Brain Res Dev Brain Res 115:71-81. 1999
    ..development between 9 and 16 weeks of gestation, using conventional immunohistochemistry [CD11b; CD45; CD64; CD68; ICAM-1; ICAM-2; VCAM-1; PECAM; GFAP; vimentin] and lectin histochemistry [RCA-1]...
  58. ncbi Evaluation of micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes of cutaneous melanoma: higher diagnostic accuracy with Melan-A and MART-1 compared with S-100 protein and HMB-45
    V B Shidham
    Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pathology, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 25:1039-46. 2001
    ..b>CD68 (PG-M1) and hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections were also studied...
  59. ncbi deltaBAFF, a splice isoform of BAFF, opposes full-length BAFF activity in vivo in transgenic mouse models
    Amanda L Gavin
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Immunol 175:319-28. 2005
    ..To test these ideas we generated mice transgenic for DeltaBAFF under the control of human CD68 regulatory elements, which target expression to myeloid and dendritic cells...
  60. ncbi Verruciform xanthoma of the oral cavity: clinicopathological study relating to pathogenesis. Report of three cases
    Ji an Hu
    Department of Oral Pathology, Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
    APMIS 113:629-34. 2005
    ..This study showed that the foam cells were strongly positive for CD68 (KP1) and vimentin. Cytokeratin, PCNA and S-100 stained focally negative in foam cells...
  61. ncbi Transgenic mice expressing p450 aromatase as a model for male infertility associated with chronic inflammation in the testis
    Xiangdong Li
    Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FIN 20520 Turku, Finland
    Endocrinology 147:1271-7. 2006
    ..The macrophages were further shown to express high levels of CD68 (a monocyte/macrophage marker) and secrete TNFalpha, indicating strong activation, presumably by estrogen exposure...
  62. doi Lymph node melanosis in a patient with metastatic melanoma of unknown primary
    Patrick Malafronte
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Services, National Naval Medical Center, 8901 Wisconsin Ave, Bethesda, MD 20889 5600, USA
    Arch Pathol Lab Med 133:1332-4. 2009
    ..pigmented melanophages in the dermis, staining positive for immunohistochemical markers of histiocytic lineage (CD68) and negative for those of melanocytic lineage (S100, HMB-45, Melan-A)...
  63. ncbi Expression of RCAS1 protein in microglia/macrophages accompanying brain tumours. An immunofluorescence study
    Dariusz Adamek
    Department of Neuropathology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31 531 Krakow, Poland
    Folia Neuropathol 47:240-6. 2009
    ..brain by means of double immunofluorescence with antibodies against RCAS1 and respectively anti-GFAP (astroglia) or CD68 or CD74 (macrophages/microglia)...
  64. doi Haloperidol activates quiescent oligodendroglia precursor cells in the adult mouse brain
    Hanzhi Wang
    Department of Histology and Embryology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China
    Schizophr Res 119:164-74. 2010
    ..In addition, HAL treatment did not increase the numbers of GFAP- and CD68-expressing cells, suggesting that no gliosis and inflammatory responses occurred while the drug activated the ..
  65. doi C4d-positive renal allograft rejection biopsies in cyclosporine-treated patients: single-center incidence and outcome
    M Valente
    Department of Diagnostic Medical Sciences, Section of Special Pathology, Unit of Kidney and Pancreas Transplantation, University of Padua, Medical School, Padua, Italy
    Transplant Proc 42:2214-7. 2010
    ..with anti-C4d antibody was performed in 61/77 type I ATCMR biopsies: seven cases showed diffuse C4d positivity with CD68(+) monocytes in peritubular capillaries observed in all cases. Three cases showed focal C4d positivity...
  66. doi Reappraisal of aquaporin-4 astrocytopathy in Asian neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis patients
    Takeshi Matsuoka
    Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
    Brain Pathol 21:516-32. 2011
    ..We evaluated AQP4 expression relative to glial fibrillary acidic protein, extent of demyelination, lesion staging (CD68 staining for macrophages), and perivascular deposition of complement and immunoglobulin in 11 cases with NMO and ..
  67. pmc Myeloperoxidase and elastase are only expressed by neutrophils in normal and in inflamed liver
    Ahmad Amanzada
    Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Clinic of the Georg August University, Robert Koch Straße 40, 37075, Gottingen, Germany
    Histochem Cell Biol 135:305-15. 2011
    ..Sections of acutely injured human liver were prepared for MPO and CD68 immunofluorescence double staining...
  68. pmc "Stealth" melanoma cells in histology-negative sentinel lymph nodes
    Eijun Itakura
    Department of Pathology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA
    Am J Surg Pathol 35:1657-65. 2011
    ..Combination of RT in situ PCR for MART-1 mRNA and immunohistochemistry for CD68 revealed that CD68 was colocalized in some cells that expressed MART-1 mRNA...
  69. pmc Low macrophage accumulation in skeletal muscle of obese type 2 diabetics and elderly subjects
    Charmaine S Tam
    Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 20:1530-3. 2012
    ..a non-exercising control group) (Study 1) and in young vs. elderly subjects (Study 2). In both studies, CD68(+) macrophages in vastus lateralis biopsies were determined by immunohistochemistry and inflammation gene ..
  70. doi Ependymoma with "granular cell" features: report of two cases
    Masayuki Shintaku
    Department of Pathology, Osaka Red Cross Hospital, Tennoji, Osaka, Japan
    Neuropathology 32:654-61. 2012
    ..granules in both tumors were immunoreactive for GFAP and ubiquitin, but not for epithelial membrane antigen, CD68 or mitochondria...
  71. ncbi S100, CD68, and MHC class II molecule expression in cervical high- and low-grade HPV-induced lesions
    Fernanda Cassandri
    Programa de Pós Graduação em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS
    Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 45:3-8. 2012
    ..This study aimed to detect S100, CD68, and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules in cervical uterine epithelial samples in ..
  72. ncbi A 13-year-old female with Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma; the first case diagnosed at Siriraj Hospital
    Suchanan Hanamornroongruang
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University Bangkok, Thailand
    J Med Assoc Thai 95:964-8. 2012
    ..Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells marked with TFE3, focally marked with smooth muscle actin, HMB-45, CD68, progesterone receptor (PR) and CD10 but did not mark with epithelial markers (AE1/AE3, EMA and CAM5...
  73. pmc Increase in tumor-associated macrophages after antiangiogenic therapy is associated with poor survival among patients with recurrent glioblastoma
    Christine Lu-Emerson
    Department of Neurology, Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Neuro Oncol 15:1079-87. 2013
    ..macrophages were morphologically and phenotypically analyzed using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry for CD68, CD14, CD163, and CD11b expression...
  74. doi Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells into the skeletal muscle induces cytokine generation
    Kamila Gala
    Department of Immunology, Transplantology and Internal Diseases, Transplantation Institute, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland Electronic address
    Cytokine 64:243-50. 2013
    ..Quantitative analysis of the samples immunostained for CD68 and CD43 antigens revealed that the number of phagocytes was significantly higher in MSC treated muscle when ..
  75. pmc Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease involving appendix and mesenteric nodes with a protracted course: report of a rare case lacking relationship to IgG4-related disease and review of the literature
    Ming Zhao
    Department of Pathology, Ningbo Yinzhou Second Hospital Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, PR China
    Int J Clin Exp Pathol 6:2569-77. 2013
    ..These histologic features combination with immunoreactivity for CD68 and S100 protein were indicative of a diagnosis of extranodal RDD...
  76. doi Polymyositis in solid organ transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus
    Gaetano Vattemi
    Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, Section of Clinical Neurology, University of Verona, Italy
    J Neurol Sci 345:239-43. 2014
    ..polymyositis including CD8+ T cells which invaded healthy muscle fibers and expressed granzyme B and perforin, many CD68+ macrophages and MHC class I antigen upregulation on the surface of most fibers...
  77. doi P2X7 receptors mediate innate phagocytosis by human neural precursor cells and neuroblasts
    Michael D Lovelace
    Discipline of Anatomy and Histology, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    Stem Cells 33:526-41. 2015
    ..While it is understood that CD68(+) microglia and astrocytes mediate phagocytosis during target-dependent PCD, little is known of the cell identity ..
  78. doi α-Fetoprotein-Producing Hepatoid Gastric Adenocarcinoma With Osteoclast-Like Giant Cells and Neuroendocrine Differentiation: A Case Study With Molecular Profiling
    Andrzej Wincewicz
    Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland Non Public Health Care Unit Department of Pathology, Kielce, Poland, Specialist Medical Practice Pathologist Kielce
    Int J Surg Pathol 23:537-41. 2015
    ..positive, and strongly α-fetoprotein-positive with evident CK AE1/AE3 immunoreactivity, while OGCs expressed CD68. To provide an insight into the molecular background of this peculiar neoplasm, next-generation sequencing (NGS) ..
  79. doi Guided bone regeneration using resorbable membrane and different bone substitutes: Early histological and molecular events
    Ibrahim Elgali
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg, Sweden Department of Biomaterials, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 412, SE 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
    Acta Biomater 29:409-23. 2016
    ..Immunohistochemistry indicated fewer osteoclasts in the SrHA defects. The observations of CD68 and periostin-expressing cells in the membrane per se indicated that the membrane may contribute to the healing ..
  80. doi CD169(+) macrophages mediate pathological formation of woven bone in skeletal lesions of prostate cancer
    Andy C Wu
    Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Mater Research Institute The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Australia
    J Pathol 239:218-30. 2016
    ..In human bone metastasis specimens, CD68(+) macrophages were consistently located within the tumour mass...
  81. pmc Indeterminate cell histiocytosis successfully treated with phototherapy
    Maria Claudia Nogueira Zerbini
    Department of Pathology Faculty of Medicine University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo SP Brazil
    Autops Case Rep 6:33-8. 2016
    ..proliferation of indeterminate cells (ICs) that are immunophenotypically characterized by the positivity of CD1a, CD68, and faint/focal S100, plus the negativity for CD207 (langerin)...
  82. ncbi Docetaxel and mitoxantrone before radical prostatectomy in men with high-risk prostate cancer: 10-year follow-up and immune correlates
    Colin P Bergstrom
    aSchool of Medicine bDepartment of Cell, Developmental and Cancer Biology cKnight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University Departments of dUrology and Radiation Medicine eSpecialty Medicine, VA Portland Health Care System, Portland, Oregon Departments of fImmunology gBreast Oncology, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida Departments of hMedicine iUrology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
    Anticancer Drugs 28:120-126. 2017
    ..We measured CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3, CD20, CD15, CD68, and CD163 by immunohistochemistry in both tumor and normal prostate specimens, but did not find an association ..
  83. pmc Regulatory T cells, especially ICOS+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, are increased in the hepatocellular carcinoma microenvironment and predict reduced survival
    Jian fei Tu
    Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology, Lishui Central Hospital, Lishui 323000, Zhejiang Province, China
    Sci Rep 6:35056. 2016
    ..CD4+, and CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTLs) as well as CD56+ NK cells and CD68+ macrophages were observed in peritumoural tissue, increased numbers of forkhead/winged helix ..
  84. doi Transfusion of CD206+ M2 Macrophages Ameliorates Antibody-Mediated Glomerulonephritis in Mice
    Qiuna Du
    Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan
    Am J Pathol 186:3176-3188. 2016
    ..macrophages (M2BMMs)], protected against renal injury, decreased proteinuria, and diminished the infiltration of CD68+ macrophages, neutrophils, and T cells into glomerular tissue...
  85. doi Arteriogenesis in murine adipose tissue is contingent on CD68+ /CD206+ macrophages
    Scott A Seaman
    Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia
    Microcirculation . 2016
    ..Here, we explored whether CD68+ /CD206+ macrophages are required for arteriogenesis within the flap by performing gain-of-..
  86. ncbi Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and its receptor by fibroblast, macrophages and mast cells in hypertrophic scar
    S Akimoto
    Department of Dermatology, Gunma University School of Medicine, 3 39 22, Schowamachi, Maebashi, Gunma 371 8511, Japan
    Eur J Dermatol 9:357-62. 1999
    ..and bFGF-R positive cells, double immunostaining with antibody to mast cell (MC, tryptase) or tissue macrophage (CD68) was carried out. The expression of bFGF and bFGF-R in cultured fibroblasts from scars was also examined...
  87. ncbi Tumours of histiocytes and accessory dendritic cells: an immunohistochemical approach to classification from the International Lymphoma Study Group based on 61 cases
    S A Pileri
    Service of Pathologic Anatomy and Hematopathology, Institute of Haematology and Clinical Oncology L e A Seràgnoli, Bologna University, Italy
    Histopathology 41:1-29. 2002
    ..suspected histiocytic/dendritic cell type with a panel of 15 antibodies including those reactive with histiocytes (CD68, lysozyme (LYS)), Langerhans cells (CD1a), follicular dendritic cells (FDC: CD21, CD35) and S100 protein...
  88. ncbi Urogenital inflammation: changes of leucocytes and ROS
    R Henkel
    Centre of Dermatology and Andrology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany
    Andrologia 35:309-13. 2003
    ..Using the peroxidase staining and monoclonal antibodies to CD15, CD45 and CD68, we found significant differences between the detection methods. Only 47...
  89. ncbi Origin of stellate giant cells in oral fibrous lesions determined by immunohistochemical expression of vimentin, HHF-35, CD68 and factor XIIIa
    Lélia B Souza
    Laboratory of Oral Pathology, Dentistry School, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, 1787 CEP 59056 000 Natal, Brazil
    Pathology 36:316-20. 2004
    ..To determine the origin of mono-, bi- and multinucleate stellate giant cells in giant cell fibroma, fibrous hyperplasia and fibroepithelial polyp of the oral mucosa...
  90. ncbi Acquired obesity increases CD68 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and decreases adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue: a study in monozygotic twins
    Kirsi H Pietiläinen
    M Sc, Obesity Research Unit, Biomedicum Helsinki, C428a, P O Box 700, FIN 00029 HUS, Finland
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2776-81. 2006
    ..Both acquired and genetic factors regulate adipose tissue function...
  91. ncbi Histological and immunohistochemical study of granuloma annulare and subcutaneous granuloma annulare in children
    Kalliopi Stefanaki
    Pathology Department, Agia Sofia Children s Hospital, Micras Asias and Thivon, Athens, Greece
    J Cutan Pathol 34:392-6. 2007
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the histological and immunohistochemical features of granuloma annulare (GA) in comparison to deep granuloma annulare (DGA) and granulomatous dermatoses (GDs)...
  92. doi Bone-marrow-derived cells that home to acoustic deafened cochlea preserved their hematopoietic identity
    Brian Tiong Gee Tan
    Delivery of Drugs, Proteins and Genes Group, Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore, Singapore
    J Comp Neurol 509:167-79. 2008
    ..Most of the BMDCs expressed CD45 and CD68 and were identified as macrophages...
  93. doi Necrotic granulomatous pseudotumours in bilateral resurfacing hip arthoplasties: evidence for a type IV immune response
    H Pandit
    Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7LD, UK
    Virchows Arch 453:529-34. 2008
    ..Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies directed against HLA-DR, macrophages (CD14, CD68), dendritic cells (DC-SIGN, S100, CD11c), B cells (CD20), and T cells (CD3, CD4, CD8), the nature of the heavy ..
  94. pmc IL-1 antagonism reduces hyperglycemia and tissue inflammation in the type 2 diabetic GK rat
    J A Ehses
    Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition and Center for Integrated Human Physiology, University Hospital of Zurich, 8045 Zurich, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:13998-4003. 2009
    ..islet-derived proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, KC, MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha) and islet CD68(+), MHC II(+), and CD53(+) immune cell infiltration were reduced by IL-1Ra treatment...
  95. doi A comparison of the tissue response to chronically implanted Parylene-C-coated and uncoated planar silicon microelectrode arrays in rat cortex
    Brent D Winslow
    The Keck Center for Tissue Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA
    Biomaterials 31:9163-72. 2010
    ..Finally, we found evidence of two potentially new failure mechanisms that were associated with CD68 immunoreactivity including demyelination of adjacent neurons and BBB breakdown surrounding implanted electrodes at ..
  96. doi The chemokine CXCL12 regulates monocyte-macrophage differentiation and RUNX3 expression
    Lorena Sánchez-Martín
    Servicio de Inmunologia, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid, Spain
    Blood 117:88-97. 2011
    ..phenotyping of CXCL12(high) expressing cells, which were CD45(+), coexpressed the macrophage antigens CD68, CD163, and CD209 and constituted the 60%-90% of tumor-associated macrophages...
  97. pmc Anti-inflammatory treatments during the chronic phase of spinal cord injury improve locomotor function in adult mice
    Sheila A Arnold
    Kentucky Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292, USA
    J Neurotrauma 28:1995-2002. 2011
    ..The area of white matter or the inflammatory markers CD68 for activated microglia/macrophages and CD45 for leukocytes were not different between the groups...
  98. doi Characterization of a bilateral penetrating brain injury in rats and evaluation of a collagen biomaterial for potential treatment
    Paul Z Elias
    Harvard MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
    J Neurotrauma 29:2086-102. 2012
    ..Immunohistochemistry showed a decrease in the presence of CD68-positive macrophages from 1 to 5 weeks post-PBI as the necrotic tissue in the lesion was cleared, while persistent ..
  99. pmc Treatment of mild traumatic brain injury with an erythropoietin-mimetic peptide
    Claudia S Robertson
    Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    J Neurotrauma 30:765-74. 2013
    ..injury with this mTBI model, there was significant activation of inflammatory cells identified by labeling with CD68, which was reduced in the pHBSP-treated animals...
  100. ncbi Ginsenoside Rh1 ameliorates high fat diet-induced obesity in mice by inhibiting adipocyte differentiation
    Wan Gu
    Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130 701, Republic of Korea
    Biol Pharm Bull 36:102-7. 2013
    ..the expressions of PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, as well as F4/80, CD68, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β in DIO mice by real time PCR analysis...
  101. doi Ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and prefrontal cortex rodent organotypic brain slices as an integrated model to study the cellular changes induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation and reperfusion: effect of neuroprotective agents
    Laura Colombo
    Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan 20133, Italy Electronic address
    Neurochem Int 66:43-54. 2014
    ..Marked reactive astrogliosis was also evident. Notably, OGD/R triggered the activation of CD68-expressing microglia and increased expression of Ym1 and Arg1, two markers of "alternatively" activated beneficial ..

Research Grants89

  1. Ovarian hormone suppression and regulation of adipogenesis in women
    Wendy M Kohrt; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..on mRNA expression of factors involved in adipogenesis (C/EBP1, PPAR3) and markers of macrophage infiltration (CD68, Emr-1) and inflammation (IL-6, TNF-1);and SA3) whether new adipocytes arise from non-resident bone marrow ..
  2. Role of macrophages in MSC-mediated recovery of hematopoiesis after irradiation
    Manoj M Pillai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..To address this limitation, a macrophage-specific, tetracycline-inducible transgenic mouse (CD68-rtTA) has been created and characterized...
  3. IRA JAY GOLDBERG; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..that atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic mice have an increase in the number and inflammatory phenotype of their CD68+ cells after cholesterol reduction (regression)...
  4. Richard M Pope; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..examination of synovial tissue biopsies before and after therapy, demonstrate that the reduction of sublining CD68+ macrophages strongly correlates with the reduction of the DAS28, regardless of the therapy...
  5. Role of Memory T Cells in Pathogenesis and Resolution of Inflammatory Diseases
    Richard B Bankert; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..the selective blockade of inflammatory mediators or immune-depletion of cytokines and CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD68+ macrophages, and CD138+ plasma cells upon the mucosal thickening, goblet cell hyperplasia, sub-epithelial fibrosis ..
  6. Kathryn J Moore; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..remarkable remodeling of the transplanted plaques over a relatively short time, with depletion of the majority of CD68+ cells (which are primarily macrophages and foam cells)...
  7. Annexin 2 in Lymphoproliferative Angiogenesis
    Jia Ruan; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of human lymphoproliferative subtypes reflects differential recruitment and assembly of either hemangiogenic (CD68+VEGFR-1+) cells or mesenchymal smooth muscle cells...
  8. A novel and improved mouse system for studying macrophage specific gene deletion
    Christian Stehlik; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We propose to use the human CD68 promoter in combination with a macrophage-specific enhancer to drive expression of an activity-improved Cre and the ..
  9. Luis J Montaner; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..IFN-a as a potential inductive factor associated with the local increase in tissue APOBEC 3G expression, and (2) CD68 macrophages infiltrates among Fc-receptor bearing cells...
  10. Imaging of Cardiac Transplant Rejection
    Matthias Nahrendorf; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of the above imaging marker correlates most closely with the ex vivo gold standard (ISHLT-graded histology) and CD68 expression and if imaging can detect earliest forms of rejection and/or tolerance at sufficiently high sensitivity ..
  11. Role of Macrophage Regulatory Cells (Mac-regs) in Immune Regulation
    Joseph Lustgarten; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We have identified a new population of CD11b+F4/80+CD68+ (macrophages) that express Foxp3...
  12. Peter A Cohen; Fiscal Year: 2014
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): We have identified a new population of CD11b+F4/80+CD68+ (macrophages) that express Foxp3...
  13. Andy Y Shih; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..revealed that rodent microinfarcts, like human microinfarcts, are densely packed with GFAP-positive astrocytes and CD68-positive macrophages in the sub-acute period of days to weeks. We will test the hypothesis with two Aims...
  14. NEUROPATHOLOGY OF CHRONIC MANGANESE EXPOSURE
    Brad A Racette; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..will be counted with stereology, following immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against NeuN, GFAP and CD68, in the following fixed brain regions: globus pallidus interna, substantia nigra pars compacta, locus ceruleus, and ..
  15. Impact of Lifestyle with Tumor Pathways and Microenvironment on Lymphoma Survival
    ANDREW M contact EVENS; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e., CD68, CD7, FOXP3, CD10, Ki67, LMO2, BCL6, BCL2, p53, and p21), 3) to investigate the association of lifestyle factors ..
  16. Local Warming: Effects on Wound Infection and Healing
    JoAnne Whitney; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..b) Indicators of Immune Response (determined by flow cytometry) 1. Percent of macrophages (CD68 positive), T cells (CDS positive), and B cells (CD20 positive) 2...
  17. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF PMN CHEMOTAXIS DEFECTS IN LJP
    MICHAEL DANIEL; Fiscal Year: 1993
    ..characterize the structural, functional and molecular biological properties of a neutrophil surface glycoprotein (GP110)...
  18. SARS Coronavirus Interaction with Monocytes Macrophages
    Arlene Collins; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..virus output assay, by RT-PCR, by immunocytochemistry (goat antibody to SARS-CoV and cell type specific markers CD68) and cytopathicity by cell rounding, syncytium formation and apoptosis by TdT tunnel assay...
  19. MOLECULAR THERAPEUTICS FOR HIV COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION
    Bassel Sawaya; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..Toward this end, we will utilize the tissue specific promoters, macrosialin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), in order to target gene expression to microglia and astrocytes, ..
  20. IMMUNODEFICIENCY AND TUMORIGENESIS
    Leonard Shultz; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The specific aims are: I. To evaluate transgenic expression of SHP-1 directed by the lysozyme, CD11b and CD68 promoters; II...
  21. Stress, the Immune System and Basal Cell Carcinoma
    Ronald Glaser; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..e., tumors showing differences in the level of CD3+ and CD68+ cells that traffic to the BCC tumor and surrounding stroma (quantitative measures) and the expression of cell ..
  22. COORDINATE REGULATION OF APOPTOSIS AND CELL CYCLE IN RA
    Harris Perlman; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..modulator, Bcl-2 was highly expressed in RA compared with osteoarthritis synovial tissues, particularly in the CD68- negative, fibroblast-like synoviocyte population...
  23. SR-BI AND MACROPHAGE CHOLESTEROL METABOLISM
    Eric Smart; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..investigated by using transgenic mice over-expressing SR-131, caveolin, or both in macrophages by means of the macrosialin promoter...
  24. SCOR IN MOLECULAR MEDICINE AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    Joseph Witztum; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..the structure and function of receptors involved in the binding and internalization of OxLDL, including CD36, and CD68, and define ligands on OxLDL and apoptotic cells for these receptors...
  25. MACROPHAGE SCAVENGER RECEPTOR IN ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    MASON FREEMAN; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..established scavenger receptor family members (SR-A (type I and type II macrophage scavenger receptors), CD36, and CD68) to determine the impact of reduced modified lipoprotein uptake on lesion development...
  26. PKC Activation and Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes
    George King; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..3) to make and characterize mice overexpressing PKC beta 2 isoform in monocytes using a monocyte CD68 promoter (PKC beta 2 M-Tg) with respect to retinal, renal and cardiac abnormalities in nondiabetic and diabetic ..
  27. Microglial Dysfunction in Aged and Alzheimers's Brain
    Wolfgang Streit; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Preliminary studies suggest that microglial degeneration is much more pronounced in AD compared to non-demented individuals, and thus microglial dysfunction could be an important factor in AD pathogenesis. ..
  28. Microglia: Role in Motoneuron Degeneration/Regeneration
    Wolfgang Streit; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..e. that dystrophy and dysfunction of microglia may be involved. In addition, the minocycline experiments will help to further assess the usefulness of this drug for possible treatment of ALS. ..
  29. Role of Targeted Mutations in ViF on SHIV Pathogenesis
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed studies will provide new information on the role of this Vif motif in pathogenesis using a relevant macaque model. ..
  30. PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE-SPECIFIC RECEPTOR FOR APOPTOTIC CELLS
    Valerie Fadok; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The investigators hypothesize that PS recognition has been preserved throughout phylogeny as an effective mechanism mediating the removal of apoantibodies. ..
  31. Targeting early proteins for therapeutic vaccines
    Jay Rappaport; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..If successful, this strategy may be beneficial in further controlling HIV infection and may permit patients treated with HAART during chronic infection to realize independence from pharmacotherapeutic regimens. ..
  32. BIOCHEMISTRY/BIOLOGY OF 5-LIPOXYGENASE AND LEUKOTRIENES
    COLIN FUNK; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..New insights into the pathophysiologic sequelae of leukotrienes in asthma and ultimately better treatments of this disease will be an outcome of these studies. ..
  33. Induction of AR Transactivation by DHT and E2
    Chawnshang Chang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  34. MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS AND AIDS RELATED CNS DISEASE
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This serves as a pipeline for the graduate programs at the School of Medicine. All trainees participate actively in productive research projects and receive intense mentoring by the training faculty. ..
  35. Mechanism of HIV-1 inhibition by alpha-defensin-1
    Theresa Chang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..abstract_text> ..
  36. Viral Host Interactions in SIV Cardiac Dysfunction
    Joseph Mankowski; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..These studies will set the stage for performing interventive studies in SIV-infected macaques using approaches to target specific MMPs to prevent cardiac dysfunction. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  37. Role of Cytokines and Autoimmunity in Murine BA
    Cara Mack; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Defining the immunopathology in biliary atresia will lead to a better understanding of the etiopathogenesis and provide insight into future therapeutic options. ..
  38. ORIGIN OF CELLS THAT REPOPULATE RESORBABLE ECM SCAFFOLDS
    Stephen Badylak; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..abstract_text> ..
  39. ORIGIN OF CELLS THAT REPOPULATE RESORBABLE ECM SCAFFOLDS
    Stephen Badylak; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..abstract_text> ..
  40. LASER CAPTURE MICROSCOPE
    Carol Petito; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Consequently, we request a camera and a workstation for the double headed microscope. This will be exclusively be utilized by Users of the LCM facility. ..
  41. Mechanisms of ECM Scaffold Remodeling
    Stephen Badylak; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The work will be conducted by an experienced interdisciplinary team of scientists and a timeline is presented for completion of the work. ..
  42. Clinical and Translational Science Institute in Arkansas
    PHILIP KERN; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  43. CNS Mechanisms of MCP-1 Transcription
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Aim 3 will determine if and how genetic variations in the macaque and human MCP-1 promoter impact binding of regulatory factors to the MCP-1 promoter in the CNS. ..
  44. Glial Cell Inflammatory Mechanisms and CNS Regulation
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Aim 3 will identify specific sites in the LTR occupied by transcription factors expressed longitudinally during SIV infection in the CNS. ..
  45. HSP27 in Kidney Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transformation
    Arjang Djamali; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Overexpression of HSP27 will be obtained by recombinant virus-mediated HSP27 gene transfer. This proposal would allow us to determine whether HSP27 overexpression can prevent/delay EMT. ..
  46. Biology of Single Activity PGH Synthases
    COLIN FUNK; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Results obtained from this proposal should have broad implications for understanding mechanisms of human cancer and inflammatory disease. ..
  47. Fibrogenic factors in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid
    A Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The studies have significant therapeutic potential. The identified molecules or portion of processes that mediate could be blocked or arrested, and this may result in cessation of disease progression and, prevention of blindness. ..
  48. MOLECULAR PATHOGENSIS OF LENTIVIRUS CNS DISEASE
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In Aim 4, we will examine in vivo whether there is a correlation between MAPK activation and the development of inflammatory and demyelinating changes in the CNS of sheep infected with visna virus. ..
  49. Immunological Monitoring of Heart Allograft Recipients
    Nicole Suciu Foca; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ....
  50. Immunologic Mechanism/Destruction/Biliary Artesia
    Cara Mack; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Cytokine profiles will be characterized by cytokine mRNA expression. ..
  51. Monocyte/macrophage activities and trafficking in HIVE
    Jay Rappaport; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..The large increases in the numbers of total perivascular and parenchymal CD68+ MPs we observed, in the absence of proliferation, support our hypothesis that abnormal monocyte/macrophage/..
  52. Primary Hormonal Therapy for DCIS of the Breast
    EUN SIL HWANG; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..If patients could safely be spared from cancer progression while avoiding the morbidity of surgery and radiation for DCIS, the full benefit of early breast cancer detection could be realized. ..
  53. Healing Touch, Immunity, and Fatigue in Breast Cancer
    Susan Lutgendorf; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ....
  54. SHIV ASSOCIATED ENCEPHALOPATHY
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..It is anticipated that the proposed studies will provide valuable information which will improve our understanding of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. ..
  55. Cell Recruitment Induced by ECM Scaffold Degradation
    Stephen F Badylak; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The objectives of the studies, the hypothesis upon which the experimental design is based, and a timeline for completion of the studies are presented. ..
  56. Mechanisms of HIV-Induced PNS Disease: The SIV Macaque Model
    Joseph Mankowski; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The goal of these comprehensive, integrated studies of HIV sensory neuropathy in our novel SIV primate model is to advance the understanding of HIV-SN pathogenesis to foster new therapeutic approaches. ..
  57. Effect of Alcohol on SHIV Neuroinvasion
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The results of these studies should provide direct evidence on the effect of ethanol on primate lentivirus neuroinvasion and neuropathogenesis. ..
  58. Androgen Receptor in B Cell Development and Functions
    Chawnshang Chang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..abstract_text> ..
  59. VIRAL SANCTUARY IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    Carol Petito; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The hypotheses and their specific aims address the central goal and selective subaims of RFA #NS99-002, "Central Nervous System as the HIV Sanctuary". ..
  60. REGULATORY T CELLS IN ALLORECOGNITION
    Nicole Suciu Foca; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..An animal model for induction of tolerance by transfer of Ts will be used. These studies will establish the role of allospecific Ts and their potential use for tolerance induction. ..
  61. MECHANISMS OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION IN SIV INFECTION
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..This will be complemented by in vivo studies to identify and quantitate changes in the expression of cell adhesion molecules, integrins and chemokine receptors in tissues during the acute phase of infection. ..
  62. TR2 AND TR3 ORPHAN RECEPTORS IN PROSTATE CANCER
    Chawnshang Chang; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..abstract_text> ..
  63. Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy(FNAB) Needle Device
    Vinod Shidham; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..Apart from the worldwide market, the potential market in United States alone should exceed $1,500,000 per year. ..
  64. Healing Touch and Immunity in Advanced Cervical Cancer
    Susan Lutgendorf; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ....
  65. AR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS IN PROSTATE CARCINOGENESIS
    Chawnshang Chang; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..As a result, ultimately, we might find a potential protocol to manage the progression of CaP in the clinic. ..
  66. REGULATION OF MYOTENDINOUS JUNCTION STRUCTURE
    James Tidball; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Hind limb immobilization at shortened length followed by remobilization will be used to examine the effect of inhibition of NOS on sarcomere addition. ..
  67. OCULAR PEMPHIGOID--MECHANISM OF PATHOGENESIS
    A Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The immediate clinical impact of this research will be the generation and availability of highly specific and sensitive serological laboratory test for the early diagnosis of OCP. ..
  68. LENTIVIRAL DELIVERY OF GDNF AND BCL-2 IN PD MODEL
    Marina Emborg; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..These studies will serve as the preclinical foundation to determine whether this in vivo method to deliver these potent trophic factor and antiapoptotic genes will be suitable for testing in patients with PD. ..
  69. Cellular Mechanisms that Control SIV & Development of Pneumonia
    Janice Clements; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..tuberculosis, in humans, and Dr. Christopher Karp, an immunologist who has studied HIV and Multiple Sclerosis and is actively involved in therapeutic treatment of MS patients in INFbeta. ..
  70. Suppression of Androgen Receptor by PTEN
    Chawnshang Chang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..abstract_text> ..
  71. Roles of PTP1B in Insulin and Leptin Action in vivo
    JANICE ZABOLOTNY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Kahn, an expert in characterizing animal models of obesity and diabetes, and Dr. Elmquist, an expert in mapping leptin-responsive pathways in the CNS, will provide an exemplary environment for my research. ..
  72. TR4 ORPHAN RECEPTOR IN TESTIS
    Chawnshang Chang; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Aim 5) Study cross talk between p53 and TR4 in testes. The successful completion of this proposal may help us to better understand the molecular mechanism of the TR4 and its potential biochemical functions. ..
  73. Hepatitis C Virus Brain Infection in HCV/HIV Coinfection
    Tomasz Laskus; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..The proposed study will allow to clarify the biological basis of neurcognitive dysfunction encountered in HCV infected, and particularly in HCV/HIV coinfected patients. ..
  74. Involvement of Myeloperoxidase in Atherosclerosis
    Wanda Reynolds; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..These studies will reveal if MPO-generated oxidants promote atherosclerosis in mouse models, thereby humanizing existing mouse models, and enabling investigations of the role of MPO-mediated oxidation in atherosclerosis. ..
  75. Roles of PTP 1B Overexpression in Pathogenesis in vivo
    JANICE ZABOLOTNY; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..unreadable] [unreadable]..
  76. Experimental Uveal Melanoma and Ocular Immune Privilege
    KYLE MCKENNA; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..abstract_text> ..
  77. Biobehavioral-Cytokine Interactions in Ovarian Cancer
    Susan Lutgendorf; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..Findings will have implications for innovative behavioral and pharmacological intervention strategies for ovarian cancer patients. ..
  78. Single and Double Knockout of TR2 and TR4 Receptors
    Chawnshang Chang; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..In summary, this proposal provides us the first opportunity to study the potential in vivo physiological roles of the TR2 and TR4 orphan nuclear receptors. ..
  79. Mechanobiology and Regenerative Medicine
    Michael S Sacks; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..A timeline for completion of these studies, hypotheses to drive the specific aims, alternative approaches for completion of the work, and quantitative criteria for success are provided. ..
  80. Myeloid Cell Function in Muscular Dystrophy
    James Tidball; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..Results of the study proposed here will permit us to determine whether therapeutic approaches that are based on reducing myeloid cell mediated pathology can be productive approaches to the treatment of these forms of muscular dystrophy. ..
  81. TH-1 BIAS IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    Laurie Davis; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..It is anticipated that the information obtained should provide important new insights into the regulatory influences on the differentiation of CD4+ memory effector cells in man. ..
  82. Reconstruction of nigrostriatal pathway by photopolymerized neurotrophin...
    Kimberly Bjugstad; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..While we are using an animal model of PD to test this hypothesis, if successful, it could have implications for other neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's Disease or stroke. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  83. Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer and Bone
    Chawnshang Chang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..The success of this proposal will allow a better understanding of the role of androgen in the metastatic spread of prostate cancer to bone and the molecular mechanism of bone remodeling by prostate cancer cells. ..
  84. A New DNA Vaccine Against HIV Disease in Macaques
    Edward Stephens; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..Vaccine boosts will continue after drug therapy had been withdrawn. These studies will be applicable to HIV infected persons under HAART. ..
  85. Defensins in STI-mediated enhancement of HIV Infection
    Theresa Chang; Fiscal Year: 2008
    ..A longer term outcome could be the development of novel prevention strategies. [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable] [unreadable]..
  86. Cellular Remodeling of ECM Scaffolds
    Stephen Badylak; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We have identified clearly defined specific aims with quantifiable end points and an efficient three year timeline to conduct this work. ..