CB2

Summary

Gene Symbol: CB2
Description: cannabinoid receptor 2
Alias: CB-2, CB2, CX5, cannabinoid receptor 2, cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage), testis-dominant CNR2 isoform CB2
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Role of intracellular loops of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor in functional interaction with G(alpha16)
    Begonia Y Ho
    Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks 58202, USA
    FEBS Lett 522:130-4. 2002
  2. ncbi Distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) on sensory nerve fibers and adnexal structures in human skin
    Sonja Ständer
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Munster, Germany
    J Dermatol Sci 38:177-88. 2005
  3. doi Cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 agonists increase lipid accumulation in hepatocytes
    Andrea De Gottardi
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Liver Int 30:1482-9. 2010
  4. ncbi Expression of central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors in human immune tissues and leukocyte subpopulations
    S Galiegue
    Sanofi Recherche, Immunopharmacology Department, Montpellier, France
    Eur J Biochem 232:54-61. 1995
  5. ncbi Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids
    S Munro
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 365:61-5. 1993
  6. ncbi 2-arachidonoylglycerol induces the migration of HL-60 cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells and human peripheral blood monocytes through the cannabinoid CB2 receptor-dependent mechanism
    Seishi Kishimoto
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Kanagawa 199 0195, Japan
    J Biol Chem 278:24469-75. 2003
  7. ncbi Cannabinoid CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are selectively overexpressed in neuritic plaque-associated glia in Alzheimer's disease brains
    Cristina Benito
    Laboratorio de Apoyo a la Investigacion, Fundacion Hospital Alcorcon, 28922 Alcorcon, Madrid, Spain
    J Neurosci 23:11136-41. 2003
  8. ncbi Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are expressed by perivascular microglial cells in the human brain: an immunohistochemical study
    Estefanía Núñez
    Laboratorio de Apoyo a la Investigacion, Fundacion Hospital Alcorcon, 28922, Alcorcon, Madrid, Spain
    Synapse 53:208-13. 2004
  9. ncbi Prevention of Alzheimer's disease pathology by cannabinoids: neuroprotection mediated by blockade of microglial activation
    Belén G Ramirez
    Neurodegeneration Group, Cajal Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28002 Madrid, Spain
    J Neurosci 25:1904-13. 2005
  10. ncbi Antifibrogenic role of the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in the liver
    Boris Julien
    INSERM, U581, Creteil, F 94010 France
    Gastroenterology 128:742-55. 2005

Research Grants

  1. Control of Breast Cancer by the Endocannabinoid System
    Sean McAllister; Fiscal Year: 2009
  2. BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF CB2 CANNABINOID RECEPTORS (CB2RS)
    Emmanuel S Onaivi; Fiscal Year: 2012
  3. Virginia S Seybold; Fiscal Year: 2014
  4. Endogenous Cannabinoids and NGF Signaling in Pain Associated with Cystitis
    DALE EDMOND BJORLING; Fiscal Year: 2013
  5. DONALD SIMONE; Fiscal Year: 2014
  6. Alexandros Makriyannis; Fiscal Year: 2016
  7. Jenny L Wiley; Fiscal Year: 2016
  8. TORBJORN U JARBE; Fiscal Year: 2016
  9. Synthetic cannabinoids as novel therapeutic strategies against non-small cell lun
    Ramesh K Ganju; Fiscal Year: 2012
  10. Pharmacogenetics of obesity and endocannabinergic modulation (POEM)
    Russell A Wilke; Fiscal Year: 2012

Detail Information

Publications261 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Role of intracellular loops of cannabinoid CB(1) receptor in functional interaction with G(alpha16)
    Begonia Y Ho
    Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Therapeutics, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks 58202, USA
    FEBS Lett 522:130-4. 2002
    ..Several sub-domains within the third intracellular loop were identified for receptor-G(alpha16) interaction...
  2. ncbi Distribution of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) on sensory nerve fibers and adnexal structures in human skin
    Sonja Ständer
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Munster, Germany
    J Dermatol Sci 38:177-88. 2005
    ..Cannabinoid receptors mediate the psychopharmacological action of marijuana and have been localized in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as on cells of the immune system...
  3. doi Cannabinoid receptor 1 and 2 agonists increase lipid accumulation in hepatocytes
    Andrea De Gottardi
    Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    Liver Int 30:1482-9. 2010
    Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are expressed in the liver, but their regulation in fatty hepatocytes is poorly documented...
  4. ncbi Expression of central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors in human immune tissues and leukocyte subpopulations
    S Galiegue
    Sanofi Recherche, Immunopharmacology Department, Montpellier, France
    Eur J Biochem 232:54-61. 1995
    ..as cannabinoid receptors; the central cannabinoid receptor, CB1, and the peripheral cannabinoid receptor, CB2, initially described in rat brain and spleen, respectively...
  5. ncbi Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids
    S Munro
    MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK
    Nature 365:61-5. 1993
    ..Here we report the cloning of a receptor for cannabinoids that is not expressed in the brain but rather in macrophages in the marginal zone of spleen...
  6. ncbi 2-arachidonoylglycerol induces the migration of HL-60 cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells and human peripheral blood monocytes through the cannabinoid CB2 receptor-dependent mechanism
    Seishi Kishimoto
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Kanagawa 199 0195, Japan
    J Biol Chem 278:24469-75. 2003
    2-Arachidonoylglycerol is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) and has been shown to exhibit a variety of cannabimimetic activities in vitro and in vivo...
  7. ncbi Cannabinoid CB2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are selectively overexpressed in neuritic plaque-associated glia in Alzheimer's disease brains
    Cristina Benito
    Laboratorio de Apoyo a la Investigacion, Fundacion Hospital Alcorcon, 28922 Alcorcon, Madrid, Spain
    J Neurosci 23:11136-41. 2003
    ..status of some of the components of the endocannabinoid system, fatty acid amide hydrolase and cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, in postmortem brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease...
  8. ncbi Cannabinoid CB2 receptors are expressed by perivascular microglial cells in the human brain: an immunohistochemical study
    Estefanía Núñez
    Laboratorio de Apoyo a la Investigacion, Fundacion Hospital Alcorcon, 28922, Alcorcon, Madrid, Spain
    Synapse 53:208-13. 2004
    Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been characterized so far, CB1 and CB2. While CB1 receptors are present both in the CNS and in the periphery, CB2 receptors showed an almost exclusive distribution within the immune system...
  9. ncbi Prevention of Alzheimer's disease pathology by cannabinoids: neuroprotection mediated by blockade of microglial activation
    Belén G Ramirez
    Neurodegeneration Group, Cajal Institute, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, 28002 Madrid, Spain
    J Neurosci 25:1904-13. 2005
    ..Here, we show that senile plaques in AD patients express cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, together with markers of microglial activation, and that CB1-positive neurons, present in high numbers in control ..
  10. ncbi Antifibrogenic role of the cannabinoid receptor CB2 in the liver
    Boris Julien
    INSERM, U581, Creteil, F 94010 France
    Gastroenterology 128:742-55. 2005
    ..Cannabinoids are the active components of marijuana and act via 2 G-protein-coupled receptors, CB1 and CB2. Here, we investigated whether liver fibrogenic cells are a target of cannabinoids.
  11. ncbi Reduced endocannabinoid immune modulation by a common cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor gene polymorphism: possible risk for autoimmune disorders
    Jack C Sipe
    Department of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute MEM 215, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Leukoc Biol 78:231-8. 2005
    ..To assess the immunomodulating role of the cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor, we sought polymorphisms in the human gene, identified a common dinucleotide polymorphism, and ..
  12. ncbi Cannabinoid receptor type 2 gene is associated with human osteoporosis
    Meliha Karsak
    Department of Psychiatry, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Germany
    Hum Mol Genet 14:3389-96. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate a role for the peripherally expressed CB2 receptor in the etiology of osteoporosis and provide an interesting novel therapeutical target for this severe and ..
  13. ncbi Effects of peripheral cannabinoid receptor ligands on motility and polarization in neutrophil-like HL60 cells and human neutrophils
    Rina Kurihara
    Division of Proteomics, Department of Genome Sciences, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe 650 0017, Japan
    J Biol Chem 281:12908-18. 2006
    The possible role of the peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2) in neutrophil migration was investigated by using human promyelocytic HL60 cells differentiated into neutrophil-like cells and human neutrophils isolated from whole blood...
  14. pmc Species differences in cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2 gene): identification of novel human and rodent CB2 isoforms, differential tissue expression and regulation by cannabinoid receptor ligands
    Q R Liu
    Mol Neurobiol Branch, NIDA IRP, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Genes Brain Behav 8:519-30. 2009
    ..endocannabinoids and marijuana activate two well-characterized cannabinoid receptors (CB-Rs), CB1-Rs and CB2-Rs...
  15. pmc Identification of transcription start sites and preferential expression of select CB2 transcripts in mouse and human B lymphocytes
    Tracy A Sherwood
    Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Basic Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 4:476-88. 2009
    ..The predominant cannabinoid receptor involved in this immune regulation is cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB(2)), which is predominantly expressed in B lymphocytes...
  16. pmc Cannabinoid receptor type 1- and 2-mediated increase in cyclic AMP inhibits T cell receptor-triggered signaling
    Christine Börner
    Departments of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Magdeburg, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
    J Biol Chem 284:35450-60. 2009
    ..to characterize inhibitory mechanisms on T cell receptor signaling mediated by the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Both receptors are coupled to G(i/o) proteins, which are associated with inhibition of cyclic AMP formation...
  17. pmc Cannabinoid inhibition of macrophage migration to the trans-activating (Tat) protein of HIV-1 is linked to the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor
    Erinn S Raborn
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA
    J Pharmacol Exp Ther 333:319-27. 2010
    ..Furthermore, these results suggest that the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor has potential to serve as a therapeutic target for ablation of HIV-1-associated untoward inflammatory response...
  18. doi Functional consequences of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CB2 cannabinoid receptor
    Alex Carrasquer
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky 40292, USA
    Pharmacogenet Genomics 20:157-66. 2010
    To test the hypothesis that the two nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms at the CB2 cannabinoid receptor gene may have functional consequences on human CB2.
  19. doi CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor expression during development and in epileptogenic developmental pathologies
    E Zurolo
    Department of Neuro Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neuroscience 170:28-41. 2010
    ..Using immunocytochemistry, we explored the expression and cellular pattern of CBR 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2) during prenatal human cortical development, as well as in focal malformations of cortical development associated ..
  20. pmc Cannabinoid receptor 2 and its agonists mediate hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mobilization
    Shuxian Jiang
    Division of Experimental Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    Blood 117:827-38. 2011
    ..Thus, CB₂ agonists may be therapeutically applied in clinical conditions, such as bone marrow transplantation...
  21. pmc Unraveling the complexities of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) immune regulation in health and disease
    Sreemanti Basu
    Blood Research Institute, Blood Center of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
    Immunol Res 51:26-38. 2011
    It has become clear that the endocannabinoid system is a potent regulator of immune responses, with the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) as the key component due to its high expression by all immune subtypes...
  22. pmc Activation of cannabinoid type 2 receptors inhibits HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120-induced synapse loss
    Hee Jung Kim
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Mol Pharmacol 80:357-66. 2011
    ..These results indicate that cannabinoids prevent the impairment of network function produced by gp120 and, thus, might have therapeutic potential in HAD...
  23. doi Cannabinoids inhibit migration of microglial-like cells to the HIV protein Tat
    Daniel Fraga
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1101 E Marshall St, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 6:566-77. 2011
    ..Furthermore, the results indicate that activation of the CB2R leads to altered expression and compartmentation of the β-chemokine receptor CCR-3...
  24. pmc CNR2 functional variant (Q63R) influences childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura
    Francesca Rossi
    Department of Paediatrics, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
    Haematologica 96:1883-5. 2011
    ..011, respectively). The relative odds ratio suggested the risk of developing chronic form was more than double in immune thrombocytopenic purpura children homozygous for the variant (odds ratio=2.349, 95% CI: 1.544-3.573; P<0.001)...
  25. doi The cannabinoid receptor type 2 Q63R variant increases the risk of celiac disease: implication for a novel molecular biomarker and future therapeutic intervention
    Francesca Rossi
    Department of Pediatrics, Second University of Naples, 80138 Naples, Italy
    Pharmacol Res 66:88-94. 2012
    ..Cells of the immune system express the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), a plasma-membrane receptor activated by both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids...
  26. pmc Cannabinoid receptor type 2 functional variant influences liver damage in children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Francesca Rossi
    Department of Pediatrics, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy
    PLoS ONE 7:e42259. 2012
    ..In particular, hepatoprotective properties for Cannabinoid Receptor type 2 (CB2) have been shown both through experimental murine models of liver injury and association study between a CB2 ..
  27. pmc Cannabinoid receptor 2: potential role in immunomodulation and neuroinflammation
    Slava Rom
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, 3401 N Broad St, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA
    J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 8:608-20. 2013
    ..This review attempts to summarize recent advances in studies of CB(2) activation in the setting of neuroinflammation, immunomodulation and HIV-1 infection...
  28. pmc Regulation of RNA processing and transport by a nuclear guanine nucleotide release protein and members of the Ras superfamily
    T Kadowaki
    Institute of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106
    EMBO J 12:2929-37. 1993
    ..Thus, MTR1 and its homologs appear to act as GNRPs for a family of conserved GTPases in controlling RNA metabolism and transport. Their role in governing checkpoint control appears to be restricted to higher eukaryotes...
  29. ncbi The endocannabinoid-CB receptor system: Importance for development and in pediatric disease
    Ester Fride
    Department of Behavioral Sciences, College of Judea and Samaria, Ariel 44837, Israel
    Neuro Endocrinol Lett 25:24-30. 2004
    Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) and their cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, are present from the early stages of gestation and play a number of vital roles for the developing organism...
  30. doi Cannabinoid receptors in brain: pharmacogenetics, neuropharmacology, neurotoxicology, and potential therapeutic applications
    Emmanuel S Onaivi
    Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey 07470, USA
    Int Rev Neurobiol 88:335-69. 2009
    ..and enzymes for their biosynthesis and degradation with genes encoding two distinct cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors (CBRs) that are activated by endocannabinoids, cannabinoids, and marijuana use...
  31. ncbi Molecular and cellular changes induced by the activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in trabecular meshwork cells
    Fang He
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Mol Vis 13:1348-56. 2007
    To study the role of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in cellular functions of trabecular meshwork (TM) cells including cytoskeleton changes and migration and to investigate the possible signaling pathways utilized by CB2 receptor for these ..
  32. ncbi Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2: a characterization of expression and adenylate cyclase modulation within the immune system
    A R Schatz
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 142:278-87. 1997
    ..CB1 was not detected in mouse thymus or rat spleen RNA by Northern analysis. CB2 (peripheral) was detected as a approximately 4-kb transcript in mouse spleen and thymus and as approximately 2...
  33. pmc Cannabinoids ameliorate pain and reduce disease pathology in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis
    Christoph W Michalski
    Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
    Gastroenterology 132:1968-78. 2007
    ..Moreover, the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in pancreatitis has not been addressed...
  34. doi [Expression of cannabinoid and opioid receptors in nervous as well as immune systems of Macaca mulatta and Tupaia belangeri]
    Qing Yu Zhang
    Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Kunming Yunnan 650223, China
    Dongwuxue Yanjiu 32:31-9. 2011
    ..In M. mulatta, the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1) mRNA was expressed in the all tissues; in contrast, the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2) mRNA was only present in the spleen...
  35. ncbi CB2 cannabinoid receptors in trabecular meshwork cells mediate JWH015-induced enhancement of aqueous humor outflow facility
    Lichun Zhong
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:1988-92. 2005
    To study the effects of JWH015, a CB2-selective agonist, on aqueous humor outflow facility, to investigate whether functional CB2 cannabinoid receptors are expressed in trabecular meshwork cells, and to study whether these receptors are ..
  36. ncbi [Effects of electroacupuncture on the immunoreactivity of focal cutaneous CB2 receptor positive cells in arthritis rats]
    Jun Jun Li
    Department of Neurobiology, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China
    Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 32:9-15. 2007
    To study the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on the immunoreactivity of focal cutaneous cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) positive cells in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats.
  37. ncbi Suppression of nerve growth factor Trk receptors and prolactin receptors by endocannabinoids leads to inhibition of human breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation
    D Melck
    Istituto per la Chimica di Molecole di Interesse Biologico, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Arco Felice Na, Italy
    Endocrinology 141:118-26. 2000
    Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), two endogenous ligands of the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor subtypes, inhibit the proliferation of PRL-responsive human breast cancer cells (HBCCs) through down-regulation of the long form ..
  38. ncbi The CB1 cannabinoid receptor mediates glutamatergic synaptic suppression in the hippocampus
    K A Takahashi
    Department of Neuroscience, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Kennedy Center Room 703, 1410 Pelham Parkway South, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Neuroscience 139:795-802. 2006
    ..is widely distributed in the CNS and accounts for most of the neurological effects of cannabinoids, while cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) expression in the CNS is very limited. The presence of additional receptors [i.e...
  39. ncbi Comprehensive proteomic mass spectrometric characterization of human cannabinoid CB2 receptor
    Nikolai Zvonok
    Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Proteome Res 6:2068-79. 2007
    The CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors belong to the GPCR superfamily and are associated with a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes...
  40. pmc Cannabinoid-induced apoptosis in immune cells as a pathway to immunosuppression
    SADIYE AMCAOGLU RIEDER
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
    Immunobiology 215:598-605. 2010
    ..In contrast, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is predominantly expressed on immune cells...
  41. ncbi A role for cannabinoid receptors, but not endogenous opioids, in the antinociceptive activity of the CB2-selective agonist, GW405833
    Garth T Whiteside
    Purdue Pharma Discovery Research, 6 Cedar Brook Drive, Cranbury, NJ 08512, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 528:65-72. 2005
    ..Koetzner, L., Whiteside, G.T., 2005. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characterization of the cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist, GW405833, utilizing rodent models of acute and chronic pain, anxiety, ataxia and catalepsy...
  42. pmc N-arachidonoyl glycine, an abundant endogenous lipid, potently drives directed cellular migration through GPR18, the putative abnormal cannabidiol receptor
    Douglas McHugh
    The Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
    BMC Neurosci 11:44. 2010
    ..The endogenous cannabinoid system regulates microglial migration via CB2 receptors and an as yet unidentified GPCR termed the 'abnormal cannabidiol' (Abn-CBD) receptor...
  43. pmc Cannabinoid-induced mesenteric vasodilation through an endothelial site distinct from CB1 or CB2 receptors
    Z Jarai
    Department of Pharmacology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:14136-41. 1999
    ..Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been cloned, and studies with the selective CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A have implicated peripherally ..
  44. pmc The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin
    R G Pertwee
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK
    Br J Pharmacol 153:199-215. 2008
    ..cannabidiol (CBD) and (-)-trans-delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (delta9-THCV), interact with cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors...
  45. pmc COX-2, CB2 and P2X7-immunoreactivities are increased in activated microglial cells/macrophages of multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis spinal cord
    Yiangos Yiangou
    Peripheral Neuropathy Unit, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
    BMC Neurol 6:12. 2006
    ..Therefore, three key molecules known to be expressed in activated microglial cells/macrophages, COX-2, CB2 and P2X7, which plays a role in inflammatory cascades, were studied in MS and ALS post-mortem human spinal cord.
  46. ncbi Functional heterogeneity in the antibodies produced to Borrelia burgdorferi
    J L Benach
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA
    Wien Klin Wochenschr 111:985-9. 1999
    ..These antibodies are primarily monoclonal to antigenic determinants in OspA and OspB. One of these, CB2, is an IgG1 monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope in the carboxy terminus of OspB...
  47. pmc Receptor mechanism and antiemetic activity of structurally-diverse cannabinoids against radiation-induced emesis in the least shrew
    Nissar A Darmani
    Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences, 309 East Second Street, Pomona, CA 91766, USA
    Eur J Pharmacol 563:187-96. 2007
    Xenobiotic cannabinoid CB1/CB2-receptor agonists appear to possess broad-spectrum antiemetic activity since they prevent vomiting produced by a variety of emetic stimuli including the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, serotonin 5-HT3-..
  48. ncbi Novel cannabinol probes for CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors
    A Mahadevan
    Organix, Inc, 240 Salem Street, Woburn, Massachusetts 01801, USA
    J Med Chem 43:3778-85. 2000
    ..the phenolic hydroxyl of THCs was important for binding to the CB1 receptor but not as critical for binding to the CB2 receptor prompted us to extend this finding to the cannabinol (CBN) series...
  49. ncbi Discovery of the presence and functional expression of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in brain
    Emmanuel S Onaivi
    Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ 07470, USA
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1074:514-36. 2006
    Two well-characterized cannabinoid receptors (CBrs), CB1 and CB2, mediate the effects of cannabinoids and marijuana use, with functional evidence for other CBrs. CB1 receptors are expressed primarily in brain and peripheral tissues...
  50. ncbi Cannabinol derivatives: binding to cannabinoid receptors and inhibition of adenylylcyclase
    M H Rhee
    Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
    J Med Chem 40:3228-33. 1997
    ..of cannabinol were prepared and assayed for binding to the brain and the peripheral cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), as well as for activation of CB1- and CB2-mediated inhibition of adenylylcyclase...
  51. ncbi Novel analogues of arachidonylethanolamide (anandamide): affinities for the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and metabolic stability
    S Lin
    Departments of Pharmaceutical Sciences and of Molecular and Cell Biology and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA
    J Med Chem 41:5353-61. 1998
    ..and evaluated in order to study (a) the structural requirements for high-affinity binding to the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and (b) their hydrolytic stability toward anandamide amidase...
  52. ncbi Enhancement of erythropoietin-stimulated cell proliferation by Anandamide correlates with increased activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and ERK2
    P Valk
    Institute of Hematology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands
    Hematol J 1:254-63. 2000
    Anandamide (ANA) is an endogenous ligand for the cannabinoid receptors Cb1 and Cb2 that is able to synergistically stimulate the proliferation of hematopoietic growth factor-dependent blood cells in serum-free culture...
  53. pmc The preimplantation mouse embryo is a target for cannabinoid ligand-receptor signaling
    B C Paria
    Department of Physiology, Ralph L Smith Research Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City 66160 7338, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:9460-4. 1995
    ..reverse transcription-coupled PCR, we demonstrated that both brain and spleen type cannabinoid receptor (CB1-R and CB2-R, respectively) mRNAs are expressed in the preimplantation mouse embryo...
  54. ncbi N-Acylethanolamines in human reproductive fluids
    Herbert Schuel
    Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214, USA
    Chem Phys Lipids 121:211-27. 2002
    ..It binds with higher affinity to type CB1 than to type CB2 cannabinoid receptors...
  55. ncbi The pharmacology of cannabinoid receptors and their ligands: an overview
    R G Pertwee
    School of Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
    Int J Obes (Lond) 30:S13-8. 2006
    Mammalian tissues express at least two cannabinoid receptor types, CB1 and CB2, both G protein coupled. CB1 receptors are found predominantly at nerve terminals where they mediate inhibition of transmitter release...
  56. ncbi Chemosensory responses of Tetrahymena thermophila to CB2, a 24-amino-acid fragment of lysozyme
    H G Kuruvilla
    Cedarville College, Science Department, Ohio 45314, USA
    J Comp Physiol A 184:529-34. 1999
    ..Reduced lysozyme was cut into three fragments by cyanogen bromide cleavage and the fragments (CB1, CB2 and CB3) were separated by HPLC...
  57. pmc Beneficial paracrine effects of cannabinoid receptor 2 on liver injury and regeneration
    Fatima Teixeira-Clerc
    INSERM, U955, Creteil, France
    Hepatology 52:1046-59. 2010
    The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) plays a pleiotropic role in innate immunity and is a crucial mediator of liver disease. In this study, we investigated the impact of CB2 receptors on the regenerative process associated with liver injury...
  58. doi Cannabinoids and capsaicin improve liver function following thioacetamide-induced acute injury in mice
    Yosefa Avraham
    Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolism, Braun School of Public Health, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel
    Am J Gastroenterol 103:3047-56. 2008
    ..We have shown the beneficial effects of cannabinoids in a murine model of hepatic encephalopathy following thioacetamide and now report their effects on the liver injury...
  59. pmc Clarifying CB2 receptor-dependent and independent effects of THC on human lung epithelial cells
    Theodore Sarafian
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 37 131 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 231:282-90. 2008
    ..We conclude that airway epithelial cells are sensitive to both CB2R-dependent and independent effects mediated by THC...
  60. ncbi Modulation and functional involvement of CB2 peripheral cannabinoid receptors during B-cell differentiation
    P Carayon
    Immunology Department, Sanofi Recherche, Montpellier, France and the Immunité et vaccination, INSERM U404, Institut Pasteur de Lyon, Lyon, France
    Blood 92:3605-15. 1998
    ..have been identified to date: the CB1 central receptor subtype, which is mainly expressed in the brain, and the CB2 peripheral receptor subtype, which appears particularly abundant in the immune system...
  61. ncbi A bactericidal monoclonal antibody elicits a change in its antigen, OspB of Borrelia burgdorferi, that can be detected by limited proteolysis
    L I Katona
    Department of Molecular Genetics, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
    J Immunol 164:1425-31. 2000
    mAb CB2, directed against outer surface protein B (OspB), causes bacteriolysis of Borrelia burgdorferi in the absence of complement. How this happens is unknown...
  62. ncbi Cannabinoid receptors expression in bone marrow trephine biopsy of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients treated with purine analogues
    J A Piszcz
    Department of Haematology, Medical University of Bialystok, 15 276 Bialystok, Poland
    Exp Oncol 29:221-5. 2007
    Cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are part the endocannabinoid system that plays an important role in the process of proliferation and apoptosis of different neoplastic cells...
  63. doi Ultrastructural localization of neuronal brain CB2 cannabinoid receptors
    A Brusco
    Instituto de Biología Celular y Neurociencia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1139:450-7. 2008
    The functional expression of neuronal CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2-Rs) in the brain has been controversial. We and others have now demonstrated that CB2-Rs are expressed in neurons and glial cells in the brain...
  64. ncbi New perspectives in the studies on endocannabinoid and cannabis: 2-arachidonoylglycerol as a possible novel mediator of inflammation
    Takayuki Sugiura
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamiko, Tsukui gun, Kanagawa 199 0195, Japan
    J Pharmacol Sci 96:367-75. 2004
    ..To date, two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) have been identified. The CB1 receptor is assumed to be involved in the attenuation of synaptic transmission...
  65. ncbi Characterization of two duplicate zebrafish Cb2-like cannabinoid receptors
    I Rodriguez-Martin
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Salamanca, Spain Instituto de Neurociencias de Castilla y Leon INCYL, Spain
    Gene 389:36-44. 2007
    ..The best known are CB1, mainly expressed in the central nervous system and CB2 which is almost exclusively expressed in the periphery...
  66. ncbi CB2 cannabinoid receptors promote mouse neural stem cell proliferation
    Francisco Molina-Holgado
    The Wolfson Centre for Age Related Diseases, King s College London, Hodking Building, Guy s Campus, London SE1 1UL, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 25:629-34. 2007
    ..In the present study we investigated the expression of CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the effect of exogenous cannabinoids on neural stem/precursor cell proliferation...
  67. ncbi Coevolution between cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid ligands
    John M McPartland
    GW Pharmaceuticals, Middlebury, VT 05753, USA
    Gene 397:126-35. 2007
    ..We addressed this debate with a coevolutionary analysis, by examining genes for CB1, CB2, and ten genes that encode ligand metabolic enzymes: abhydrolase domain containing 4 protein, cyclooxygenase 2, ..
  68. ncbi Expression of cannabinoid receptors and neurotrophins in human gliomas
    C Calatozzolo
    Department of Neurology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico C Besta, Milan, Italy
    Neurol Sci 28:304-10. 2007
    Recent studies have shown an anti-tumour activity of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 in gliomas. This effect was mediated by neurotrophins in breast and prostate carcinoma, while in gliomas this relationship has not yet been considered...
  69. doi Cannabinoid receptors in conjunctival epithelium: identification and functional properties
    María Iribarne
    Facultad de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidad Austral, Pilar, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49:4535-44. 2008
    ..The endocannabinoid system may be regulating these processes. Therefore, the authors explored the presence and properties of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) in conjunctival epithelial cells.
  70. pmc Cannabinoid receptors as target for treatment of osteoporosis: a tale of two therapies
    Aymen I Idris
    Bone Research Group, Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, UK
    Curr Neuropharmacol 8:243-53. 2010
    ..found in the skeleton and numerous studies also showed that bone cells express the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 and the orphan receptor GPR55...
  71. ncbi Targeting CB2 cannabinoid receptors as a novel therapy to treat malignant lymphoblastic disease
    Robert J McKallip
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Blood 100:627-34. 2002
    In the current study, we examined whether ligation of CB2 receptors would lead to induction of apoptosis in tumors of immune origin and whether CB2 agonist could be used to treat such cancers...
  72. ncbi Inhibition of salivary secretion by activation of cannabinoid receptors
    Juan Pablo Prestifilippo
    Centro de Estudios Farmacológicos y Botánicos CEFYBO CONICET ex CIBIER, Paraguay 2155, piso 16, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 1121, Argentina
    Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 231:1421-9. 2006
    ..Mammalian tissues contain at least two types of CBs, CB1 and CB2, mainly located in the nervous system and peripheral tissues, respectively...
  73. doi Expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and type 2 in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: growth inhibition by receptor activation
    Kristin Gustafsson
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology, Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, F 46, SE 14186 Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Cancer 123:1025-33. 2008
    ..In this study, we evaluated the expression of cannabinoid receptors type 1 and type 2 (CB1 and CB2) in non-Hodgkin lymphomas of B cell type (n = 62)...
  74. ncbi PACAP-38 is a chemorepellent and an agonist for the lysozyme receptor in tetrahymena thermophila
    S R Mace
    Cedarville College, Department of Science and Mathematics, OH 45134, USA
    J Comp Physiol A 186:39-43. 2000
    ..080 micromol x l(-1)), a competitive inhibitor of lysozyme binding to its receptor. PACAP-38 is a more potent and specific agonist for the lysozyme receptor than either intact lysozyme or CB2, a 24-amino acid fragment of lysozyme.
  75. ncbi Regulation of immune functions in rat splenocytes after acute and chronic in vivo treatment with CP-55,940, a synthetic cannabinoid compound
    G Patrini
    Institute of Pharmacology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Milan, Italy
    J Neuroimmunol 80:143-8. 1997
    ..cannabinoid receptors are not involved in mediating the acute and chronic effects of cannabinoids on the immune system and suggest a possible implication of CB2 receptor although other modalities of CP-55,940 action can not be ruled out.
  76. ncbi Mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase exhibit a cannabinoid receptor-mediated phenotypic hypoalgesia
    Aron H Lichtman
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    Pain 109:319-27. 2004
    ..phases of the formalin test accompanied with a phenotypic anti-edema effect, which was not blocked by either CB1 or CB2 antagonists...
  77. ncbi Recent advances in CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonists
    Jos H M Lange
    Solvay Pharmaceuticals, Research Laboratories, CJ van Houtenlaan 36, 1381 CP, Weesp, The Netherlands
    Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel 7:498-506. 2004
    ..compounds, Solvay Pharmaceuticals have disclosed a novel class of chiral pyrazolines that are potent and CB1/CB2 subtype-selective cannabinoid receptor antagonists, in which the interactions with the CB1 receptor are highly ..
  78. ncbi The effect of WIN 55,212-2, a cannabinoid agonist, on tactile allodynia in diabetic rats
    Ahmet Ulugol
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne, Turkey
    Neurosci Lett 371:167-70. 2004
    ..WIN 55,212-2, a mixed CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, has been shown to be effective against hyperalgesia and allodynia in painful ..
  79. ncbi Triaryl bis-sulfones as a new class of cannabinoid CB2 receptor inhibitors: identification of a lead and initial SAR studies
    Brian J Lavey
    Department of Chemistry, Schering Plough Research Institute, 2015 Galloping Hill Road, K 15 1 1545, Kenilworth, NJ 07033 0539, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 15:783-6. 2005
    A novel class of cannabinoid CB2 receptor ligands is described. These triaryl bis-sulfones are nanomolar inhibitors of the CB2 receptor and show high selectivity over the cannabinoid CB1 receptor...
  80. ncbi Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol enhances breast cancer growth and metastasis by suppression of the antitumor immune response
    Robert J McKallip
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia Campus, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA
    J Immunol 174:3281-9. 2005
    ..MDA-MB-231 and the mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 express low to undetectable levels of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, and that these cells are resistant to Delta9-THC-induced cytotoxicity...
  81. pmc Identification of WIN55212-3 as a competitive neutral antagonist of the human cannabinoid CB2 receptor
    Juha R Savinainen
    Department of Physiology, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, FIN 70211 Kuopio, Finland
    Br J Pharmacol 145:636-45. 2005
    ..WIN55212-3 offers a valuable tool for further characterization of ligand activities at the CB(2) receptor and may serve as a lead compound in further efforts to develop more potent and selective neutral CB(2) receptor antagonists...
  82. ncbi Formation of B and T cell subsets require the cannabinoid receptor CB2
    David Ziring
    Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
    Immunogenetics 58:714-25. 2006
    ..The peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2 is highly expressed in immune cell types (macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells), and pharmacologically alters ..
  83. doi Endocannabinoids in endocrine and related tumours
    Maurizio Bifulco
    Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita di Salerno, 84084 Fisciano Salerno, Italy IEOS, CNR Napoli, 80131 Napoli, Italy
    Endocr Relat Cancer 15:391-408. 2008
    The 'endocannabinoid system', comprising the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, their endogenous ligands, endocannabinoids and the enzymes that regulate their biosynthesis and degradation, has drawn a great deal of scientist attention ..
  84. doi [The cannabinoid system and pain: towards new drugs?]
    Massimiliano Beltramo
    Institut de Recherche Schering Plough, Parc Scientifique Biomédical San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italie
    J Soc Biol 203:99-106. 2009
    ..Recently the possibility to target CB2 has emerged as an alternative for the treatment of pain...
  85. doi Up-regulation of TRPV1 in mononuclear cells of end-stage kidney disease patients increases susceptibility to N-arachidonoyl-dopamine (NADA)-induced cell death
    Cassandra I Saunders
    School of Human Life Sciences, University of Tasmania, Locked Bag 1320, Launceston, Tasmania, 7250, Australia
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1792:1019-26. 2009
    ..TRPV1 (5'-iodoresiniferatoxin) and cannabinoid (CB2; AM630) receptor antagonists blocked the cytotoxic effect of NADA...
  86. pmc Do cannabinoids have a therapeutic role in transplantation?
    Mitzi Nagarkatti
    Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, 29209, USA
    Trends Pharmacol Sci 31:345-50. 2010
    ..The psychotropic properties of CB1 agonists limit their clinical use, but CB2 agonists may offer a new avenue to selectively target immune cells involved in allograft rejection...
  87. doi Distribution of CB2 cannabinoid receptor in adult rat retina
    Ester M López
    Instituto de Biologia Celular y Neurociencia Prof E De Robertis, Facultad de Medicina, UBA CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Synapse 65:388-92. 2011
    Cannabinoid effects are mediated through two receptors, CB1 and CB2. In the retina CB1 has been reported in bipolar cells, gabaergic amacrine cells, horizontal cells, and inner plexiform layer...
  88. ncbi Cannabinoid receptor type 2 activation yields delayed tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia
    Lei Ma
    Department of Anesthesiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi an, Shaanxi, 710032, China
    Curr Neurovasc Res 8:145-52. 2011
    ..The present study aimed at investigating the involvement of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) in the neuroprotection conferred by EA pretreatment...
  89. doi Detection and identification of the new potential synthetic cannabinoids 1-pentyl-3-(2-iodobenzoyl)indole and 1-pentyl-3-(1-adamantoyl)indole in seized bulk powders in Hungary
    Péter Jankovics
    National Institute of Pharmacy, Budapest, Hungary
    Forensic Sci Int 214:27-32. 2012
    ..activity with affinities - strongly influenced by their functional groups - to cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Some of them have been described as ingredients of herbal blends also known as "smart products" by several ..
  90. pmc Cannabinoids prevent the development of behavioral and endocrine alterations in a rat model of intense stress
    Eti Ganon-Elazar
    Department of Psychology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
    Neuropsychopharmacology 37:456-66. 2012
    ..Rats were injected with the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN) systemically or into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) at different time points ..
  91. doi The cannabinoid receptor-2 is involved in allergic inflammation
    Takayuki Mimura
    Pharmaceutical Frontier Research Laboratories, Central Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Japan Tobacco Inc, 1 13 2 Fukuura, Yokohama, Kanagawa 236 0004, Japan
    Life Sci 90:862-6. 2012
    To investigate the role of cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) in allergic inflammation in CB2 knockout (CB2-KO) mice.
  92. doi Impact of reference gene selection for type 2 cannabinoid receptor gene expression studies in human spermatozoa
    A A Amoako
    Endocannabinoid Research Group, Reproductive Science Section, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Andrologia 45:278-84. 2013
    ..For normalisation of CB2 expression, we would recommend using the geometric mean of B2 M and ACTB.
  93. pmc Chemical probes of endocannabinoid metabolism
    Jacqueline L Blankman
    Institute for Chemical Biology and Department of Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    Pharmacol Rev 65:849-71. 2013
    ..anandamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), which activate the two major cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. Anandamide and 2-AG signaling pathways in the nervous system are terminated by enzymatic hydrolysis mediated ..
  94. pmc N-arachidonoyl-L-serine (AraS) possesses proneurogenic properties in vitro and in vivo after traumatic brain injury
    Ayelet Cohen-Yeshurun
    Institute of Drug Research, Medical Faculty, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 33:1242-50. 2013
    ..These effects were partially reversed by CB1, CB2, or TRPV1 antagonists...
  95. pmc Direct modulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) by cannabidiol: a novel mechanism for cannabinoid-induced cell death
    N Rimmerman
    The Dr Miriam and Sheldon G Adelson Center for the Biology of Addictive Diseases, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
    Cell Death Dis 4:e949. 2013
    ..It is not an agonist of the classical CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the mechanism by which it functions is unknown...
  96. pmc The cannabinoid receptor type 2 as mediator of mesenchymal stromal cell immunosuppressive properties
    Francesca Rossi
    Department of Women, Child and General and Specialistic Surgery, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy Department of Onco Haematology, IRCCS Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, Rome, Italy
    PLoS ONE 8:e80022. 2013
    ..cells express all of the components of the endocannabinoid system, suggesting a potential role for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor as a mediator of anti-inflammatory properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells, as well as of their ..
  97. doi Cannabinoid receptor 2 deficiency results in reduced neuroinflammation in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model
    Anne Caroline Schmöle
    Institute of Molecular Psychiatry, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases DZNE, Bonn, Germany
    Neurobiol Aging 36:710-9. 2015
    Several studies have indicated that the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) plays an important role in neuroinflammation associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression...
  98. doi Normal aging in rats and pathological aging in human Alzheimer's disease decrease FAAH activity: modulation by cannabinoid agonists
    A C Pascual
    Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquimicas de Bahia Blanca, Universidad Nacional del Sur and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET, 8000 Bahia Blanca, Argentina
    Exp Gerontol 60:92-9. 2014
    ..was to characterize anandamide breakdown in physiological and pathological aging and its regulation by CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists...
  99. doi No association between the functional cannabinoid receptor type 2 Q63R variants and inflammatory bowel disease in Turkish subjects
    Oya Yonal
    Department of Gastroenterology, Marmara University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey
    Turk J Gastroenterol 25:639-43. 2014
    ..The endocannabinoid system can exert beneficial effects on gastrointestinal inflammation, and cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2) agonists may represent a new therapeutic approach in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
  100. doi The impact of the CB2-63 polymorphism on the histological presentation of chronic hepatitis B
    N Coppola
    Department of Mental Health and Public Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy Electronic address
    Clin Microbiol Infect 21:609.e1-4. 2015
    The impact of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) rs35761398 polymorphism on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) was evaluated in 106 consecutive biopsy-proven CHB patients naive for antiviral therapy...
  101. pmc Chronic ethanol exposure decreases CB1 receptor function at GABAergic synapses in the rat central amygdala
    Florence P Varodayan
    Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute TSRI, La Jolla, CA, USA
    Addict Biol 21:788-801. 2016
    ..This effect was prevented by CB1 antagonism, but not Type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2 ) antagonism...

Research Grants66

  1. Control of Breast Cancer by the Endocannabinoid System
    Sean McAllister; Fiscal Year: 2009
    Activation of the endocannabinoid system through CB1, CB2 and additional receptor subtypes results in the inhibition of a broad range of cancers...
  2. BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF CB2 CANNABINOID RECEPTORS (CB2RS)
    Emmanuel S Onaivi; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The overall goals of this proposal are to determine the behavioral effects of CB2- cannabinoid receptor ligands and to analyze the expression of CB2-receptors (CB2Rs) in selected mouse brain regions...
  3. Virginia S Seybold; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..in the periphery reduces mechanical hypersensitivity in a murine model of bone cancer pain through CB1 and CB2 receptor-dependent mechanisms...
  4. Endogenous Cannabinoids and NGF Signaling in Pain Associated with Cystitis
    DALE EDMOND BJORLING; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We will also use mice that are deficient in FAAH or one of the primary cannabinoid receptors (CB1 or CB2) to test the novel hypothesis that endocannabinoids inhibit visceral pain arising from bladder inflammation and ..
  5. DONALD SIMONE; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) are located in the periphery, as well as the central nervous system, and modulate nociception...
  6. Alexandros Makriyannis; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..non-covalent ligands will be utilized to obtain detailed structural information on the active sites of the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CBRs)...
  7. Jenny L Wiley; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Aim 3 will characterize the pharmacokinetics of THC and will identify regional alterations in central CB1 and CB2 receptor densities and functioning and endocannabinoid levels that are associated with behavioral changes...
  8. TORBJORN U JARBE; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..signaling molecules, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) acting on two known receptors, CB1 and CB2, in normal body function and pathophysiology...
  9. Synthetic cannabinoids as novel therapeutic strategies against non-small cell lun
    Ramesh K Ganju; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Cannabinoids have been shown to mediate their effects through cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Therefore, our central hypothesis is that synthetic cannabinoids that bind to CB1/CB2 receptors could be used as ..
  10. Pharmacogenetics of obesity and endocannabinergic modulation (POEM)
    Russell A Wilke; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The eCB system consists of two endogenous cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. Emerging animal and human data support the hypotheses that obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders are ..
  11. Role of cannabinoid 2 receptors in B lymphocyte function
    Catherine E Patterson; Fiscal Year: 2010
    The overall goal of this revised project is to determine the effect of cannabinoids and the role CB2 plays in the regulation of B cell function in order to better understand the immunomodulatory potential of cannabinoid-based drugs and ..
  12. Endocannabinoid Intracellular Transporters
    Dale G Deutsch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are the major signaling molecules for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Unlike most other neurotransmitters, the endocannabinoids are neutral hydrophobic molecules...
  13. KENNETH P MACKIE; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..life and (B) during the adolescent maturation of the prefrontal cortex, (3) Exploring the therapeutic potential of CB2 cannabinoid receptor functional selectivity in making more effective analgesics and in attenuating cocaine reward, (..
  14. CB1R independent effects of cannabinoids on synaptic physiology in the CNS.
    Charles J Frazier; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..First, it does not depend on activation of CB1, CB2, or vanilloid type I receptors, and is still present in CB1-/- animals...
  15. LEAH YU LIU; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..These studies will not only reveal the mechanisms of EC signaling during ALD, but also seek to identify novel therapeutic targets and drugs for the treatment of patients with ALD. ..
  16. Guy A Cabral; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..The preponderance of these effects has been inhibitory and mediated through the CB2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R)...
  17. Lawrence J Marnett; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..2-AG and AEA are the two best characterized endogenous ligands for the cannabinoid receptors - CB1 and CB2 - and exert a plethora of effects through these receptors...
  18. Endocannabinoid Signaling During Early Pregnancy
    Sudhansu K Dey; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2-arachidonoyglycerol (2-AG) function as endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids) for cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). CB1 and CB2 are G protein-coupled receptors...
  19. Endocannabinoid Inactivation:Plasma Membrane Uptake and Cellular Trafficking
    Dale G Deutsch; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are the major signaling molecules for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. All neurotransmitters require an efficient mechanism to terminate their action at the receptor...
  20. JOSE OLUCHA - ALVAREZ; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..2-AG) is a lipid messenger of the ECS, full agonist at Cannabinoid Receptors type 1 (CB1) and type 2 (CB2)...
  21. Cannabinergic Ligands and Drugs
    Alexandros Makriyannis; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These include the two cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2), the endocannabinoid deactivating enzymes (FAAH, MGL), and the transporter system (AT)...
  22. MAGL Inhibition in Prevention and Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease
    Chu Chen; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Growing evidence suggests that 2- arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), the most abundant eCB and a full agonist for CB1 and CB2 receptors, renders anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties...
  23. Endocannabinoid Metabolic Enzymes: Structure, Function, In Vivo Inhibition
    Benjamin F Cravatt; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..2-AG) are lipid transmitters that activate the central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2, respectively) to regulate a broad range of physiological processes, including pain sensation, inflammation, ..
  24. Aggregation Properties of Hemopressin
    Surendra Kumar Nayak; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The endocannabinoid system consists of two cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, which are G-protein coupled receptors and activated by mainly lipidic compounds...
  25. Jenny L Wiley; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..The long-term objective of this application is to understand the role that CB1, CB2 and orphan G-protein-coupled receptors play in these processes...
  26. Alexandros Makriyannis; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..to identify the pharmacophoric profiles of key compound classes that directly modulate the functions of the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CBRs)...
  27. Modulation of atherosclerosis by cannabinoid type 2 receptor
    Douglas P Thewke; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Mice lacking the type 2 cannabinoid receptor, known as CB2, develop atherosclerotic plaques with evidence of reduced stability...
  28. Cannabinoid-induced apoptosis of immune cells
    Mitzi Nagarkatti; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The discovery of the existence of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the isolation of endogenous ligands have raised questions on the physiological relevance ..
  29. Cannabinoid Receptor Dynamics in T Cell Activation
    NICHOLAS GASCOIGNE; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The approach makes use of chimeric genes that produce fluorescent versions of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) and T cell surface proteins, using variants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)...
  30. MODULATION OF CIITA BY CANNABINOIDS IN HUMAN MICROGLIA
    Debasish Sinha; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..Many effects of cannabinoids are mediated by two G-protein coupled receptors, designated CB1 & CB2. Most modern studies on immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids have been focused on CB2 receptor, since it is ..
  31. Cannabinoid Inhibition of Divalent Metal Transporter-1 Activity
    Marianne Wessling Resnick; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..mediated through interactions with the central nervous system cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the peripheral receptor CB2. Endogenous cannabinoids also activate these G-protein coupled receptors to negatively regulate adenylate cyclase ..
  32. Development of a Nonpsychotropic Cannabinoid Agonist for the Treatment of Sclerod
    Robert B Zurier; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..recently obtained in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept data that ajulemic acid, a non-psychotropic nanomolar CB1/ CB2 agonist is highly effective in preventing skin and lung fibrosis in a mouse bleomycin model of scleroderma and ..
  33. Li Yin; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..cannabinoid receptors expressed by cells of brain and central nervous system [CB1], as well as by immune cells [CB2]...
  34. Lipid glyceryl ester homeostasis in macrophages and perturbation by environmental
    Matthew K Ross; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In animal models, cannabinoid (CB)1 receptor antagonism can reduce atherosclerosis, whereas activation of CB2 receptors by agonists are atheroprotective...
  35. Transdermal delivery of 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) for the treatment of arthr
    Audra L Stinchcomb; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..2-AG, an endocannabinoid, has been shown to play a strong role in alleviation of inflammatory pain via CB2 receptors...
  36. Patricia E Molina; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Advanced understanding of its pharmacology and the major cannabinoid receptor subtypes (CB1 and CB2) as well as their localization (CB2predominantly on B lymphocytes and natural killer cells) has resulted in ..
  37. DONALD SIMONE; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..of cannabinoid receptor agonists reduce cutaneous hyperalgesia and this occurs through activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors...
  38. CB2 Receptor Regulatin of Inflammatory Response in EAE
    Ronald F Tuma; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Presently, it is possible to target the CB2 receptors, primarily expressed on immune cells, which exhibit immunomodulatory functions...
  39. Qualification of Novel Immune Markers in Human Serum of Patients with MS
    Michelle Sexton; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aim 2: To measure Cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor expression in human leukocytes. Aim 3: To measure CB2 receptor-mediated migration by human leukocytes...
  40. Stanley A Thayer; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The CB2 agonist JWH-133 is predicted to improve cognition in gp120- expressing mice...
  41. Selective CB2 Cannabinoid Agonists as Candidate Therapeutics for ALS
    PAUL PRATHER; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Cannabinoids produce anti-inflammatory actions via CB1 and CB2 receptors and delay the progression of pathologic conditions characterized by neuroinflammation...
  42. Nephi Stella; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..by applicant): The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) act through cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, and are inactivated by a two-step process: Both are transported into cells, and then anandamide is ..
  43. Identification of GPR55 cellular expression within hippocampal cells and its phys
    Jeffrey G Edwards; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..These accounts were described as being from a 'non-CB1'or unidentified CB3 receptor because CB1 (nor CB2) was involved...
  44. Arpana Agrawal; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ....
  45. CB2 agonists as novel therapeutic agents that limit allergic lung inflammation
    Zeina Jaffar; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..In seeking new therapeutic strategy for limiting allergic lung inflammation, CB2 selective agonists were designed and formulated so that they can be delivered intranasally to mice...
  46. Inhibition of Endocannabinoid Biosynthesis via Diacylglycerol Lipase
    RICHARD DUCLOS; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..the putative endocannabinoid transporter system, as well as for affinity to the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Also, potential drug candidates with greater than fivefold selectivity as DAGL inhibitors will be evaluated for ..
  47. Alexandros Makriyannis; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..We will continue to optimize the two currently-studied classes of CBI agonists (AAI, BAS) for CB1/CB2 selectivity, low CBI efficacy and druggability profiles and, as well, extend the available SAR to identify ..
  48. PATRICIA HODAPP REGGIO; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..and the synthesis of second generation positive allosteric modulators;(2) the determination of the cannabinoid CB2/ GGDP complex structure based upon novel crosslinking experiments and modeling studies;and (3) the development of ..
  49. A human neuron/oligodendrocyte co-culture model to study myelination
    Bridget Shafit-Zagardo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the contribution of agonists and antagonists of cannabinoid (CB) receptors plus and minus gas6 to determine whether CB2 agonists enhance myelination and aid in myelin compaction...
  50. PATRICIA HODAPP REGGIO; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..recognition and ligand-induced receptor activation/inactivation and is based upon 3D computer models of the CB1 and CB2 receptors that we have developed and refined during the current grant period...
  51. STUDIES ON CANNABINOID EFFECTS AND CANNABIMIMETIC DRUGS
    Alexandros Makriyannis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..both of which induce their physiological responses by interacting with the two known cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2)...
  52. Modulation of Opioid Antinociception and Tolerance by Sphingosine-1-Phosphate
    SANDRA WELCH; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..S1P-induced antinociception is non-CB1; non-CB2 mediated, but is completely blocked by opioid antagonists...
  53. CANNABINOID MODULATION OF NEURONAL FUNCTION
    Kenneth Mackie; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..What is the role of CB1 receptor dimerization in CB1 signaling and desensitization? * Are there CB1 and CB2 agonists that cause little or no desensitization of CB1 or CB2 receptor signaling? * Which domains of the potassium ..
  54. Sudhansu K Dey; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Recent identification and cloning of G-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors in the brain (CB1-R) and spleen (CB2-R) provide evidence that many of these effects are mediated via these receptors...
  55. Marijuana Effects on Immunity:Nature and Mechanisms
    Herman Friedman; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..This drug effect involves both CBI and CB2 cannabinoid receptors...
  56. UNIQUE PROBES FOR CANNABINOID RECEPTORS
    Brian Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The development of specific antagonists for the CB2 receptor would also contribute to our understanding of the structural requirements for selective interactions of ..
  57. VR1 receptor-induced synthesis of anandamide in caveolae
    ERIC BARKER; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..as plant derived cannabinoids by acting as an agonist at the brain and peripheral cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 respectively)...
  58. CANNABINOID EFFECTS AND CANNAMIMETIC DRUGS
    Alexandros Makriyannis; Fiscal Year: 1999
    ..to be produced through an interaction with cannabinoid receptors, two of which have already been identified (CB1,CB2)...
  59. NOVEL PROBES FOR CANNABINOID RECEPTORS
    ATMARAM KHANOLKAR; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..They are 1) CB1, the central (brain) cannabinoid receptor and 2) CB2, the peripheral (spleen) cannabinoid receptor. There are reports suggesting the existence of more receptor subtypes...
  60. STRUCTURE/FUNCTION OF CB2 CANNABINOID RECEPTOR
    Zhao Hui Song; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The overall purpose of this research proposal is to identify the molecular basis underlying the functions of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor...
  61. MODULATION OF ONCOGENIC AGENTS BY MARIJUANA
    PETER GABOR MEDVECZKY; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Aim 2 is designed to evaluate the role of THC receptors (CB1 and CB2) in inhibition of MHV 68...
  62. Seyoum Ayehunie; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The compounds to be tested are agonists of CB2, which are found in the immune system and also present in other peripheral tissues, including vaginal tissue...
  63. Cannabinoid-induced apoptosis in T cell regulation
    Prakash Nagarkatti; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The fact that cannabinoid CB2 receptors are almost exclusively expressed on immune cells raises exciting questions on the role and significance ..
  64. Analogs: Unique Probes for Cannabinoid Receptors
    Brian Thomas; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..3H]CP55940 and [3H]WIN55212-2 in human and rat brain preparations and transfected cell lines expressing CB1 or CB2 receptors to establish each compounds affinity and selectivity...
  65. MECHANISMS OF CANNABINOIDS ANTIEMETIC ACTIONS
    NISSAR DARMANI; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..The recent developments of selective antagonists for cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, as well as the introduction, and pharmacological characterization of a versatile, inexpensive, new ..
  66. REPRESSION OF T CELL ACTIVATION BY ENDOCANNABINOIDS
    Norbert Kaminski; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..goals of this 4 year research plan are two-fold: (a) to characterize the role of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 in the modulation of T-cell function by endogenous eicosinoid-like cannabinoids; and (b) to elucidate the signal ..