CCR5

Summary

Gene Symbol: CCR5
Description: C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (gene/pseudogene)
Alias: CC-CKR-5, CCCKR5, CCR-5, CD195, CKR-5, CKR5, CMKBR5, IDDM22, C-C chemokine receptor type 5, C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 A159A, HIV-1 fusion coreceptor, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5, chemokine receptor CCR5, chemokine recptor CCR5 Delta32, chemr13
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. doi Association of HLA-C and HCP5 gene regions with the clinical course of HIV-1 infection
    Danielle Van Manen
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Center for Infectious Diseases and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    AIDS 23:19-28. 2009
  2. ncbi Effect of extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein 120 on primary human vascular endothelial cell cultures
    M B Huang
    Department of Biochemistry, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30087 1495, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 15:1265-77. 1999
  3. ncbi Identification of circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes with a CCR5+, cytotoxic phenotype in an HIV-1 long-term nonprogressor and in CMV infection
    John J Zaunders
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Blood 103:2238-47. 2004
  4. ncbi Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments
    Masaki Imai
    Department of Molecular Biology, Nagoya City University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi 467 8601, and Choju Medical Institute, Fukushimura Hospital, Toyohashi, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 353:851-6. 2007
  5. doi Distribution of CCR5 genotypes and HLA Class I B alleles in HIV-1 infected and uninfected injecting drug users from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Sylvia Lopes Maia Teixeira
    Laboratory of AIDS and Molecular Immunology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Infect Genet Evol 9:638-42. 2009
  6. ncbi HIV-1 entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the chemokine receptor CC-CKR-5
    T Dragic
    The Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 381:667-73. 1996
  7. pmc Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection
    Brandon F Keele
    Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35223, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7552-7. 2008
  8. pmc Detection of inferred CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 variants and evolutionary intermediates using ultra-deep pyrosequencing
    Evelien M Bunnik
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002106. 2011
  9. pmc Dendritic cells preferentially transfer CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants to CD4+ T lymphocytes in trans
    Thijs van Montfort
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 82:7886-96. 2008
  10. pmc V3 determinants of HIV-1 escape from the CCR5 inhibitors Maraviroc and Vicriviroc
    Reem Berro
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Virology 427:158-65. 2012

Research Grants

  1. HIV, Chemokine Receptors, and Vascular Smooth Muscle
    ALISON SCHECTER; Fiscal Year: 2007
  2. New tools to study leukocyte infiltration into the CNS
    CHARLES LEE HOWE; Fiscal Year: 2013
  3. Nikolaos G Frangogiannis; Fiscal Year: 2016
  4. Tracy M Handel; Fiscal Year: 2014
  5. HIV-1 gp120 Mediated Chemotaxis of Blood Cells
    Ramesh Ganju; Fiscal Year: 2005
  6. Characterization of CCR5 Receptor N-terminal domain
    Krishna Rajarathnam; Fiscal Year: 2005
  7. Chronic Granulomatous Lung Inflammation Elicited by Carbon Nanotubes
    Mary Jane Thomassen; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Chemokine Decoy Receptor: a novel therapy of IBD
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2012
  9. Inhibition of CCR1/CCR5 mediated angiogenesis and joint destruction by EGCG
    Salah Uddin Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2010
  10. Chemokine Decoy Receptor for Therapy of Autoimmune Arthritis
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2012

Detail Information

Publications387 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi Association of HLA-C and HCP5 gene regions with the clinical course of HIV-1 infection
    Danielle Van Manen
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Center for Infectious Diseases and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    AIDS 23:19-28. 2009
    ....
  2. ncbi Effect of extracellular human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein 120 on primary human vascular endothelial cell cultures
    M B Huang
    Department of Biochemistry, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30087 1495, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 15:1265-77. 1999
    ..to confirm this by showing that the apoptotic effect is mediated through two cell surface receptors on HUVECs, CCR5 and CXCR4...
  3. ncbi Identification of circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes with a CCR5+, cytotoxic phenotype in an HIV-1 long-term nonprogressor and in CMV infection
    John J Zaunders
    Centre for Immunology, St Vincent s Hospital, and University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
    Blood 103:2238-47. 2004
    ..Ex vivo, these cells were CCR5+ and CCR7-, consistent with an effector/memory function...
  4. ncbi Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments
    Masaki Imai
    Department of Molecular Biology, Nagoya City University School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi 467 8601, and Choju Medical Institute, Fukushimura Hospital, Toyohashi, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 353:851-6. 2007
    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor...
  5. doi Distribution of CCR5 genotypes and HLA Class I B alleles in HIV-1 infected and uninfected injecting drug users from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Sylvia Lopes Maia Teixeira
    Laboratory of AIDS and Molecular Immunology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
    Infect Genet Evol 9:638-42. 2009
    ..Moreover, a 32-base pair deletion in the HIV-1 CCR5 gene-coding region confers resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygous individuals for the deleted allele...
  6. ncbi HIV-1 entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the chemokine receptor CC-CKR-5
    T Dragic
    The Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York 10016, USA
    Nature 381:667-73. 1996
    ..CC-CKR-5 is a second receptor for NSI primary viruses...
  7. pmc Identification and characterization of transmitted and early founder virus envelopes in primary HIV-1 infection
    Brandon F Keele
    Departments of Medicine and Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35223, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7552-7. 2008
    ..Phenotypic analysis of transmitted or early founder Envs revealed a consistent pattern of CCR5 dependence, masking of coreceptor binding regions, and equivalent or modestly enhanced resistance to the fusion ..
  8. pmc Detection of inferred CCR5- and CXCR4-using HIV-1 variants and evolutionary intermediates using ultra-deep pyrosequencing
    Evelien M Bunnik
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002106. 2011
    ..CXCR4-using variants are believed to evolve from CCR5-using variants, but due to the extremely low frequency at which transitional intermediate variants are often ..
  9. pmc Dendritic cells preferentially transfer CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants to CD4+ T lymphocytes in trans
    Thijs van Montfort
    Laboratory of Experimental Virology, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 15, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 82:7886-96. 2008
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) preferentially utilizes the CCR5 coreceptor for target cell entry in the acute phase of infection, while later in disease progression the virus switches to the CXCR4 coreceptor in approximately ..
  10. pmc V3 determinants of HIV-1 escape from the CCR5 inhibitors Maraviroc and Vicriviroc
    Reem Berro
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Virology 427:158-65. 2012
    HIV-1 develops resistance to CCR5 antagonists such as Maraviroc (MVC) and Vicriviroc (VVC) both in vitro and in vivo, with most changes arising in the gp120 V3 region...
  11. pmc Structure of the CCR5 chemokine receptor-HIV entry inhibitor maraviroc complex
    Qiuxiang Tan
    CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Pudong, Shanghai, China 201203
    Science 341:1387-90. 2013
    The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a co-receptor for HIV-1 viral entry. Here we report the 2.7 angstrom-resolution crystal structure of human CCR5 bound to the marketed HIV drug maraviroc...
  12. pmc The crown and stem of the V3 loop play distinct roles in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein interactions with the CCR5 coreceptor
    Emmanuel G Cormier
    Microbiology and Immunology Department, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Virol 76:8953-7. 2002
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 interacts with CD4 and the CCR5 coreceptor in order to mediate viral entry...
  13. pmc Deep sequencing to infer HIV-1 co-receptor usage: application to three clinical trials of maraviroc in treatment-experienced patients
    Luke C Swenson
    BC Centre for Excellence in HIV AIDS, Vancouver, Canada
    J Infect Dis 203:237-45. 2011
    ..Patients (MOTIVATE) studies compared maraviroc versus placebo in treatment-experienced patients with CCR5-using (R5) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), screened using the original Trofile assay...
  14. doi Coreceptors and HIV-1 pathogenesis
    Paul R Gorry
    Center for Virology, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 8:45-53. 2011
    The major HIV-1 coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, mediate virus entry into CD4+ cells and are therefore a critical component of the HIV-1 life cycle...
  15. ncbi Evidence for an influence of chemokine ligand 3-like 1 (CCL3L1) gene copy number on susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis
    C McKinney
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand
    Ann Rheum Dis 67:409-13. 2008
    ..copy-number gene, and binds to several pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors, including chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)...
  16. pmc Signal transduction due to HIV-1 envelope interactions with chemokine receptors CXCR4 or CCR5
    C B Davis
    Division of Molecular Pathogenesis, Skirball Institute for Biomolecular Medicine, NYU Medical Center 10016, USA
    J Exp Med 186:1793-8. 1997
    Infection with HIV-1 requires expression of CD4 and the chemokine receptors CXCR4 or CCR5 at the target cell surface...
  17. ncbi The V3 domain of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein is critical for chemokine-mediated blockade of infection
    F Cocchi
    Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute and School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    Nat Med 2:1244-7. 1996
    ..Consistent with this discrepancy, two distinct chemokine receptors, namely, CXCR4 (ref. 7) and CCR5 (ref...
  18. pmc Structures of the CCR5 N terminus and of a tyrosine-sulfated antibody with HIV-1 gp120 and CD4
    Chih Chin Huang
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Science 317:1930-4. 2007
    The CCR5 co-receptor binds to the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein and facilitates HIV-1 entry into cells. Its N terminus is tyrosine-sulfated, as are many antibodies that react with the co-receptor binding site on gp120...
  19. pmc CoRSeqV3-C: a novel HIV-1 subtype C specific V3 sequence based coreceptor usage prediction algorithm
    Kieran Cashin
    Center for Virology, Burnet Institute, 85 Commercial Rd, Melbourne 3004VIC, Australia
    Retrovirology 10:24. 2013
    ..and health care systems, whose populations are more likely to have access to wider treatment options, including the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC)...
  20. ncbi Response to antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected individuals with allelic variants of the multidrug resistance transporter 1: a pharmacogenetics study
    Jacques Fellay
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
    Lancet 359:30-6. 2002
    ..This variability could have a genetic basis. We did a pharmacogenetics study to analyse the association between response to antiretroviral treatment and allelic variants of several genes...
  21. pmc Variation in HIV-1 R5 macrophage-tropism correlates with sensitivity to reagents that block envelope: CD4 interactions but not with sensitivity to other entry inhibitors
    Paul J Peters
    Center for AIDS Research, Program in Molecular Medicine and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, 373 Plantation Street, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Retrovirology 5:5. 2008
    ..These R5 envelopes conferred a wide range of macrophage tropism and included highly macrophage-tropic variants from brain and non-macrophage-tropic variants from lymph node...
  22. pmc Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 V1-to-V5 envelope variants from the chronic phase of infection use CCR5 and fuse more efficiently than those from early after infection
    Behzad Etemad
    Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Virol 83:9694-708. 2009
    ..capacity than those with early-infection V1-V5 domains in cell lines with high levels of both the CD4 and the CCR5 receptors...
  23. ncbi Involvement of polymorphisms in the chemokine system in the susceptibility for coronary artery disease (CAD). Coincidence of elevated Lp(a) and MCP-1 -2518 G/G genotype in CAD patients
    C Szalai
    Section of Molecular Immunology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
    Atherosclerosis 158:233-9. 2001
    ..This genotype is associated with elevated Lp(a) levels in patients. Individuals homozygous for CCR2-64I or CCR5Delta32 mutations are at reduced risk for severe CAD...
  24. pmc Resistance to CCR5 inhibitors caused by sequence changes in the fusion peptide of HIV-1 gp41
    Cleo G Anastassopoulou
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:5318-23. 2009
    ..16, to the small molecule CCR5 inhibitor, vicriviroc (VVC). Unlike other viruses resistant to this class of compound, D1/85...
  25. pmc CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 are major coreceptors of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 variants isolated from individuals with and without plasma viremia
    H Blaak
    Department of Virology, Room Ee1742a, Erasmus MC, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    J Virol 79:1686-700. 2005
    ..cells, we showed for the first time that the only coreceptors efficiently used by low-pathogenic HIV-2 variants are CCR5, GPR15 (BOB), and CXCR6 (BONZO)...
  26. doi Genetic deficiency of chemokine receptor CCR5 is a strong risk factor for symptomatic West Nile virus infection: a meta-analysis of 4 cohorts in the US epidemic
    Jean K Lim
    Molecular Signaling Section, Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:262-5. 2008
    ..We previously reported that homozygosity for CCR5Delta32, a nonfunctional variant of chemokine receptor CCR5, is markedly increased among symptomatic WNV-seropositive patients from Arizona and Colorado...
  27. pmc Selected amino acid mutations in HIV-1 B subtype gp41 are associated with specific gp120v₃ signatures in the regulation of co-receptor usage
    Salvatore Dimonte
    University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, Rome, Italy
    Retrovirology 8:33. 2011
    ..Moreover, specific changes in gp41 are likely to be responsible for of damage in gp120-CCR5 interactions, resulting in potential resistance to CCR5 inhibitors...
  28. pmc HIV-1 envelope-receptor interactions required for macrophage infection and implications for current HIV-1 cure strategies
    Paul R Gorry
    1 GPO Box 2284, Melbourne 3001, Victoria, Australia or University of Pennsylvania, 522 Johnson Pavilion, 36th and Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104 6060, USA E mail
    J Leukoc Biol 95:71-81. 2014
    ..mechanisms underlying HIV-1 tropism for macrophages are complex, involving enhanced and/or altered interactions with CD4, CCR5, and/or CXCR4, and that the nature of these interactions may depend on the anatomical location of the virus.
  29. pmc Involvement of both the V2 and V3 regions of the CCR5-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope in reduced sensitivity to macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha
    Y Maeda
    Department of Biodefence and Medical Virology, School of Medicine, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan
    J Virol 74:1787-93. 2000
    ..whether C-C chemokines play an important role in the phenotype switch of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from CCR5 to CXCR4 usage during the course of an infection in vivo, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha-resistant ..
  30. ncbi Mu-opioid modulation of HIV-1 coreceptor expression and HIV-1 replication
    Amber D Steele
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Substance Abuse Research, and the Fels Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Biology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    Virology 309:99-107. 2003
    ..report, we have investigated the effect of opioids on the expression of the major HIV-1 coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5. For these studies we have focused on opiates which are ligands for the mu-opioid receptor...
  31. ncbi Constitutive activation of CCR5 and CCR2 induced by conformational changes in the conserved TXP motif in transmembrane helix 2
    Diana Alvarez Arias
    Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:36513-21. 2003
    b>CCR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor for RANTES, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and MCP-2 that functions as the front line coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection...
  32. ncbi Isolation of TAK-779-resistant HIV-1 from an R5 HIV-1 GP120 V3 loop library
    Keisuke Yusa
    Department of Medical Virology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 2 1 1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860 8556, Japan
    J Biol Chem 280:30083-90. 2005
    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (GP) 120 interacts with CD4 and the CCR5 coreceptor for viral entry...
  33. pmc Molecular switch for alternative conformations of the HIV-1 V3 region: implications for phenotype conversion
    Osnat Rosen
    Department of Structural Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:13950-5. 2006
    HIV-1 coreceptor usage plays a critical role in virus tropism and pathogenesis. A switch from CCR5- to CXCR4-using viruses occurs during the course of HIV-1 infection and correlates with subsequent disease progression...
  34. pmc Extreme genetic divergence is required for coreceptor switching in HIV-1 subtype C
    Mia Coetzer
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 56:9-15. 2011
    Coreceptor switching from CCR5 to CXCR4 is less common in subtype C HIV-1 infection than in subtype B for reasons that are unclear...
  35. pmc HIV-1 infection through the CCR5 receptor is blocked by receptor dimerization
    A J Vila-Coro
    Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E 28049, Madrid, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:3388-93. 2000
    ..We have identified a CCR5 receptor-specific mAb that neither competes with the chemokine for binding nor triggers signaling, as measured by ..
  36. ncbi Maturation of the viral core enhances the fusion of HIV-1 particles with primary human T cells and monocyte-derived macrophages
    Jiyang Jiang
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, A 5301 Medical Center North, Nashville, TN 37232 2363, USA
    Virology 346:460-8. 2006
    ..We conclude that the ability to couple fusion to particle maturation is a common feature of HIV-1 Env proteins and may play an important role during HIV-1 replication in vivo...
  37. pmc HLA-C increases HIV-1 infectivity and is associated with gp120
    Andrea Matucci
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Department of Mother and Child, Biology and Genetics, Section of Biology and Genetics, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134, Verona, Italy
    Retrovirology 5:68. 2008
    ..Virus infectivity was analyzed using pseudoviruses. Molecular complexes generated during cell fusion (fusion complexes) were purified and analyzed for their HLA-C content...
  38. doi CCL5/CCR5 axis promotes the motility of human oral cancer cells
    Jing Yuan Chuang
    Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung Taiwan
    J Cell Physiol 220:418-26. 2009
    ..On the other hand, the effect of CCL5 is mediated via CCR receptor. RT-PCR and flow cytometry studies demonstrated CCR5 but not CCR1 and CCR3 mRNA in oral cancer cell lines, especially higher in those with high invasiveness (SCC4) as ..
  39. pmc Modulation of HIV-1 macrophage-tropism among R5 envelopes occurs before detection of neutralizing antibodies
    Kathryn H Richards
    Program in Molecular Medicine and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Biotech 2, 373 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Retrovirology 7:48. 2010
    ..Our data show that the variation in macrophage tropism observed at early times cannot have been influenced by neutralizing antibodies...
  40. ncbi The beta-chemokine receptors CCR3 and CCR5 facilitate infection by primary HIV-1 isolates
    H Choe
    Division of Human Retrovirology Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Cell 85:1135-48. 1996
    ..b>CCR5, when expressed along with CD4, the HIV-1 receptor, allowed cell lines resistant to most primary HIV-1 isolates to ..
  41. pmc Transmitted/founder and chronic HIV-1 envelope proteins are distinguished by differential utilization of CCR5
    Zahra F Parker
    Department of Microbiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    J Virol 87:2401-11. 2013
    ..by single genome amplification, we found that 52% of clade C and B CC Envs exhibited partial resistance to the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc (MVC) on cells expressing high levels of CCR5, while only 15% of T/F Envs exhibited this same ..
  42. pmc Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C activation is required for CCR5-dependent, NF-kB-driven CCL2 secretion elicited in response to HIV-1 gp120 in human primary macrophages
    Laura Fantuzzi
    Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy
    Blood 111:3355-63. 2008
    ..confocal laser-scanner microscopy, and enzymatic activity assay, we demonstrate that R5 gp120 interaction with CCR5 activates PC-PLC, as assessed by a time-dependent modification of its subcellular distribution and a concentration-..
  43. pmc Involvement of the second extracellular loop and transmembrane residues of CCR5 in inhibitor binding and HIV-1 fusion: insights into the mechanism of allosteric inhibition
    Kenji Maeda
    Experimental Retrovirology Section, HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    J Mol Biol 381:956-74. 2008
    C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), a member of G-protein-coupled receptors, serves as a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  44. doi Donor variation in in vitro HIV-1 susceptibility of monocyte-derived macrophages
    Sebastiaan M Bol
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory and Center for Infectious Diseases and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA, Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Virology 390:205-11. 2009
    ..489 different donors shows more than 3 log variation and a good correlation with the 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 co-receptor (ccr5 Delta 32 genotype) of the donors...
  45. pmc Chemokines and activated macrophages in HIV gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis
    M Kaul
    CNS Research Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital, and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:8212-6. 1999
    ..In addition to CD4, different gp120 isolates bind to the alpha- or beta-chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5, respectively. These and other chemokine receptors are on brain macrophages/microglia, astrocytes, and neurons...
  46. ncbi HIV-1 tropism for the central nervous system: Brain-derived envelope glycoproteins with lower CD4 dependence and reduced sensitivity to a fusion inhibitor
    JULIO MARTIN-GARCIA
    Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Virology 346:169-79. 2006
    ..Both brain- and spleen-derived envelope clones mediated fusion in cells expressing both CD4 and CCR5 and brain envelopes also used CCR3 as co-receptor...
  47. ncbi A conserved HIV gp120 glycoprotein structure involved in chemokine receptor binding
    C D Rizzuto
    Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Science 280:1949-53. 1998
    ..The gp120 third variable (V3) loop has been implicated in chemokine receptor binding, but the use of the CCR5 chemokine receptor by diverse primate immunodeficiency viruses suggests the involvement of an additional, conserved ..
  48. pmc Analysis of the critical domain in the V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 involved in CCR5 utilization
    C S Hung
    Departments of Medicine, Pathology, and Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    J Virol 73:8216-26. 1999
    ..have been found with specific tropism for macrophages and/or T-cell lines, through the utilization of chemokine receptor CCR5 (R5) or CXCR4 (X4). The third hypervariable loop (V3 loop) of gp120 is the major determinant of tropism...
  49. pmc N-linked glycosylation sites adjacent to and within the V1/V2 and the V3 loops of dualtropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate DH12 gp120 affect coreceptor usage and cellular tropism
    R A Ogert
    Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892 0460, USA
    J Virol 75:5998-6006. 2001
    ..The glycosylation site mutations near the V1/V2 loop compromised the use of CCR5 and CXCR4 equally...
  50. ncbi The human CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene. Multiple transcripts with 5'-end heterogeneity, dual promoter usage, and evidence for polymorphisms within the regulatory regions and noncoding exons
    S Mummidi
    Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas 78284 7870, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:30662-71. 1997
    Human CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5), mediates the activation of cells by the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, and RANTES, and serves as a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic ..
  51. pmc Genetic subtype-independent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by CC and CXC chemokines
    A Trkola
    The Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, New York, New York 10021, USA
    J Virol 72:396-404. 1998
    ..Down-regulation of the CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors occurred in cells treated with the cognate chemokines and probably contributes to anti-HIV-1 ..
  52. ncbi Chemokine receptor CCR5 polymorphisms and Chagas' disease cardiomyopathy
    J E Calzada
    Instituto de Parasitologia y Biomedicina Lopez Neyra, CSIC, C Ventanilla 11, 18001 Granada, Spain
    Tissue Antigens 58:154-8. 2001
    In this study we investigated the possible role of two CCR5 gene polymorphisms, CCR5Delta32 deletion and CCR5 59029 A-->G promoter point mutation, in determining the susceptibility to Trypanosoma cruzi infection as well as in the ..
  53. pmc Effect of amino acid substitution of the V3 and bridging sheet residues in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C gp120 on CCR5 utilization
    Pirada Suphaphiphat
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Virol 77:3832-7. 2003
    ..domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype B envelope glycoprotein gp120 have been implicated in CCR5 coreceptor utilization...
  54. ncbi Structural and functional characterization of the human CCR5 receptor in complex with HIV gp120 envelope glycoprotein and CD4 receptor by molecular modeling studies
    Shuqun Liu
    Institue of Bioinformatics, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, People s Republic of China
    J Mol Model 9:329-36. 2003
    ..The CC chemokine receptor CCR5 is such a receptor for several chemokines and a major coreceptor for the entry of R5 HIV type-1 (HIV-1) ..
  55. pmc Linkages between HIV-1 specificity for CCR5 or CXCR4 and in vitro usage of alternative coreceptors during progressive HIV-1 subtype C infection
    Kieran Cashin
    Center for Biomedical Research, Burnet Institute, 85 Commercial Rd, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia
    Retrovirology 10:98. 2013
    ..In addition to CCR5 and CXCR4, the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) may engage a variety of alternative coreceptors for entry into ..
  56. ncbi HIV-1 envelope protein gp41 modulates expression of interleukin-10 and chemokine receptors on monocytes, astrocytes and neurones
    C Speth
    Institute for Hygiene, University of Innsbruck and Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for AIDS Research, Austria
    AIDS 14:629-36. 2000
    ..To analyse the effect of HIV-1 transmembrane protein gp41 on cytokine production and chemokine receptor expression in blood and brain...
  57. ncbi Effects of CCR5-Delta32, CCR2-64I, and SDF-1 3'A alleles on HIV-1 disease progression: An international meta-analysis of individual-patient data
    J P Ioannidis
    Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina 45110, Greece
    Ann Intern Med 135:782-95. 2001
    ..Studies relating certain chemokine and chemokine receptor gene alleles with the outcome of HIV-1 infection have yielded inconsistent results...
  58. ncbi Cholesterol is essential for macrophage inflammatory protein 1 beta binding and conformational integrity of CC chemokine receptor 5
    Dzung H Nguyen
    Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
    Blood 99:4298-306. 2002
    The chemokine receptor, CCR5, is used as a human immunodeficiency virus coreceptor in combination with CD4 during transmission and early infection...
  59. ncbi Stromal cell-derived factor-1 genotype, coreceptor tropism, and HIV type 1 disease progression
    Eric S Daar
    Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, and the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, USA
    J Infect Dis 192:1597-605. 2005
    ..and death, a relationship that persisted even when baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4+ T cell counts or CCR5 Delta 32 and CCR2-64I genotype were controlled for...
  60. ncbi Better CD4+ T cell recovery in Brazilian HIV-infected individuals under HAART due to cumulative carriage of SDF-1-3'A, CCR2-V64I, CCR5-D32 and CCR5-promoter 59029A/G polymorphisms
    Paula O Rigato
    Laboratírio de Dermatologia e Imunodeficências LIM 56, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, Brazil
    Curr HIV Res 6:466-73. 2008
    ..We investigated the frequency of the SDF-1-3'A, CCR2-64I, CCR5-D32 and CCR5-Promoter-59029-A/G polymorphisms in Brazilian HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals and their ..
  61. pmc Role of CCL3L1-CCR5 genotypes in the epidemic spread of HIV-1 and evaluation of vaccine efficacy
    Hemant Kulkarni
    Veterans Administration Research Center for AIDS and HIV 1 Infection, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, Texas, USA
    PLoS ONE 3:e3671. 2008
    Polymorphisms in CCR5, the major coreceptor for HIV, and CCL3L1, a potent CCR5 ligand and HIV-suppressive chemokine, are determinants of HIV-AIDS susceptibility...
  62. pmc Effect of TNF-alpha genetic variants and CCR5 Delta 32 on the vulnerability to HIV-1 infection and disease progression in Caucasian Spaniards
    Sergi Veloso
    Hospital Universitari de Tarragona Joan XXIII, Tarragona, Spain
    BMC Med Genet 11:63. 2010
    ..Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is thought to be involved in the various immunogenetic events that influence HIV-1 infection...
  63. pmc An altered and more efficient mechanism of CCR5 engagement contributes to macrophage tropism of CCR5-using HIV-1 envelopes
    Jasminka Sterjovski
    Center for Virology, Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Virology 404:269-78. 2010
    While CCR5 is the principal coreceptor used by macrophage (M)-tropic HIV-1, not all primary CCR5-using (R5) viruses enter macrophages efficiently...
  64. pmc GB virus C coinfection in advanced HIV type-1 disease is associated with low CCR5 and CXCR4 surface expression on CD4(+) T-cells
    Carolynne Schwarze-Zander
    Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Bonn, Germany
    Antivir Ther 15:745-52. 2010
    ..In vitro studies demonstrated down-regulation of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) as a potential mechanism by which GBV-C modulates HIV-1 disease progression...
  65. pmc Co-receptor usage and prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province
    Shuiling Qu
    State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for AIDS STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
    Virol J 7:280. 2010
    ..This study explored co-receptor usage and prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province in order to design effectively therapeutic regimen...
  66. doi Comparison of in vivo and in vitro evolution of CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor use of primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants
    Diana Edo-Matas
    Dept of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, and Center for Infectious Diseases and Immunity Amsterdam CINIMA at Academic Medical Center of University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Virology 412:269-77. 2011
    During the course of at least 50% of HIV-1 subtype B infections, CCR5-using (R5) viruses evolve towards a CXCR4-using phenotype...
  67. doi HIV-1 dual/mixed tropic isolates show different genetic and phenotypic characteristics and response to maraviroc in vitro
    Valentina Svicher
    Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
    Antiviral Res 90:42-53. 2011
    ..is available regarding the genetic characteristics, quasispecies composition, and susceptibility against CCR5-antagonists of the primary-isolates...
  68. pmc Resistance of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate to a small molecule CCR5 inhibitor can involve sequence changes in both gp120 and gp41
    Cleo G Anastassopoulou
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA
    Virology 413:47-59. 2011
    ..12, to become resistant to the small molecule CCR5 inhibitor, vicriviroc (VCV), in vitro. Resistant D101...
  69. doi Rising HIV-1 viral load set point at a population level coincides with a fading impact of host genetic factors on HIV-1 control
    Danielle Van Manen
    Department of Experimental Immunology, Sanquin Research, Landsteiner Laboratory, Center for Infectious Diseases and Immunity Amsterdam at the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    AIDS 25:2217-26. 2011
    Heterozygosity for a 32 base pair deletion in the CCR5 gene (CCR5wt/Δ32) and the minor alleles of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the HCP5 gene (rs2395029) and in the HLA-C gene region (-35HLA-C; rs9264942) has been associated with a ..
  70. ncbi Polymorphism of CCR5 affecting HIV disease progression in the Japanese population
    S Kageyama
    Department of Virology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930 0194, Japan
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17:991-5. 2001
    Among several factors associated with HIV-1 disease progression, genetic polymorphism of CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR4 in HIV-1 infection has been found...
  71. ncbi Ionic interaction of the HIV-1 V3 domain with CCR5 and deregulation of T lymphocyte function
    Stavroula Baritaki
    Department of Applied Biochemistry and Immunology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Vassilika Vouton, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 298:574-80. 2002
    ..activation apoptosis of responding effector CD4+ T lymphocytes, a phenomenon inhibited by RANTES, an agonist of CCR5. Here, addressing the question of how a hypervariable region could induce such a selective reaction, we ..
  72. ncbi CCR5 promoter human haplogroups associated with HIV-1 disease progression in Thai injection drug users
    Lily Nguyen
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    AIDS 18:1327-33. 2004
    An evolutionary-based analysis of the CC chemokine receptor 5 gene (CCR5) promoter region has identified nine stable human haplogroups, within which certain haplogroups appear to influence HIV-1 disease progression differentially among ..
  73. ncbi HIV type 1 glycoprotein 120 inhibits human B cell chemotaxis to CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)20, and CCL21
    Gamal Badr
    Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unité 131, Institut Paris Sud sur les Cytokines, Clamart, France
    J Immunol 175:302-10. 2005
    ..This gp120-induced inhibition was strictly dependent on CXCR4 or CCR5 and lipid rafts but not on CD4 or V(H)3-expressing BCR...
  74. ncbi Electrostatic modeling of peptides derived from the V3-loop of HIV-1 gp120: implications of the interaction with chemokine receptor CCR5
    Dimitrios Morikis
    Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA
    Int J Mol Med 19:343-51. 2007
    ..of CD4+ T cells by macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains involves interaction of viral gp120 with the host cell chemokine receptor CCR5. The principle neutralizing determinant (PND) of the V3-loop of the HIV-1 gp120 was investigated for its ..
  75. doi Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses
    Fedde Groot
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    Blood 111:4660-3. 2008
    ..Since HIV-1-infected macrophages can survive for many weeks, these results highlight the central role played by macrophages in HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis...
  76. pmc Coreceptor tropism can be influenced by amino acid substitutions in the gp41 transmembrane subunit of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein
    Wei Huang
    Monogram Biosciences, 345 Oyster Point Blvd, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA
    J Virol 82:5584-93. 2008
    ..We hypothesize that the latter plays an important role in the transition from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor use.
  77. doi Large-scale expression and purification of the major HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 and characterization of its interaction with RANTES
    Lydia Nisius
    Division of Structural Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 70, CH 4056 Basel, Switzerland
    Protein Expr Purif 61:155-62. 2008
    The G protein-coupled receptor CCR5 is a human chemokine receptor involved in the activation and migration of leukocytes...
  78. pmc Evolution of CCR5 use before and during coreceptor switching
    Mia Coetzer
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Virol 82:11758-66. 2008
    ..In about half of infected individuals or more, env evolution leads to expansion of the use of entry coreceptor from CCR5 alone to CCR5 and CXCR4...
  79. pmc Determinants flanking the CD4 binding loop modulate macrophage tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 R5 envelopes
    Maria José Duenas-Decamp
    Program in Molecular Medicine and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    J Virol 83:2575-83. 2009
    ..Our results have relevance for env-based vaccines that will need to expose critical CD4 contact residues to the immune system...
  80. pmc Tissue-specific sequence alterations in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope favoring CCR5 usage contribute to persistence of dual-tropic virus in the brain
    Lachlan Gray
    Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research and Public Health, Victoria, Australia
    J Virol 83:5430-41. 2009
    Most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains isolated from the brain use CCR5 for entry into macrophages and microglia...
  81. pmc Adaptive mutations in a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein with a truncated V3 loop restore function by improving interactions with CD4
    Caroline Agrawal-Gamse
    Department of Microbiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Virol 83:11005-15. 2009
    ..sensitive to neutralization by the CD4 binding site monoclonal antibody b12 and by HIV-positive human sera, used CCR5 to enter cells, and was completely resistant to small molecule CCR5 antagonists...
  82. pmc Expression of Nef from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA downregulates cell surface CXCR4 and CCR5 on T-lymphocytes
    Richard D Sloan
    McGill University AIDS Centre, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada
    Retrovirology 7:44. 2010
    ..whether Nef expressed from unintegrated DNA was also able to downregulate the chemokine coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5.Viral integration was blocked through use of an inactive integrase or by using the integrase inhibitor raltegravir...
  83. doi CXCR4 and CCR5 ligands cooperate in monocyte and lymphocyte migration and in inhibition of dual-tropic (R5/X4) HIV-1 infection
    Mieke Gouwy
    Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, Rega Institute for Medical Research, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
    Eur J Immunol 41:963-73. 2011
    ..Our data demonstrate the cooperation between CCL5 and CXCL12, which has implications in migration of monocytes/lymphocytes during inflammation and in HIV-1 infection...
  84. pmc Estimating the threshold surface density of Gp120-CCR5 complexes necessary for HIV-1 envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion
    Shiva Naresh Mulampaka
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India
    PLoS ONE 6:e19941. 2011
    Reduced expression of CCR5 on target CD4(+) cells lowers their susceptibility to infection by R5-tropic HIV-1, potentially preventing transmission of infection and delaying disease progression...
  85. ncbi Apoptotic effects in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cell cultures caused by exposure to virion-associated and cell membrane-associated HIV-1 gp120
    M B Huang
    Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry, and Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 27:213-21. 2001
    ..which has been shown to interact predominantly with CXCR4, seems to interact with and induce apoptosis through the CCR5 receptor...
  86. ncbi HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 induces the MMP-9 cytopathogenic factor production that is abolished by inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway
    D Missé
    Laboratoire d Immunologie Rétrovirale et Moléculaire, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 240 Av E Jeanbrau, 34094 Montpellier, France
    Blood 98:541-7. 2001
    ..pathways and their physiopathologic consequences following the CD4-independent interaction between CXCR4 or CCR5 and gp120 in different cell types: primary T cells, CD4(-)/CXCR4(+)/CCR5(+) T cells, or glioma cells...
  87. ncbi Chemokines (RANTES and MCP-1) and chemokine-receptors (CCR2 and CCR5) gene polymorphisms in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease
    Cecilia Huerta
    Genética Molecular IRSIN FRIAT, Hospital Central Asturias, Oviedo 33006, Spain
    Neurosci Lett 370:151-4. 2004
    ..at the genes encoding chemokines MCP-1 (-2518 A/G) and RANTES (-403 A/G), and chemokine receptors 5 (CCR5, Delta32) and 2 (CCR2,V64I), were associated with the risk and/or the clinical outcome of LOAD and PD...
  88. pmc Conserved changes in envelope function during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coreceptor switching
    Cristina Pastore
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Virol 81:8165-79. 2007
    ..of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope function during the process of coreceptor switching from CCR5 to CXCR4...
  89. doi SDF-1 and CCR5 genes polymorphism in patients with head and neck cancer
    Bijan Khademi
    Department of ENT, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
    Pathol Oncol Res 14:45-50. 2008
    ..The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of SDF-1 and CCR5 were assessed by PCR method in 156 patients with malignant head and neck cancer, 125 (80...
  90. pmc Constrained use of CCR5 on CD4+ lymphocytes by R5X4 HIV-1: efficiency of Env-CCR5 interactions and low CCR5 expression determine a range of restricted CCR5-mediated entry
    Lamorris M Loftin
    Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Virology 402:135-48. 2010
    R5X4 HIV-1 has impaired utilization of CCR5 on primary CD4+ lymphocytes but the mechanisms responsible are not well defined. Using a panel of diverse R5X4 Envs we identified a spectrum of CCR5 use on CD4+ lymphocytes...
  91. pmc Chemokine receptor homo- or heterodimerization activates distinct signaling pathways
    M Mellado
    Department of Immunology and Oncology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, E 28049 Madrid, Spain
    EMBO J 20:2497-507. 2001
    ..response, heterodimerization is also permitted between given receptor pairs, specifically between CCR2 and CCR5. This has functional consequences, as the CCR2 and CCR5 ligands monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and RANTES (..
  92. ncbi A highly conserved arginine in gp120 governs HIV-1 binding to both syndecans and CCR5 via sulfated motifs
    Aymeric de Parseval
    Department of Immunology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Biol Chem 280:39493-504. 2005
    ..Surprisingly, we found that Arg-298, which mediates HIV-1 binding to syndecans, also mediates HIV-1 binding to CCR5. We postulated that HIV-1 recognizes similar motifs on syndecans and CCR5...
  93. pmc Mutations in the V3 stem versus the V3 crown and C4 region have different effects on the binding and fusion steps of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 interaction with the CCR5 coreceptor
    Pirada Suphaphiphat
    Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, 651 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Virology 360:182-90. 2007
    The current model for HIV-1 envelope-coreceptor interaction depicts the V3 stem and bridging sheet binding to the CCR5 N-terminus while the V3 crown interacts with the second extracellular loop, which is the coreceptor domain that appears ..
  94. pmc Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 is involved in chemokine receptor homodimer CCR5 internalization and signal transduction but does not affect CXCR4 homodimer or CXCR4-CCR5 heterodimer
    Maha M Hammad
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1X5, Canada
    J Biol Chem 285:34653-64. 2010
    Chemokine receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. CCR5 is also the principal co-receptor for macrophage-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), and efforts have been made to develop ..
  95. pmc Chemokine receptor 5 △32 allele in patients with severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009
    Yoav Keynan
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
    Emerg Infect Dis 16:1621-2. 2010
    Because chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) may have a role in pulmonary immune response, we explored whether patients with severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009 were more likely to carry the CCR5Δ32 allele than were members of the general population...
  96. ncbi Homozygous defect in HIV-1 coreceptor accounts for resistance of some multiply-exposed individuals to HIV-1 infection
    R Liu
    Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, Rockefeller University New York, New York 10016, USA
    Cell 86:367-77. 1996
    ..These findings indicate the importance of CKR-5 in HIV-1 transmission and suggest that targeting the HIV-1-CKR-5 interaction may provide a means of preventing or slowing disease progression...
  97. pmc Mapping the determinants of the CCR5 amino-terminal sulfopeptide interaction with soluble human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120-CD4 complexes
    E G Cormier
    Microbiology and Immunology Department, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461, USA
    J Virol 75:5541-9. 2001
    CD4 and CCR5 mediate fusion and entry of R5 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains. Sulfotyrosine and other negatively charged residues in the CCR5 amino-terminal domain (Nt) are crucial for gp120 binding and viral entry...
  98. ncbi Structural basis for coreceptor selectivity by the HIV type 1 V3 loop
    Timothy Cardozo
    Department of Pharmacology and New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:415-26. 2007
    ..The CXCR4 and CCR5 chemokine receptors are used by "X4-tropic" and "R5-tropic" viruses, respectively...
  99. pmc How HIV changes its tropism: evolution and adaptation?
    Donald E Mosier
    Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 4:125-30. 2009
    To present recent information on the evolution of coreceptor use from CCR5 alone to CCR5 and CXCR4, the impact CCR5 inhibitors have on this process, and new insights into HIV-1 binding to CD4 and CCR5.
  100. pmc HIV-1 escape from the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc associated with an altered and less-efficient mechanism of gp120-CCR5 engagement that attenuates macrophage tropism
    Michael Roche
    Centers for Virology, Monash University, Australia
    J Virol 85:4330-42. 2011
    ..the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by binding to and modifying the conformation of the CCR5 extracellular loops (ECLs)...
  101. pmc HIV ENV glycoprotein-mediated bystander apoptosis depends on expression of the CCR5 co-receptor at the cell surface and ENV fusogenic activity
    Anjali Joshi
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, Texas 79905, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:36404-13. 2011
    ..The coreceptor usage by HIV varies from CCR5 (R5) tropic early in infection to CXCR4 (X4) tropic in later infections...

Research Grants65

  1. HIV, Chemokine Receptors, and Vascular Smooth Muscle
    ALISON SCHECTER; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..muscle cells (SMC), the major cellular components of the vessel wall, possess the functional chemokine receptors, CCR5, and CXCR4. Engagement of these receptors results in a marked induction of tissue factor (TF) activity...
  2. New tools to study leukocyte infiltration into the CNS
    CHARLES LEE HOWE; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..may depend upon signaling through the CXCR2 and CXCR3 axis, while monocyte trafficking may depend upon CCR2 and CCR5 receptors...
  3. Nikolaos G Frangogiannis; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Our studies suggest that signaling through the CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) mediates recruitment of suppressive monocyte subsets and regulatory T cells (Tregs), a CD4+ T lymphocyte ..
  4. Tracy M Handel; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The interaction of pathogenic proteins with chemokine receptors will also be investigated, specifically, the CCR5 receptor with the HIV glycoprotein gp120, and the DARC receptor with the malarial docking protein, DBP...
  5. HIV-1 gp120 Mediated Chemotaxis of Blood Cells
    Ramesh Ganju; Fiscal Year: 2005
    DESCRIPTION: (provided by applicant) Chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 play critical roles in H1V infection...
  6. Characterization of CCR5 Receptor N-terminal domain
    Krishna Rajarathnam; Fiscal Year: 2005
    The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, in conjunction with CD4 and the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), mediate infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)...
  7. Chronic Granulomatous Lung Inflammation Elicited by Carbon Nanotubes
    Mary Jane Thomassen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..specific host receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor? (PPAR?) and chemotactic cytokine receptor 5 (CCR5), reported to be dysregulated in sarcoidosis lung...
  8. Chemokine Decoy Receptor: a novel therapy of IBD
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Constructed from Ig-Fc and the second ecto domain of the CCR5 receptor, hR-421 binds and neutralizes all 3 CCR5-binding ligands (chemokines MIP-?, MIP-?, RANTES) and prevents ..
  9. Inhibition of CCR1/CCR5 mediated angiogenesis and joint destruction by EGCG
    Salah Uddin Ahmed; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..RANTES/CCL5 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-11)/CCL3 are the chemokines shown to activate CCR1 and CCR5 receptor to attract T cells and monocytes into joints during the onset of disease...
  10. Chemokine Decoy Receptor for Therapy of Autoimmune Arthritis
    Kanneganti Murthy; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Constructed from Ig-Fc and the second ecto domain of the CCR5 receptor, hR-421 binds and neutralizes al 3 CCR5-binding chemokine ligands (MIP-?, MIP-?, RANTES) and prevents ..
  11. The role of CCR5 in HIV-1 Tat and morphine-mediated neurodegeneration.
    Elizabeth M Podhaizer; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) may be one such link between drug abuse and disease...
  12. George S Deepe; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..We have shown that the absence of chemokine receptor, CCR5, enhances the ability of mice to clear infection with Hc...
  13. Joseph G Sodroski; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..The unliganded HIV-1 Env glycoprotein complex exists in a high-energy state;upon binding to the CD4 and CCR5 receptors, the HIV-1 Env glycoproteins assume lower-energy conformations...
  14. ALAN N ENGELMAN; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..and maraviroc, a drug that disrupts the interaction between the viral envelope glycoprotein and cellular surface CCR5 receptor, is an approved inhibitor of a virus-cell interaction that blocks the ability of the virus to enter the ..
  15. Ravi S Kane; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..will use polyvalency to develop and characterize potent heterodivalent and polyvalent microbicides that bind to CCR5 receptors and prevent infection by a model pathogen, HIV...
  16. Hans Peter Kiem; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Specifically, we will combine autologous HCT with genetic modification approaches, allowing us to disrupt the CCR5 receptor in autologous stem cells, and also destroy the integrated HIV provirus contained within those cells...
  17. Long-acting, self-administered HIV therapy with th CCR5 antibody PRO 140
    Jeffrey M Jacobson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..PRO 140 is a humanized anti-CCR5 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that has demonstrated potent, long- lived antiretroviral activity and an encouraging ..
  18. DNA & SOLUBLE MULTIMERIC IMMUNOGEN FOR HUMMORAL IMMUNITY
    Jon Oscherwitz; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..b>CCR5 is a G-protein coupled receptor identified as integral for entry by M-tropic HIV isolates into macrophages...
  19. Mucosal SIV-CCR5 receptor vaccine in SIV infection
    Thomas Lehner; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..is based on an "experiment of nature" in which resistance to HIV infection is found in subjects with homozygous A32 CCR5 mutation...
  20. MECHANISM OF REGULATION OF HIV-1 INFECTION BY CHEMOKINES
    Helena Schmidtmayerova; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The members of the chemokine receptor family, CXCR4 and CCR5, have been shown to act as fusion cofactors for HIV-1 T-tropic (X4) and M-tropic (R5) strains, respectively...
  21. MIP-1B Structural Features Responsible for Function
    Patricia LiWang; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..the structural details of the interaction between the chemokine MIP-Ia and its binding partners, particularly CCR5, its natural receptor...
  22. HIV-1 Fusion Coreceptors
    Christopher Broder; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..is initiated by the binding of its envelope glycoprotein (Env) to a receptor (CD4) and a co-receptor (predominantly CCR5 or CXCR4), and fusing its membrane with the host cell membrane...
  23. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL NMR OF HIV-1 ENVELOPE GLYCOPROTEINS
    Jacob Anglister; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..This binding triggers a conformational change in gp120 that forms another binding site to either CCR5 or CXCR4 chemokine receptors, which serve as co-receptors for HIV-1 binding...
  24. Stuart A Lipton; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..treatment, we and our collaborators have synthesized new peptide inhibitors of chemokine receptors (CXCR4 and CCR5, which are co-receptors for HIV/gp120), and found that these novel synthetically and modularly modified (SMM)-..
  25. Rational Design of HIV Fusion Inhibitors Targeting gp41
    Shibo Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cell is initiated by binding of the envelope glycoprotein surface unit gp120 to CD4 and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5) followed by gp41 refolding from its native conformation to a fusion-active conformation, a six-helix bundle ..
  26. CORECEPTOR USAGE AND HIV DISEASE KINETICS
    Donald Mosier; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..Macrophage-tropic HIV uses both CD4 and the CCR5 chemokine receptor as co-receptors for virus entry...
  27. A New Insight into HIV-1 Latency Through a Novel in Vitro System
    Fabio Romerio; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Whereas CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains are responsible for virus transmission during primary infection and persist throughout disease,..
  28. Lan Zhou; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..We further showed that mdx diaphragm fibrocytes expressed chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5, and CXCR4...
  29. CAROL AHERNE; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Following netrin-1 treatment a robust reduction in the expression of Th1 chemokine receptors, CXCR3 and CCR5, was observed in TNF[unreadable]ARE ileum indicating netrin-1 attenuated a Th1 T cell response...
  30. Immunomodulatory Function of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 2 (HTLV-2)
    Mark A Beilke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..potent inducer of beta chemokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and was observed to down-regulate CCR5 co-receptor expression and improve PBMC viability and lymphoproliferative capacity...
  31. HIV MACROPHAGE TROPISM
    WILLIAM O BRIEN; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..a critical domain for defining cellular tropism, and the identification of coreceptors, particularly the chemokine receptor CCR5, which is required for efficient entry of M-tropic HIV strains into M as well as CD4+T cells...
  32. Tropism and transmissibility of HIV-1 envelopes in semen
    Paul Clapham; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..The chemokine receptors, CCR5 and CXCR4 are major coreceptors and all HIV-1 isolates use one or both...
  33. Opioid Modulation of Inflammatory Monocyte Activity Involved in HIV Susceptibilit
    Thomas J Rogers; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our laboratory has shown that acute mu opioid administration induces the expression of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4...
  34. Directing Tumor-specific T cells to Tumors
    Pawel Kalinski; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of to induce a defined pattern of CKRs on tumor-specific T cells (selectively-enhanced expression of CXCR3 and CCR5), and our development of several complementary strategies to selectively enhance the production of the relevant ..
  35. 2010 Chemotactic Cytokines Gordon Research Conference
    Sergio A Lira; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In addition, 2 chemokine receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) have been shown to play profound roles in HIV pathogenesis through their ability to act as co-receptors ..
  36. Tools for HIV-I Inhibition Antagonists for the CCR5 Recognition Site on gp 120
    JONATHAN RUDICK; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..binding site of the envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) can be exploited to prevent binding to the (3 chemokine receptor CCR5, and potentially other chemokine receptors, which is requisite for viral entry...
  37. CCR5 & CXCR4 Antagonist & Agonist Binding Site Structure
    EDWARD DRATZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..HIV entry is a complex process that requires binding of the HIV envelope protein gp120 to a cellular co-receptor (CCR5 or CXCR4)...
  38. Natural IgM antilymphocyte autoantibodies inhibit HIV-1
    PETER LOBO; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..The latency period is determined by host factors that control viral infectivity. Chemokine receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) serve as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into cells...
  39. Inhibiting Mucosal HIV-1 Transmission by Host Cell RNA Interference
    Alexandra L Howell; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..However, APC also express CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 receptors and can become productively infected with HIV-1...
  40. Structural Biology of G-Protein Coupled Receptors
    Wayne A Hendrickson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..human glycoprotein hormone receptors, FSHR and LHR;and human chemokine receptors that are co-opted by HIV, CCR5 and CXCR4. Continued studies are also planned for other GPCRs...
  41. Treg Migration in GVHD
    Jonathan Serody; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..that Treg cells express a different pattern of chemokine receptors after activation, that the chemokine receptor, CCR5, is markedly increased after activation, and that the absence of CCR5 on donor T cells markedly increased the ..
  42. HIV drug abusers, polymorphisms and brain plasticity
    Italo Mocchetti; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Chronic opiates alter the expression of chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, known to mediate the neurotoxic effect of HIV...
  43. Molecular Regulation of CC Chemokine in Atherosclerosis and Aging
    Raymond L Yung; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..that aging is associated with the increase gene expression of selected CC chemokine receptors, including CCR2 and CCR5. The long term goal of this project is to improve the care of coronary artery disease in the elderly...
  44. IgM Antileucocyte Autoantibodies Inhibit Kidney Allograft Rejections
    PETER LOBO; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..e. CD3, CD4, and chemokine receptors e.g. CCR5. In this proposal we plan to use a mouse model (i.e...
  45. Tachykinins Mononuclear Phagocytes and HIV-1 Infection
    STEVEN DANIEL DOUGLAS; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..SP antagonist (CP-96,345) inhibits HIV replication in human mononuclear phagocytes through down-regulation of CCR5, the chemokine receptor, the principal co-receptor for HIV entry into macrophages and also by NK1R antagonist ..
  46. William M Geisler; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..without re-infection more often had CT-specific Th1 responses (IFN-3 and TNF-1) and expression of Th1 chemokine receptor CCR5 and less often HLA-DQB1*05 and IL10 gene variants...
  47. Stabilization of CXCR4 and its complexes for high resolution structural studies
    QINGHAI contact ZHANG; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Although CCR5 is the primary co-receptor responsible for HIV transmission, emergence of CXCR4-tropic (X4-tropic) viruses later in ..
  48. HOST GENETIC DETERMINANTS OF HIV PATHOGENESIS
    Sunil Ahuja; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..For example, we have demonstrated recently that polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of CCR5, the coding regions of CCR2B, and the chemokine SDF are associated with altered rates of HIV-1 disease progression (..
  49. Evaluating self-protection of Th17 cells against HIV-1 by CCR5 Ligands Synthesis
    Yelina Alvarez; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In this application, we hypothesize that unlike Th1 cells, Th17 cells synthesize no or little anti-HIV CCR5 ligands, which render them more sensitive to HIV infection, especially by the CCR5-tropic isolates...
  50. A Tool for Modeling the Structure-Activity of Chemokine Receptors and Other GPCRs
    BENJAMIN DORANZ; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We identified the structural determinants of five different CCR5 molecular interactions, including critical amino acids responsible for interacting with a chemokine (RANTES), two ..
  51. Thomas J Rogers; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..show that the activation of the ?-opioid receptor induces a significant increase in the level of expression of CCR5 and CXCR4 in both monocytes and T cells. In contrast, activation of the ?-opioid receptor has the opposing effect...
  52. Foldamers: Novel Ligands for Diverse Protein Surfaces
    Alanna Schepartz; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We also describe beta-peptides that either inhibit or activate CXCR4 and CCR5 chemokine receptors from within the plasma membrane...
  53. INACTIVATION OF CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS BY INTRAKINES
    Si Yi Chen; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..recent studies have demonstrated that intrakines can efficiently down-regulate surface chemokine receptors such as CCR5 and CXCR4 on T-cells to inhibit HIV-1 infection, while having no apparent detrimental effects on T-cell functions (..
  54. Covalently Tethered Chemokines and HIV-1 Inhibition
    Wuyuan Lu; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..T cell line-tropic (X4 strain) and macrophagetropic (R5 strain) HIV-1 isolates, the chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 mediate direct fusion of the virus and target cell membranes...
  55. Blocking of HIV Chemokine Receptors By Intrabodies
    Bruce Torbett; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..The identification of naturally occurring polymorphisms of the CCR5 gene has shown that gene disruption provides protection from CCR5 using viruses...
  56. Chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonists as novel anti-HIV agents
    Yan Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2007
    unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Chemokine receptor CCR5 is co-receptor for the HIV virus entry to host cells. The application of CCR5 antagonist in blocking the entry may provide a novel anti-HIV therapeutic pathway...
  57. Patrick J Sinko; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..targeting and anti-HIV activity using multiplex affinity ligands for the formyl peptide receptor, mannose receptor, CCR5 and CXCR4 using protease inhibitors in cells chronically infected with HIV-1;(2) To determine the effect of peptide-..
  58. Anti-HIV Neuroimmunomodulatory Therapy with Neurokinin-1 (NK1-R) Antagonists
    STEVEN DANIEL DOUGLAS; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The antiviral effect is mediated, in part, through CCR5 down-regulation. Aprepitant crosses the blood-brain barrier...
  59. Mechanisms of HIV Resistance to CCR5 Inhibitors and Consequences for Pathogenesis
    JOHN CHRISTIAN TILTON; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Drugs that block the interaction between the HIV envelope protein gp120 and the coreceptor CCR5 are in development and will likely be available for the treatment of patients in the near future...
  60. MINORITY PREDOCTORAL FELLOWSHIP
    Elliott Dew; Fiscal Year: 2006
    b>CCR5 is an HIV-1 coreceptor and mediates viral entry into target cells. Small molecules SCH-C, TAK-779, and the anti-CCR5 MAb PA14 inhibit HIV entry by disrupting gp120-CCR5 binding...
  61. Efficacy Testing of HIV-Specific Microbicides in Humanized Mice
    Ramesh Akkina; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Our specific aims are to 1. Develop the integrase inhibitor raltegravir and CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc as vaginal microbicides. 2...
  62. Marcus Kaul; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..IFN? induces in M? and microglia natural ligands of the HIV coreceptor CCR5, such as MIP-1??? and RANTES, which inhibit HIV-1 infection...
  63. Anibamine, a novel CCR5 antagonist as anti-HIV lead compound
    Yan Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2009
    The chemokine receptor CCR5 is one of the essential co-receptors for the HIV virus entry to host cells. The application of CCR5 antagonist in blocking the virus entry will provide a novel anti-HIV therapeutic pathway...
  64. Primate Model Towards HIV Eradication Strategies
    RAYMOND FELIX SCHINAZI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..efavirenz and raltegravir;and iii) enhancement of the most potent drug combination with a protease inhibitor or a CCR5 antagonist...
  65. Transcriptional Gene Silencing of HIV and CCR5
    Kevin Morris; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..We hypothesize that the HIV-1 promoter, specifically the 5'LTR, and the promoter for the chemokine co-receptor CCR5 used for entry by HIV-1 can be specifically targeted by siRNAs (delivered directly into the nucleus) and that these ..