Bax

Summary

Gene Symbol: Bax
Description: BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator
Alias: BCL2L4, apoptosis regulator BAX, BCL2 associated X protein, BCL2-associated X protein omega, Baxdelta2G9, Baxdelta2G9omega, Baxdelta2omega, bcl-2-like protein 4, bcl2-L-4
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi T cell apoptosis causes peripheral T cell depletion in mice transgenic for the HIV-1 vpr gene
    J Yasuda
    Center for Experimental Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo, 108 8639, Japan
    Virology 285:181-92. 2001
  2. ncbi Calpain-1 regulates Bax and subsequent Smac-dependent caspase-3 activation in neutrophil apoptosis
    Frank Altznauer
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Bern, CH 3010 Bern, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 279:5947-57. 2004
  3. ncbi Specific cleavage of Mcl-1 by caspase-3 in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells
    Changjiang Weng
    Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China 100080
    J Biol Chem 280:10491-500. 2005
  4. pmc Vesicular stomatitis virus induces apoptosis primarily through Bak rather than Bax by inactivating Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL
    Alicia F Pearce
    Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Virol 83:9102-12. 2009
  5. ncbi Tumor suppressor p53 is a direct transcriptional activator of the human bax gene
    T Miyashita
    La Jolla Cancer Research Foundation, California 92037
    Cell 80:293-9. 1995
  6. doi Host restriction factor SAMHD1 limits human T cell leukemia virus type 1 infection of monocytes via STING-mediated apoptosis
    Alexandre Sze
    Lady Davis Institute Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3T 1E2, Canada
    Cell Host Microbe 14:422-34. 2013
  7. ncbi Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) induces apoptosis through activation of Bax in hematopoietic cells
    Yanhua Zheng
    The Laboratory of Apoptosis and Cancer Biology, The National Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, The Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, People s Republic of China
    Oncogene 24:3339-47. 2005
  8. pmc The BH3 alpha-helical mimic BH3-M6 disrupts Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2, and MCL-1 protein-protein interactions with Bax, Bak, Bad, or Bim and induces apoptosis in a Bax- and Bim-dependent manner
    Aslamuzzaman Kazi
    Drug Discovery Department, Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:9382-92. 2011
  9. ncbi HIV-1 gp120- and gp160-induced apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells is mediated by caspases
    C K Ullrich
    Divisions of Experimental Medicine and Hematology Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Blood 96:1438-42. 2000
  10. ncbi JNK- and p38 kinase-mediated phosphorylation of Bax leads to its activation and mitochondrial translocation and to apoptosis of human hepatoma HepG2 cells
    Bong Jo Kim
    Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:21256-65. 2006

Research Grants

  1. REBECCA I GOLDSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2016
  2. Mechanisms of Hypothermic Protection from Ischemia/Reperfusion Cardiac Injury
    Kimm J Hamann; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. J Marie Hardwick; Fiscal Year: 2014
  4. Regulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress by Bcl-2 family proteins
    DANIEL LINSEMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
  5. Signaling Cell Death from the Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Scott A Oakes; Fiscal Year: 2013
  6. Targeting ATAP-mediated Apoptosis in Treatment of Prostate Cancer
    Zelin Sheng; Fiscal Year: 2013
  7. The in vivo role of the mitochondrial p53 cell death program
    UTE MARTHA MOLL; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Ellis R Levin; Fiscal Year: 2014
  9. Kinase/Phosphatase-mediated Mitochondrial Restructuring in Neuroprotection
    Stefan Strack; Fiscal Year: 2012
  10. ROLE OF OXIDIZED CARDIOLIPIN TRANSLOCATION IN OXIDATIVE STRESS-INDUCED APOPTOSIS
    Albert W Girotti; Fiscal Year: 2010

Detail Information

Publications343 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi T cell apoptosis causes peripheral T cell depletion in mice transgenic for the HIV-1 vpr gene
    J Yasuda
    Center for Experimental Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai, Minato ku, Tokyo, 108 8639, Japan
    Virology 285:181-92. 2001
    ..Involvement of Bcl-x, Bax, and Caspase-1, but not of the Fas-Fas ligand system, was suggested in the apoptotic processes...
  2. ncbi Calpain-1 regulates Bax and subsequent Smac-dependent caspase-3 activation in neutrophil apoptosis
    Frank Altznauer
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Bern, CH 3010 Bern, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 279:5947-57. 2004
    ..calpain inhibition during spontaneous and Fas receptor-induced neutrophil apoptosis prevented cleavage of Bax into an 18-kDa fragment unable to interact with Bcl-xL...
  3. ncbi Specific cleavage of Mcl-1 by caspase-3 in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemia T cells
    Changjiang Weng
    Center for Molecular Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China 100080
    J Biol Chem 280:10491-500. 2005
    ..of cleaved Bid (tBid) by the apical caspase-8 to mitochondria to induce oligomerization of multidomain Bax and Bak. However, the roles of prosurvival Bcl-2 family proteins in TRAIL apoptosis remain elusive...
  4. pmc Vesicular stomatitis virus induces apoptosis primarily through Bak rather than Bax by inactivating Mcl-1 and Bcl-XL
    Alicia F Pearce
    Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA
    J Virol 83:9102-12. 2009
    ..To determine the relative importance of the multidomain proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bak and Bax, HeLa cells were transfected with Bak and/or Bax small interfering RNA (siRNA) and subsequently infected with ..
  5. ncbi Tumor suppressor p53 is a direct transcriptional activator of the human bax gene
    T Miyashita
    La Jolla Cancer Research Foundation, California 92037
    Cell 80:293-9. 1995
    The bax gene promoter region contains four motifs with homology to consensus p53-binding sites...
  6. doi Host restriction factor SAMHD1 limits human T cell leukemia virus type 1 infection of monocytes via STING-mediated apoptosis
    Alexandre Sze
    Lady Davis Institute Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3T 1E2, Canada
    Cell Host Microbe 14:422-34. 2013
    ..Viral RTIs complexed with the DNA sensor STING to trigger formation of an IRF3-Bax complex leading to apoptosis...
  7. ncbi Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) induces apoptosis through activation of Bax in hematopoietic cells
    Yanhua Zheng
    The Laboratory of Apoptosis and Cancer Biology, The National Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, The Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, People s Republic of China
    Oncogene 24:3339-47. 2005
    This study explores the roles of Bax and other Bcl-2 family members play in arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3))-induced apoptosis...
  8. pmc The BH3 alpha-helical mimic BH3-M6 disrupts Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2, and MCL-1 protein-protein interactions with Bax, Bak, Bad, or Bim and induces apoptosis in a Bax- and Bim-dependent manner
    Aslamuzzaman Kazi
    Drug Discovery Department, Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:9382-92. 2011
    ..such as Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), and Mcl-1, which bind to the BH3 α-helical domain of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bak, Bad, and Bim, and inhibit their function...
  9. ncbi HIV-1 gp120- and gp160-induced apoptosis in cultured endothelial cells is mediated by caspases
    C K Ullrich
    Divisions of Experimental Medicine and Hematology Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Blood 96:1438-42. 2000
    ..It was also observed that gp120/160 treatment slightly increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bax. These results suggest that HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins can disrupt endothelial integrity through the interaction ..
  10. ncbi JNK- and p38 kinase-mediated phosphorylation of Bax leads to its activation and mitochondrial translocation and to apoptosis of human hepatoma HepG2 cells
    Bong Jo Kim
    Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:21256-65. 2006
    Mitochondrial translocation of pro-apoptotic Bax prior to apoptosis is well established after treatment with many cell death stimulants or under apoptosis-inducing conditions...
  11. ncbi Interaction of CED-4 with CED-3 and CED-9: a molecular framework for cell death
    A M Chinnaiyan
    University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Pathology, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Science 275:1122-6. 1997
    ..Thus, CED-4 plays a central role in the cell death pathway, biochemically linking CED-9 and the Bcl-2 family to CED-3 and the ICE family of pro-apoptotic cysteine proteases...
  12. pmc Hsp27 inhibits Bax activation and apoptosis via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism
    Andrea Havasi
    Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:12305-13. 2008
    ..To test the hypothesis that Hsp27 decreases apoptosis by inhibiting Bax, Hsp27 expression was manipulated in renal epithelial cells before transient metabolic stress, an insult that ..
  13. pmc Mitochondrial potassium channel Kv1.3 mediates Bax-induced apoptosis in lymphocytes
    Ildiko Szabo
    Department of Biology, University of Padova, Viale G Colombo 3, 35121 Padua, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:14861-6. 2008
    ..3 or transfected with siRNA to suppress Kv1.3-expression resisted apoptosis induced by several stimuli, including Bax over-expression [corrected]. Retransfection of either Kv1.3 or a mitochondrial-targeted Kv1.3 restored cell death ...
  14. pmc Spatial and temporal association of Bax with mitochondrial fission sites, Drp1, and Mfn2 during apoptosis
    Mariusz Karbowski
    Biochemistry Section, SNB, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Cell Biol 159:931-8. 2002
    We find that Bax, a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, translocates to discrete foci on mitochondria during the initial stages of apoptosis, which subsequently become mitochondrial scission sites...
  15. ncbi Ablation of either p21 or Bax prevents p53-dependent apoptosis induced by green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate
    Kedar Hastak
    Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA
    FASEB J 19:789-91. 2005
    ..This response was accompanied by an increase in the levels of p21 and Bax. The cells lacking p53 continued to cycle and did not undergo apoptosis upon treatment with similar concentrations ..
  16. doi Inhibition of SIRT1 by HIV-1 viral protein Tat results in activation of p53 pathway
    Basant Kumar Thakur
    Department of Pediatrics Hematology and Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Carl Neuberg Str 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 424:245-50. 2012
    ..both the deacetylase and promoter activity of SIRT1, (2) SIRT1 inhibition by Tat involves increased levels of acetylated p53 and (3) The activation of p53 leads to subsequent increases in the expression of p53 target genes, p21 and BAX.
  17. pmc c-Myc and caspase-2 are involved in activating Bax during cytotoxic drug-induced apoptosis
    Xuefang Cao
    University of Florida Shands Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:14490-6. 2008
    Activation of Bax following diverse cytotoxic stress has been shown to be an essential gateway to mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway characterized by cytochrome c release with caspase-9/-3 ..
  18. pmc Bcl-2 and Bax interact via the BH1-3 groove-BH3 motif interface and a novel interface involving the BH4 motif
    Jingzhen Ding
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73126, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:28749-63. 2010
    ..The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 binds to the pro-apoptotic protein Bax to prevent Bax homo-oligomerization required for membrane permeabilization...
  19. pmc IBRDC2, an IBR-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, is a regulatory factor for Bax and apoptosis activation
    Giovanni Benard
    Center for Biomedical Engineering and Technology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA
    EMBO J 29:1458-71. 2010
    b>Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein from the Bcl-2 family, is central to apoptosis regulation. To suppress spontaneous apoptosis, Bax must be under stringent control that may include regulation of Bax conformation and expression levels...
  20. pmc Mutation to Bax beyond the BH3 domain disrupts interactions with pro-survival proteins and promotes apoptosis
    Peter E Czabotar
    Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia
    J Biol Chem 286:7123-31. 2011
    Pro-survival members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins restrain the pro-apoptotic activity of Bax, either directly through interactions with Bax or indirectly by sequestration of activator BH3-only proteins, or both...
  21. pmc Inhibiting the mitochondrial fission machinery does not prevent Bax/Bak-dependent apoptosis
    Philippe A Parone
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest Ansermet 30, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Mol Cell Biol 26:7397-408. 2006
    ..Here we report that inhibiting the fission machinery in Bax/Bak-mediated apoptosis, by down-regulating of Drp1 or hFis1, prevents the fragmentation of the mitochondrial ..
  22. pmc A short Nur77-derived peptide converts Bcl-2 from a protector to a killer
    Siva Kumar Kolluri
    Cancer Center, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Cancer Cell 14:285-98. 2008
    ..The apoptotic effect of NuBCPs and their activation of Bax are not inhibited but rather potentiated by Bcl-2...
  23. doi Ceramide and activated Bax act synergistically to permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane
    Vidyaramanan Ganesan
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Apoptosis 15:553-62. 2010
    ..Here, we demonstrate that Bax and ceramide induce MOMP synergistically...
  24. ncbi Rapamycin induces apoptosis of JN-DSRCT-1 cells by increasing the Bax : Bcl-xL ratio through concurrent mechanisms dependent and independent of its mTOR inhibitory activity
    Oscar M Tirado
    Laboratory of Experimental Carcinogenesis, Department of Radiation Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA
    Oncogene 24:3348-57. 2005
    ..Rapamycin induced apoptosis by increasing the Bax : Bcl-xL ratio as a consequence of the concomitant downregulation of Bcl-xL and upregulation of Bax, both at the ..
  25. ncbi Interaction of vascular endothelial growth factor 165 with neuropilin-1 protects rheumatoid synoviocytes from apoptotic death by regulating Bcl-2 expression and Bax translocation
    Wan Uk Kim
    Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
    J Immunol 177:5727-35. 2006
    ..Moreover, VEGF165 blocks SNP-induced Bcl-2 down-regulation as well as SNP-induced Bax translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria...
  26. ncbi A new apoptosis inhibitor, CIAPIN1 (cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor 1), mediates multidrug resistance in leukemia cells by regulating MDR-1, Bcl-2, and Bax
    Xiaohua Li
    State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Institute of Digestive Diseases, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, 17 Changle Western Road, Xi an 710032, China
    Biochem Cell Biol 85:741-50. 2007
    ..the expression of MDR-1 and Bcl-2, the transcription of the MDR-1 gene, as well as downregulate the expression of Bax. Additionally, the inhibition of CIAPIN1 expression by RNA interference or P-gp inhibitor could partially reverse ..
  27. ncbi MCL-1 inhibits BAX in the absence of MCL-1/BAX Interaction
    Marc Germain
    Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    J Biol Chem 283:6384-92. 2008
    ..The pro-apoptotic BCL-2 homologues BAX and BAK are activated following the induction of apoptosis and induce cytochrome c release from mitochondria...
  28. doi A novel BH3 mimetic S1 potently induces Bax/Bak-dependent apoptosis by targeting both Bcl-2 and Mcl-1
    Zhichao Zhang
    School of Chemistry, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, People s Republic of China
    Int J Cancer 128:1724-35. 2011
    ..assays, coimmunoprecipitation, fluorescent resonance energy transfer, and shRNA indicated that S1 can disrupt Bcl-2/Bax, Mcl-1/Bak and Bcl-2/Bim heterodimerization in multiple cell lines, activate Bax accompanied by its translocation ..
  29. pmc A growth factor attenuates HIV-1 Tat and morphine induced damage to human neurons: implication in HIV/AIDS-drug abuse cases
    Shaily Malik
    Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience, National Brain Research Center, Manesar, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
    PLoS ONE 6:e18116. 2011
    ..positive apoptotic neurons, elevated caspase-3 levels and decreased ratio of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins, Bcl2/Bax. Tat and morphine together elicited high levels of reactive oxygen species that were NADPH dependent...
  30. pmc Bax/Mcl-1 balance affects neutrophil survival in intermittent hypoxia and obstructive sleep apnea: effects of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling
    Larissa Dyugovskaya
    The Lloyd Rigler Sleep Apnea Research Laboratory, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
    J Transl Med 10:211. 2012
    ..Specifically, the balance between pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein expression, and the potential involvement of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways ..
  31. doi A novel synthetic analog of Militarin, MA-1 induces mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by ROS generation in human lung cancer cells
    Deok Hyo Yoon
    Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200 701, Republic of Korea
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 273:659-71. 2013
    ..In conclusion, the present study indicates that the new synthetic derivative MA-1 triggers mitochondrial apoptosis through ROS generation and regulation of MAPKs and may be a potent therapeutic agent against human lung cancer. ..
  32. pmc HIV-1 Tat-mediated apoptosis in human blood-retinal barrier-associated cells
    Xin Che
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ninth People s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
    PLoS ONE 9:e95420. 2014
    ..Furthermore, both cell types exhibited enhanced expression of Bak, Bax and Cytochrome c...
  33. ncbi MCL-1S, a splicing variant of the antiapoptotic BCL-2 family member MCL-1, encodes a proapoptotic protein possessing only the BH3 domain
    J Bae
    Division of Reproductive Biology, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305 5317, USA
    J Biol Chem 275:25255-61. 2000
    ..The fate of MCL-1-expressing cells could be regulated through alternative splicing mechanisms and interactions of the resulting anti- and proapoptotic gene products...
  34. pmc ERK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of BimEL promotes its rapid dissociation from Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL
    Katherine E Ewings
    Laboratory of Molecular Signalling, The Babraham Institute, Babraham Research Campus, Cambridge, UK
    EMBO J 26:2856-67. 2007
    ..In viable cells, Bax associates with Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L) and Mcl-1...
  35. doi Inhibition of β-TrcP-dependent ubiquitination of p53 by HIV-1 Vpu promotes p53-mediated apoptosis in human T cells
    Sachin Verma
    Laboratory of Virology, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India
    Blood 117:6600-7. 2011
    ..stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotypic HIV-1 possessing wild-type vpu gene exhibited maximum activation of p53/Bax proteins and p53-mediated cell death...
  36. pmc Soy isoflavones genistein and daidzein exert anti-apoptotic actions via a selective ER-mediated mechanism in neurons following HIV-1 Tat(1-86) exposure
    Sheila M Adams
    Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 7:e37540. 2012
    ..Soy isoflavones provide protection against various neurotoxic insults to maintain neuronal function and thus help preserve neurocognitive capacity...
  37. doi Depletion of end-binding protein 1 (EB1) promotes apoptosis of human non-small-cell lung cancer cells via reactive oxygen species and Bax-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction
    Min Jung Kim
    Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139 706, Republic of Korea
    Cancer Lett 339:15-24. 2013
    ..of EB1, induced cell death in a p53-independent manner through over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Bax induction...
  38. pmc The MUC1-C oncoprotein binds to the BH3 domain of the pro-apoptotic BAX protein and blocks BAX function
    Rehan Ahmad
    Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 287:20866-75. 2012
    The pro-apoptotic BAX protein contains a BH3 domain that is necessary for its dimerization and for activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway...
  39. pmc BAX supports the mitochondrial network, promoting bioenergetics in nonapoptotic cells
    Rebecca J Boohaker
    Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, 6900 Lake Nona Blvd, Orlando, FL 32827, USA
    Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 300:C1466-78. 2011
    The dual functionality of the tumor suppressor BAX is implied by the nonapoptotic functions of other members of the BCL-2 family...
  40. pmc Association of active caspase 8 with the mitochondrial membrane during apoptosis: potential roles in cleaving BAP31 and caspase 3 and mediating mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum cross talk in etoposide-induced cell death
    Dhyan Chandra
    Dept of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park Research Division, Park Rd 1C, Smithville, TX 78957, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 24:6592-607. 2004
    ..Cleavage of BAP31 leads to the generation of ER- localized, proapoptotic BAP20, which may mediate mitochondrion-ER cross talk through a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism...
  41. ncbi Silencing of prion protein sensitizes breast adriamycin-resistant carcinoma cells to TRAIL-mediated cell death
    Franck Meslin
    INSERM U753, Laboratoire d Immunologie des Tumeurs Humaines, Interaction Effecteurs Cytotoxiques Système Tumoral, Institut Gustave Roussy PR1 and IFR 54, Villejuif, France
    Cancer Res 67:10910-9. 2007
    ..The down-regulation of Bcl-2 was concomitant with Bax delocalization...
  42. ncbi Transbilayer lipid diffusion promoted by Bax: implications for apoptosis
    Raquel F Epand
    Department of Biochemistry, McMaster University Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Biochemistry 42:14576-82. 2003
    It is known that the proapoptotic protein Bax facilitates the formation of pores in bilayers, resulting in the release of proteins from the intermitochondrial space...
  43. ncbi Increased proteasomal degradation of Bax is a common feature of poor prognosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    Samir G Agrawal
    Centre for Haematology, Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, Departments of Haematology and Haemato Oncology, Queen Mary University of London, UK
    Blood 111:2790-6. 2008
    ..b>Bax is an essential proapoptotic protein and decreased levels in malignant cells lead to resistance to apoptosis...
  44. pmc Direct interaction of Bax and Bak proteins with Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only proteins in living cells revealed by fluorescence complementation
    Laura Vela
    Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Zaragoza, 5009 Zaragoza, Spain
    J Biol Chem 288:4935-46. 2013
    The key event in the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is the activation of Bax and Bak by BH3-only proteins through a molecular mechanism that is still a matter of debate...
  45. ncbi Mapping of the human BAX gene to chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 and isolation of a novel alternatively spliced transcript, BAX delta
    S S Apte
    Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genomics 26:592-4. 1995
    The BAX gene is a member of the Bcl-2 gene family; it encodes a 21-kDa protein whose association with Bcl-2 is believed to play a critical role in regulating apoptosis...
  46. pmc Sepia ink oligopeptide induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines via caspase-3 activation and elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio
    Fangfang Huang
    School of Food science and Pharmacy, Zhejiang Provincial Key Engineering Technology Research Center of Marine Biomedical Products, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316000, China
    Mar Drugs 10:2153-65. 2012
    ..the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and increased the expression of the apoptogenic protein Bax. Moreover, the Bax/Bcl-2expression ratio was increased. Concurrently, the expression of caspase-3 was upregulated...
  47. ncbi TGF-betaRII, BAX, IGFIIR, caspase-5, hMSH3 and hMSH6 alterations are not associated with microsatellite instability or p53 mutations in invasive urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder
    Angelica A Saetta
    Department of Pathology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
    Pathology 39:425-32. 2007
    The aim of this study was to determine the potential synchronous contribution of alterations in TGF-betaRII, BAX, IGFIIR, caspase-5, hMSH3 and hMSH6 genes to the development and clinical outcome of bladder cancer, in relation to p53 ..
  48. pmc A novel tumor-promoting function residing in the 5' non-coding region of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA
    Kiyoshi Masuda
    Department of Stress Science, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan
    PLoS Med 5:e94. 2008
    ..However, clinical trials have suggested that anti-VEGF monotherapy was less effective than standard chemotherapy. On the basis of the evidence, we hypothesized that vegf mRNA may have unrecognized function(s) in cancer cells...
  49. pmc Bax activation by engagement with, then release from, the BH3 binding site of Bcl-xL
    F Gautier
    Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie Nantes Angers UMR 892 INSERM Université de Nantes, Institut de Recherche Thérapeutique de l Université de Nantes, Nantes, France
    Mol Cell Biol 31:832-44. 2011
    ..through sequestration of "activator" BH3-only proteins (such as Puma), preventing them from directly activating Bax. It is thus assumed that inhibition of interactions between activators and Bcl-x(L) is a prerequisite for small ..
  50. pmc Inhibitor of Nrf2 (INrf2 or Keap1) protein degrades Bcl-xL via phosphoglycerate mutase 5 and controls cellular apoptosis
    Suryakant K Niture
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:44542-56. 2011
    ..overexpression of INrf2 enhanced degradation of PGAM5-Bcl-xL complex, led to etoposide-mediated accumulation of Bax, increased release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activated caspase-3/7, and enhanced DNA fragmentation and ..
  51. pmc The HIV-1 vpr protein acts as a negative regulator of apoptosis in a human lymphoblastoid T cell line: possible implications for the pathogenesis of AIDS
    L Conti
    Laboratory of Virology, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena, 299 00161 Rome, Italy
    J Exp Med 187:403-13. 1998
    ..in the upregulation of bcl-2, an oncogene endowed with antiapoptotic activities, and in the downmodulation of bax, a proapoptotic factor of the bcl-2 family...
  52. pmc Cooperation of amphiregulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 inhibits Bax- and Bad-mediated apoptosis via a protein kinase C-dependent pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cells
    Amandine Hurbin
    Groupe de Recherche sur le Cancer du Poumon, INSERM U578, Institut Albert Bonniot, La Tronche, France
    J Biol Chem 280:19757-67. 2005
    ..cells, cooperate to protect those cells and H322 NSCLC cells from serum-starved apoptosis; 2) H358 cells resist Bax-induced apoptosis through an inhibition of Bax conformational change...
  53. ncbi p73 modulates HIV-1 Tat transcriptional and apoptotic activities in human astrocytes
    M Saunders
    Department of Neuroscience and Center for Neurovirology, Temple University, 1900 North 12th Street, 015 96, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
    Apoptosis 10:1419-31. 2005
    ..We demonstrated that p73 interferes with Tat-mediated apoptosis by preventing the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 proteins in astrocytes...
  54. ncbi HIV-1-Tat protein activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ AKT-dependent survival pathways in Kaposi's sarcoma cells
    Maria Chiara Deregibus
    Cattedra di Nefrologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna Università di Torino, Centro Ricerca Medicina Sperimentale CeRMS, Italy
    J Biol Chem 277:25195-202. 2002
    ....
  55. doi Functions of Tat: the versatile protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Bizhan Romani
    Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, University of Stellenbosch, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    J Gen Virol 91:1-12. 2010
    ..Due to its pivotal role in viral replication and in disease pathogenesis, Tat and the cellular pathways targeted by Tat are potential targets for new anti-HIV drugs...
  56. pmc Coordinated regulation of p53 apoptotic targets BAX and PUMA by SMAR1 through an identical MAR element
    Surajit Sinha
    National Centre for Cell Science NCCS, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India
    EMBO J 29:830-42. 2010
    ..We show that BAX and PUMA promoters harbour an identical MAR element and are transcriptional targets of SMAR1...
  57. pmc HDAC6 deacetylates Ku70 and regulates Ku70-Bax binding in neuroblastoma
    Chitra Subramanian
    Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0617, USA
    Neoplasia 13:726-34. 2011
    ..However, recent studies have shown that Ku70 is also found in the cytoplasm and binds Bax, preventing Bax-induced cell death...
  58. ncbi Bid, Bax, and lipids cooperate to form supramolecular openings in the outer mitochondrial membrane
    Tomomi Kuwana
    La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, 10355 Science Center Drive, San Diego, CA 92121, USA
    Cell 111:331-42. 2002
    ..Bid, or its BH3-domain peptide, activated monomeric Bax to produce membrane openings that allowed the passage of very large (2 megadalton) dextran molecules, explaining ..
  59. doi Membrane binding by tBid initiates an ordered series of events culminating in membrane permeabilization by Bax
    Jonathan F Lovell
    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada
    Cell 135:1074-84. 2008
    ..However, the rules of engagement between the pro- and antiapoptotic family members are still contested, and how Bax is transformed from a cytosolic monomer to an outer mitochondrial membrane-permeabilizing oligomer is unclear...
  60. pmc Endogenous Bak inhibitors Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL: differential impact on TRAIL resistance in Bax-deficient carcinoma
    Bernhard Gillissen
    Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Tumor Immunology, University Medical Center Charite, Humboldt University, 13125 Berlin, Germany
    J Cell Biol 188:851-62. 2010
    ..Thus, TRAIL-induced cell death entirely depends on the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bax, which is often lost as a result of epigenetic inactivation or mutations...
  61. ncbi Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis
    I Marzo
    CNRS, UPR 420, 19 rue Guy Moquet, F 94801 Villejuif, France
    Science 281:2027-31. 1998
    The proapoptotic Bax protein induces cell death by acting on mitochondria...
  62. ncbi Tumor-cell resistance to death receptor--induced apoptosis through mutational inactivation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 homolog Bax
    Heidi LeBlanc
    Department of Molecular Oncology, Genentech, South San Francisco, California, USA
    Nat Med 8:274-81. 2002
    The importance of Bax for induction of tumor apoptosis through death receptors remains unclear. Here we show that Bax can be essential for death receptor--mediated apoptosis in cancer cells...
  63. ncbi Association of Bax and Bak homo-oligomers in mitochondria. Bax requirement for Bak reorganization and cytochrome c release
    Valery Mikhailov
    Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas 78229, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:5367-76. 2003
    ATP depletion induced by hypoxia or mitochondrial inhibitors results in Bax translocation from cytosol to mitochondria and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol in cultured rat proximal tubule cells...
  64. pmc Bcl-2 changes conformation to inhibit Bax oligomerization
    Paulina J Dlugosz
    Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University Health Sciences Centre, CDN Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
    EMBO J 25:2287-96. 2006
    ..Oligomerization of Bax promotes cell death by permeabilizing the outer mitochondrial membrane...
  65. ncbi Phosphorylation of Bax Ser184 by Akt regulates its activity and apoptosis in neutrophils
    Shyra J Gardai
    Program in Cell Biology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, 1400 Jackson Street, Denver, CO 80206, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:21085-95. 2004
    Although important for apoptosis, the mechanism of Bax regulation is poorly understood. This study demonstrates that phosphorylation of Ser(184) regulates Bax activity...
  66. pmc Bcl-2 homodimerization involves two distinct binding surfaces, a topographic arrangement that provides an effective mechanism for Bcl-2 to capture activated Bax
    Zhi Zhang
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City 73190, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:43920-8. 2004
    ..faces of the three-dimensional structure, explaining the formation of Bcl-2 homodimers, homo-oligomers, and Bcl-2/Bax hetero-oligomers. We show that in vitro the Bcl-2 dimer can still interact with activated Bax as a larger oligomer...
  67. pmc Lack of Bax prevents influenza A virus-induced apoptosis and causes diminished viral replication
    Jeffrey E McLean
    Department of Biology, Queens College and Graduate Center of the City University of New York, Flushing, New York 11367, USA
    J Virol 83:8233-46. 2009
    ..Here we report that influenza A virus cannot establish an apoptotic response without functional Bax, a downstream target of Bcl-2, and that both Bax and Bak are directly involved in influenza A virus replication and ..
  68. pmc Bim, Bak, and Bax regulate osteoblast survival
    Min Liang
    Botnar Research Centre, Institute of Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
    J Bone Miner Res 23:610-20. 2008
    ..When trophic factors become limited by injury or disease, cells undergo apoptosis. This study establishes the regulation and function of Bim, Bak, and Bax in this response.
  69. pmc CRM1 protein-mediated regulation of nuclear clusterin (nCLU), an ionizing radiation-stimulated, Bax-dependent pro-death factor
    Konstantin S Leskov
    Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44109, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:40083-90. 2011
    ..nCLU-mediated apoptosis was Bax-dependent, and lethality correlated with accumulation of mature nCLU protein...
  70. ncbi Expression of human immunodeficiency virus type I tat results in down-regulation of bcl-2 and induction of apoptosis in hematopoietic cells
    K J Sastry
    Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Bastrop 78602, USA
    Oncogene 13:487-93. 1996
    ..Also, tat-transfected cells expressed increased amounts of bax, a bcl-2 family protein known to induce apoptosis...
  71. ncbi Hematopoietic malignancies demonstrate loss-of-function mutations of BAX
    J P Meijerink
    Department of Hematology, University Hospital St Radboud Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Blood 91:2991-7. 1998
    ..Recently, studies of Bax-deficient mice have indicated that the pro-apoptotic BAX molecule can function as a tumor suppressor...
  72. pmc Mutagenesis of the BH3 domain of BAX identifies residues critical for dimerization and killing
    K Wang
    Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Division of Molecular Oncology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 18:6083-9. 1998
    ..N. Farrow and R. Brown, Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 6:45-49, 1996). A prominent death agonist, BAX, forms homodimers and heterodimerizes with multiple antiapoptotic members...
  73. ncbi Immunohistochemical study of pro-apoptotic factors Bax, Fas and CPP32 in urinary bladder cancer: prognostic implications
    Ioanna Giannopoulou
    Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, The National and Capodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias St, Goudi, 115 27 Athens, Greece
    Urol Res 30:342-5. 2002
    ..In the present study we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of three pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Fas receptor and caspase 3 - CPP32) as well as the apoptotic index (TUNEL Index) in 53 urothelial carcinomas of ..
  74. ncbi The p18 truncated form of Bax behaves like a Bcl-2 homology domain 3-only protein
    Pierre Francois Cartron
    Institut Fédératif de Recherche 26, INSERM U419, 44035 Nantes Cedex 01, France
    J Biol Chem 279:11503-12. 2004
    p21(Bax) is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family and is converted by calpain into a truncated form called p18(Bax). This proteolysis enhanced the apoptogenic properties of Bax by a mechanism not yet elucidated...
  75. ncbi EBV latent membrane protein-1 protects B cells from apoptosis by inhibition of BAX
    Thomas Grimm
    University of Erlangen Nurnberg, Department of Surgery, Division of Molecular and Experimental Surgery, Schwabachanlage 10, D 91054 Erlangen, Germany
    Blood 105:3263-9. 2005
    ..We show that an important antiapoptotic activity of LMP-1 is the inhibition of Bcl2-associated protein X (Bax), a potent proapoptotic protein...
  76. pmc Identification of the major phosphorylation site in Bcl-xL induced by microtubule inhibitors and analysis of its functional significance
    Meenakshi Upreti
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:35517-25. 2008
    ..Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that phosphorylation caused wild-type Bcl-xL to release bound Bax, whereas phospho-defective Bcl-xL retained the ability to bind Bax...
  77. pmc Bcl-x(L) retrotranslocates Bax from the mitochondria into the cytosol
    Frank Edlich
    Surgical Neurology Branch, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    Cell 145:104-16. 2011
    The Bcl-2 family member Bax translocates from the cytosol to mitochondria, where it oligomerizes and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane to promote apoptosis...
  78. ncbi Studies of the interaction of substituted mutants of BAX with yeast mitochondria reveal that the C-terminal hydrophobic alpha-helix is a second ART sequence and plays a role in the interaction with anti-apoptotic BCL-xL
    Hubert Arokium
    UMR5095 CNRS Université de Bordeaux 2, F 33077 Bordeaux cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 279:52566-73. 2004
    The role of the two ends of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX in its interaction with mitochondria was challenged by assaying substituted mutants in yeast cells for the ability to bind and insert into the mitochondrial membrane and to ..
  79. ncbi Evaluation of P53 and BAX gene expression and induction of apoptosis and necrosis by the cis-Pt(II) complex of 3-aminoflavone in comparison with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) in human lymphocytes
    Beata Kosmider
    Department of Cytogenetics and Plant Molecular Biology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12 16, 90 237 Lodz, Poland
    Mutat Res 604:28-35. 2006
    ..bromide staining were carried out, as well as quantitative analysis of the apoptotic signal of P53 and BAX induction caused by the cis-Pt(II) complex of 3-aminoflavone in comparison with cis-DDP...
  80. ncbi Substitutions of potentially phosphorylatable serine residues of Bax reveal how they may regulate its interaction with mitochondria
    Hubert Arokium
    CNRS, UMR5095, Universite de Bordeaux 2, 1 rue Camille Saint Saens, 33077 Bordeaux, France
    J Biol Chem 282:35104-12. 2007
    During apoptosis, the pro-apoptotic protein Bax relocalizes from the cytosol to the mitochondrial outer membrane. This relocalization is associated to major conformational changes, namely at the N- and C-terminal ends of the protein...
  81. doi PKC delta in preeclamptic placentas promotes Bax dissociation from 14-3-3 zeta through 14-3-3 zeta phosphorylation
    J K Park
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, 90 Chilam dong, Jinju 660 702, Republic of Korea
    Placenta 29:584-92. 2008
    ..In addition, we explored the mechanism of Bax dissociation from 14-3-3, hypothesizing that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of 14-3-3 results in dissociation of Bax ..
  82. ncbi Cytosolic accumulation of HSP60 during apoptosis with or without apparent mitochondrial release: evidence that its pro-apoptotic or pro-survival functions involve differential interactions with caspase-3
    Dhyan Chandra
    Department of Carcinogenesis, The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park Research Division, Smithville, Texas 78957, USA
    J Biol Chem 282:31289-301. 2007
    ..In both cases, HSP60 does not appreciably interact with Bax. Taken together, our results suggest the following: 1) cytosolic accumulation of HSP60 represents a common ..
  83. pmc Mechanisms of platelet-derived growth factor-mediated neuroprotection--implications in HIV dementia
    Fuwang Peng
    Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 5000 Wahl Hall East, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
    Eur J Neurosci 28:1255-64. 2008
    ..inducing phosphorylation of Bad, PDGF-mediated protection also involved down-regulation of the proapoptotic protein Bax. Furthermore, PDGF-mediated protection also involved the inhibition of gp120-induced release of mitochondrial ..
  84. pmc Bax oligomerization in mitochondrial membranes requires tBid (caspase-8-cleaved Bid) and a mitochondrial protein
    Xavier Roucou
    Departement de Biologie Cellulaire, University of Geneva, 30 quai E Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    Biochem J 368:915-21. 2002
    In response to various apoptotic stimuli, Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, is oligomerized and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane to apoptogenic factors, including cytochrome c...
  85. pmc A mitochondrial pool of sphingomyelin is involved in TNFalpha-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria
    Helene Birbes
    Department of Medicine and Ralph H Johnson Veteran Administration, Medical University of South Carolina, SC 29425, USA
    Biochem J 386:445-51. 2005
    ..namely TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha), and the involvement of this mitochondrial pool of ceramide in Bax translocation to mitochondria, an event that precedes cytochrome c release...
  86. ncbi Acid sphingomyelinase is indispensable for UV light-induced Bax conformational change at the mitochondrial membrane
    Hamid Kashkar
    Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, 50935 Cologne, Germany
    J Biol Chem 280:20804-13. 2005
    ..Here we show that the UV light-induced apoptotic signaling pathway is unique, targeting Bax activation at the mitochondrial membrane independent of caspase-8 or cathepsin D activity...
  87. ncbi Structural basis of BFL-1 for its interaction with BAX and its anti-apoptotic action in mammalian and yeast cells
    H Zhang
    Novartis Pharma AG, Oncology, Molecular Genetics, CH 4002 Basel, Switzerland
    J Biol Chem 275:11092-9. 2000
    ..We demonstrated in the yeast two-hybrid system that BFL-1 interacts strongly with human BAX but is not able to form homodimers nor to interact with human BCL-2 or BCL-xL...
  88. ncbi Molecular cloning and characterization of Bif-1. A novel Src homology 3 domain-containing protein that associates with Bax
    S M Cuddeback
    Drug Discovery Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612, USA
    J Biol Chem 276:20559-65. 2001
    b>Bax is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family that commits the cell to undergo programmed cell death in response to apoptotic stimuli...
  89. ncbi The expression of a new variant of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bax, Baxpsi, is correlated with an increased survival of glioblastoma multiforme patients
    Pierre Francois Cartron
    IFR 26, INSERM UMR 419, 9 quai Moncousu, 44035 Nantes Cedex 01, France
    Hum Mol Genet 11:675-87. 2002
    Pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the BCL-2 family play a central role in the implementation of apoptosis. Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of this family, has as such been considered as a potential tumor suppressor...
  90. ncbi Association of a novel single nucleotide polymorphism, G(-248)A, in the 5'-UTR of BAX gene in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with disease progression and treatment resistance
    Anurag Saxena
    Department of Pathology, Royal University Hospital and College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
    Cancer Lett 187:199-205. 2002
    In B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) a high Bcl-2/Bax ratio contributes to death defiance. We sought to identify any genetic changes in the BAX as a possible mechanism for its altered expression in CLL...
  91. ncbi The RASSF1A tumor suppressor activates Bax via MOAP-1
    Michele D Vos
    Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, NCI, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20850 3300, USA
    J Biol Chem 281:4557-63. 2006
    ..We now identify a novel pathway connecting RASSF1A to Bax via the Bax binding protein MOAP-1...
  92. ncbi Alzheimer's amyloid beta-peptide (1-42) induces cell death in human neuroblastoma via bax/bcl-2 ratio increase: an intriguing role for methionine 35
    M E Clementi
    CNR ICRM, Institute of Chimica del Riconoscimento Molecolare, c o Institute of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, Catholic University School of Medicine, Largo F Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 342:206-13. 2006
    ..Abeta-peptide as well as the amyloid modified peptide with oxidized Met-35 induced the pro-apoptotic gene bax over-expression after 24 h, whereas Abeta(1-42)(35Nle) had no effect...
  93. ncbi Significant coexpression of GLUT-1, Bcl-xL, and Bax in colorectal cancer
    Andrzej Wincewicz
    Departments of General and Clinical Pathomorphology, Medical University of Bialystok, Waszyngtona St 13, 15 269 Bialystok, Poland
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1095:53-61. 2007
    ..Ischemic cell injury triggers apoptosis. Regulators of cell suicide like Bax and Bcl-xL combine their functions to cause apoptosis or to rescue cells from death...
  94. ncbi BH3-only proteins and BH3 mimetics induce autophagy by competitively disrupting the interaction between Beclin 1 and Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L)
    Maria Chiara Maiuri
    INSERM, U848, Villejuif, France
    Autophagy 3:374-6. 2007
    ..On the other hand, they can activate autophagy by liberating Beclin 1 from its inhibition by Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum...
  95. pmc Inhibition of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of MOAP-1 by apoptotic stimuli promotes Bax function in mitochondria
    Nai Yang Fu
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive Proteos, Singapore 138673
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:10051-6. 2007
    The multidomain proapoptotic protein Bax of the Bcl-2 family is a central regulator for controlling the release of apoptogenic factors from mitochondria...
  96. pmc BI-1 regulates endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ homeostasis downstream of Bcl-2 family proteins
    Chunyan Xu
    Program on Apoptosis and Cell Death Research, Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:11477-84. 2008
    BI-1 (Bax inhibitor-1) is an evolutionarily conserved multitransmembrane protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that has documented cytoprotective functions in both animals and plants...
  97. pmc Cytosolic prion protein is the predominant anti-Bax prion protein form: exclusion of transmembrane and secreted prion protein forms in the anti-Bax function
    David T S Lin
    Bloomfield Center for Research in Aging, LDI, Montreal, QC, Canada H3T 1E2
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1783:2001-12. 2008
    Prion protein (PrP) prevents Bax-mediated cell death by inhibiting the initial Bax conformational change that converts cytosolic Bax into a pro-apoptotic protein...
  98. ncbi Somatic frameshift mutations in the BAX gene in colon cancers of the microsatellite mutator phenotype
    N Rampino
    The Burnham Institute, La Jolla Cancer Research Center, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    Science 275:967-9. 1997
    ..adenocarcinomas examined were found to have frameshift mutations in a tract of eight deoxyguanosines [(G)8] within BAX, a gene that promotes apoptosis...
  99. ncbi Nonionic detergents induce dimerization among members of the Bcl-2 family
    Y T Hsu
    Biochemistry Section, Surgical Neurology Branch, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:13829-34. 1997
    Members of the Bcl-2 family (including Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Bax) play key roles in the regulation of apoptosis...
  100. pmc Bax interacts with the permeability transition pore to induce permeability transition and cytochrome c release in isolated mitochondria
    M Narita
    Department of Medical Genetics, Biomedical Research Center, Osaka University Medical School, 2 2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:14681-6. 1998
    ..Using isolated mitochondria, we found that recombinant Bax and Bak, proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, induced mitochondrial Deltapsi loss, swelling, and cytochrome c ..
  101. ncbi Bcl-2 family proteins regulate the release of apoptogenic cytochrome c by the mitochondrial channel VDAC
    S Shimizu
    Osaka University Medical School, Biomedical Research Center, Department of Medical Genetics, Suita, Japan
    Nature 399:483-7. 1999
    ..also called the voltage-dependent anion channel, or VDAC) to show that the recombinant pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak accelerate the opening of VDAC, whereas the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-x(L) closes VDAC by binding to it ..

Research Grants75

  1. REBECCA I GOLDSTEIN; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Based on our identification of discrete trigger sites on BAX and BAK, two of the essential pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins, their direct modulation may present an ..
  2. Mechanisms of Hypothermic Protection from Ischemia/Reperfusion Cardiac Injury
    Kimm J Hamann; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2) Determine the interactions between mitochondrial Bcl-2 family proteins, specifically Bax and Bak, and other "mitochondria-targeted" proteins, specifically p53, through which hypothermia-induced NO ..
  3. J Marie Hardwick; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..proteins are thought to inhibit apoptosis by directly or indirectly inhibiting pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak...
  4. Regulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress by Bcl-2 family proteins
    DANIEL LINSEMAN; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..In many instances of neurodegeneration, pro-survival Bcl-2 is downregulated while pro-apoptotic Bax and Bcl-2 homology-3 domain (BH3)-only proteins (e.g., Bim) are upregulated...
  5. Signaling Cell Death from the Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Scott A Oakes; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..pathway, which is tightly regulated at the outer mitochondrial membrane by the pro-death BCL-2 family proteins BAX and BAK...
  6. Targeting ATAP-mediated Apoptosis in Treatment of Prostate Cancer
    Zelin Sheng; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..chemical compounds that could act as BH3 peptidomimetics, which could induce apoptosis by releasing pro-apoptotic Bax and/or Bak protein from inhibition by the anti-apoptotic proteins...
  7. The in vivo role of the mitochondrial p53 cell death program
    UTE MARTHA MOLL; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Aim 4 tests whether mitochondrial p53 - beyond triggering the Bax/Bak- lipid pore - also activates the permeability transition pore (PTP)...
  8. Ellis R Levin; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation from mitochondria, triggering PKC? and JNK activation, recruitment of Bax and Bak to the mitochondria, and membrane potential decrease...
  9. Kinase/Phosphatase-mediated Mitochondrial Restructuring in Neuroprotection
    Stefan Strack; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) facilitates cytochrome C release and apoptosis, in part through promoting Bax oligomerization...
  10. ROLE OF OXIDIZED CARDIOLIPIN TRANSLOCATION IN OXIDATIVE STRESS-INDUCED APOPTOSIS
    Albert W Girotti; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..or protein-mediated translocation to the outer membrane (OM), where it recruits tBid and thence oligomer-forming Bax for generation of cyt c-traversable pores...
  11. Targeting Hexokinase II in Chemotherapy
    John G Pastorino; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Proapoptotic proteins such as Bax, Bid and Bim induce mitochondrial dysfunction, possibly by interacting with VDAC-1, thereby provoking the release ..
  12. The Cyto-Protective Role of Hexokinase II During Metabolic Stress
    JONATHAN MICHAEL GALL; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Substantial evidence shows that renal ischemia activates Bax,a pro-apoptotic BCL2 protein that increases mitochondrial membrane permeability and causes apoptosis, an important ..
  13. Mitochrondrial Regulation of Apoptosis
    Tomomi Kuwana; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..MOMP is controlled by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Pro-apoptotic members, Bax and Bak, are activated by another subgroup of the Bcl-2 family, BH3-only proteins, and induce the release of ..
  14. Molecular intersection between neuronal apoptosis and axon degeneration
    COREY CUSACK; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The second aim will examine the importance of known apoptotic components (e.g., Bax, cytochrome c, Caspase-9, Apaf-1, Caspase-3) in Caspase-6 activation during axon-specific degeneration...
  15. IL3 GROWTH FACTOR SIGNALING
    William Stratford May; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..induce a conformational change that inactivates Bcl2's antiapoptotic function and/or functionally activates Bax's proapoptotic function...
  16. Douglas R Green; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..by blocking MOMP by sequestration of direct activator proteins (MODE 1) or by sequestration of the effectors, BAX and BAK (MODE 2)...
  17. Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Bax Regulatory Proteins in Apoptosis
    Yuchun Du; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The Bcl-2 family of proteins constitutes a crucial checkpoint in the apoptosis pathway. Bax is a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family that controls the mitochondrion-mediated cell death pathway...
  18. Structural and Functional Studies of the Caspase Activating Complex PIDDosome
    Hao Wu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..other cellular stress, caspase-2 acts upstream of the mitochondria to mediate cell death by inducing Bid cleavage, Bax translocation and cytochrome c release...
  19. Mohanish Deshmukh; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..A critical mediator of apoptosis in mammalian cells is Bax. In most cells, Bax is maintained in the cytosol in an inactive conformation and becomes activated only in response ..
  20. Steven C Borkan; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..How Bax, the quintessential "bad actor" of the BCL2 family causes outer mitochondrial membrane injury and renal cell death ..
  21. Apoptosis Execution Pathways in Dopaminergic Cell Death
    Jun Chen; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The pro-apoptosis Bcl-2 family member Bax is a well-characterized cell death effector, which, upon activation, targets mitochondria and triggers the ..
  22. Apoptosis Control by Bcl-2 Family Members
    Craig B Thompson; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..The other major subgroup of Bcl-2-related proteins, which includes Bax and Bak, plays a critical role in the execution of apoptotic cell death...
  23. Heat Shock-Induced Apoptosis
    Shawn B Bratton; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..for cell death, as cells that overexpress Bcl-2-or are deficient in Bid or the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak-are resistant to cell death...
  24. ERIC KIRK LAU; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..and voltage-dependent anion channel 1-(HK1:VDAC1) containing complexes, and activating pro-apoptotic Bcl2 protein, Bax. Specifically how PKCepsilon phosphorylation affects the transcriptional and non-transcriptional DNA damage ..
  25. Zheng Dong; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Importantly, these studies have demonstrated a pivotal role for Bax/Bak- mediated mitochondrial damage...
  26. David W Kamp; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..is unclear how specific Bcl-2 proteins modulate asbestos-induced AEC apoptosis and whether downstream proapoptotic Bax/Bak activation is essential for mediating asbestosis...
  27. Theiler's virus-induced aoptosis: A mechanism for CNS virus persistence
    HOWARD LEE LIPTON; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..We have shown that TMEV infection induces apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway that is Bax- mediated and severely restricts infectious virus production in murine macrophages...
  28. PATHOGENESIS OF LIVER CELL NECROSIS
    John Farber; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..In the models of apoptosis considered, our data implicate the proteins Bax or Bid in induction of the MPT...
  29. Bax function in apoptosis
    DONALD DAVID NEWMEYER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In particular, we want to understand how one of these proteins, Bax, forms pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane...
  30. David W Kamp; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..asbestos-induced AEC mitochondrial (mt)DNA damage resulting from mitochondrial ROS production that leads to Bax/Bak intrinsic AEC apoptosis and pulmonary fibrosis...
  31. MAVS protein: A role of mitochondria in innate immunity and cardioprotection
    Kirk Peterson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..1)The interaction of MAVS with Bcl-2 family proteins other than Bax as well as CARD-containing proteins other than RIG-I and MDA-5 under I/R injury and 2) The effect of MAVS on NF-:B, ..
  32. Cellular Determinants of Apoptosis in Virus-Infected Cells
    Ganes C Sen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..To trigger RIPA, activated IRF-3 binds Bax and translocates it to mitochondria to cause apoptosis;the two functions of IRF-3 are genetically separable...
  33. Role of mitochondria in cardiac protection
    Peipei Ping; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..g., PKC(, Bcl-2, and Bax)...
  34. IRA A TABAS; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..stress originating from the mitochondria, referred to as "mitoOS," plays a key upstream role and that a novel Bax/Bak-caspase 8 (casp8) pathway plays a major downstream role in advanced lesional Mf apoptosis and plaque necrosis...
  35. Gyorgy Hajnoczky; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..MMP is mediated by either pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, Bax and Bak or by the permeability transition pore (PTP) that remains to be identified...
  36. Bax Activation Mechanism in the Cytosol
    Shigemi Matsuyama; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..b>Bax is a key mediator of apoptosis...
  37. Pro-apoptotic BID in DNA Damage and Leukemogenesis
    Sandra S Zinkel; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..BID, facilitating targeting to the mitochondria where it activates multidomain pro-apoptotic family members such as BAX or BAK, and activating the downstream apoptotMice in which Bid has been deleted undergo all normal developmental ..
  38. Regulation of apoptosis by Bcl-XL, Bak and Bax
    Chi Li; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Among them, anti-apoptotic Bcl-XLand pro-apoptotic Bak and Bax have-been shown to play an essential role during apoptosis...
  39. SMAC in chemoprevention of colon cancer
    Lin Zhang; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..We will focus on studying how NSAIDs modulate Bax and Bcl-XL to cause SMAC release and apoptosis...
  40. Role of Presenilin Associated Protein (PSAP) in Apoptosis and in Abeta Formation
    Xuemin Xu; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..expressed in brain neurons, interacts with death receptor DR6, and forms a complex with pro-apoptotic molecules Bax and Bak upon TNFa induction of apoptosis. These findings provide a molecular link between PS1 and apoptosis...
  41. "Conserved Cell Death Pathways in Mammals and Yeast"
    J Marie Hardwick; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..considerable effort to understand the complex interactions between anti-death (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and pro-death (Bax and Bak) family proteins, and their mechanisms of action after cells have received a stimulus that induced ..
  42. Targeting BAX Oligomerization in Hematologic Disease
    Evripidis Gavathiotis; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Pro-apoptotic BAX is a critical executioner protein that lies dormant in the cytosol until triggered by cellular stress to inflict ..
  43. Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Drug Hepatotoxicity
    HARTMUT W JAESCHKE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Second, we will evaluate the role of translocation to the mitochondria of Bcl-2 family members Bid and Bax for mitochondrial dysfunction, MPT and cell death...
  44. CHRISTINE ANN CARTWRIGHT; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Studies focus on mechanisms by which Rack1 engages and activates proapoptotic Bax and Bim, induces their translocation to mitochondria, mediates their interaction with each other and with ..
  45. Regulation of Apoptotic Signaling Pathways by Alpha-Crystallins in the Ocular Len
    David W Li; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Second, through interactions with Bax and Bcl-Xs, aA- and aB-crystallins can sequester their translocation into mitochondria to block stress-induced ..
  46. Targeting BAX Oligomerization in Hematologic Disease
    Evripidis Gavathiotis; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Pro-apoptotic BAX is a critical executioner protein that lies dormant in the cytosol until triggered by cellular stress to inflict ..
  47. Kyoung Joon Oh; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..In the cells undergoing apoptosis, the multi-domain proapoptotic BCL-2 family proteins such as BAX or BAK are activated to damage the mitochondrial membrane by forming large pores...
  48. Jerry Edward Chipuk; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Two BCL-2 family proteins, BAK and BAX, directly engage MOMP by creating proteolipid pores in the outer mitochondrial membrane...
  49. Mechanisms of Bax Activation
    Xu Luo; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Genetic and biochemical studies establish that two of the Bcl-2 family proteins, Bax and Bak, are requisite mediators of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway...
  50. Chemoprevention of Pancreatic Cancer by Capsaicin
    Sanjay K Srivastava; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..with the (i) elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), (ii) increased expression of bax, (iii) leading to mitochondrial depolarization, release of cytochrome c and AIF, down regulation of survivin, and ..
  51. p53 Acetylation as a Mechanism in Chemoprevention by Aspirin
    JAYARAMA B GUNAJE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..cells, aspirin induced the levels of p53 target genes namely p21CIP1, a protein involved in cell cycle arrest, and Bax, a proapoptotic protein;however, p21 induction was transient (1-12h);where as, induction of Bax was sustained (24 h)..
  52. Samuel G Katz; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The multi-domain pro-apoptotic members BAX and BAK serve as the ultimate gatekeepers of cell death and, once activated, irreversibly induces cellular demise...
  53. Discovery Tools for Chemotherapy Resistance to Cell Death.
    Robert W Sobol; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..human proteins that are key nodes in either the extrinsic or intrinsic apoptotic pathways (DR4, Caspase-8, PUMA, BAX, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3)...
  54. Differentially Regulating Apoptosis by AR: Activating Bax or Inhibiting JNK MAPK
    Jialing Xiang; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Recently, we uncovered that AR can promote UV-induced pro-death activity of the Bcl-2 family protein Bax through its non-transcription activity, but inhibits tumor necrosis factor (TNF1)-induced pro-death activity of the ..
  55. Ethanol and Bcl-2 Gene Interactions in the Developing CNS
    Marieta B Heaton; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Members of this family can inhibit apoptosis (e.g., Bcl-2, Bcl-xl) or promote it (e.g., Bax, Bad, Bid)...
  56. Cdk-2 Independent role of cyclin E in Cell survival
    Alexandru Almasan; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..By binding to Ku70, p18CycE1 displaces Bax, leading to its activation...
  57. Cell Death and Neural Sex Differences
    Nancy G Forger; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The pro-apoptotic protein, Bax is required for cell death in the BNSTp, AVPV, and SNB...
  58. Radiosensitization via Targeting Cell Death
    Bo Lu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In the absence of pro-apoptotic proteins, Bak/Bax or caspase 3/7, we found that autophagy is upregulated and occurred in over 50% of irradiated cells...
  59. HETEROGENEITY OF HUMAN COLON CARCINOMA
    Michael G Brattain; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Specific Aim II will test the hypothesis that cell survival signaling through Bax and pBad is a critical element for imparting the metastatic phenotype to cells bearing these mutations...
  60. The Role of Neural Stem Cells in Traumatic Brain Injury
    STEVEN GERARD KERNIE; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..These include the nestin-rtTA-GFP mouse referenced above as well a Bax- deficient mouse that is neuroprotected following injury and has an abundance of neural stem cells...
  61. Huey W Huang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Pore-forming proteins include apoptosis regulating proteins, in particular Bax which is soluble in the cytosol under normal conditions, but in the presence of apoptotic stimuli, it translocates ..
  62. Understanding the Structural Mechanism of Puma-induced Apoptosis
    Richard W Kriwacki; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Instead, PUMA is a "de-repressor" BH3-only protein and as such cannot directly initiate BAX and/or BAK activation. Instead, PUMA acts indirectly by displacing direct activator proteins (i.e...
  63. THE ROLE OF MITOCHONDRIAL CHANNELS IN CELL DEATH
    Kathleen W Kinnally; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel (MAC) forms early in apoptosis in hematopoietic cells, concurrent with Bax translocation into mitochondria...
  64. Lee Ann H Allen; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis inhibition by F. tularensis with a focus on the BAX, XIAP and calpastatin. 2. To identify bacterial genes required for PMN apoptosis inhibition. 3...
  65. Determining the role of IRE1alpha in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Eric Wang; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..As there is evidence that MNs activate the BAX/BAK-dependent apoptosis pathway during ALS, we tested whether loss of Bax and Bak would be beneficial in a mouse ..
  66. John P Chute; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..means to test this hypothesis, we generated mice bearing deletion of the intrinsic mediators of apoptosis, Bak and Bax, within Tie2+ endothelial cells (Tie2Cre;Bak-/-;BaxFl/- mice) and found that mice with deletion of Bak and Bax in ..
  67. Vivian Gama; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..that undifferentiated human (h) ES cells are primed for rapid apoptosis by maintaining the pro-apoptotic protein Bax in its active conformation at the Golgi...
  68. Regulation of p53 by BRCA1 in Breast Cancer
    JOY CHIEH YU LIN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..ChIP assays and transcriptional activation assays on p21/bax promoter in the presence/absence of p53, p3OO or BRCA1 will be used to dissect the functional connections between ..
  69. Suzanne C Hoppins; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..Further, data suggest that specific regulatory mechanisms exist, as we have shown that soluble Bax stimulates only MFN2 homotypic complexes...
  70. CXCL8-mediated glial cross-talk and neuroprotection in HIV-1 Dementia
    Anuja Ghorpade; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..of CXCL8 neuroprotection and the ensuing signal transduction specifically through Akt/PKB, ERK1/2, Bcl-2 and Bax and the role of TNF receptors in these neuroprotective events will be investigated using primary human neurons in ..
  71. Bc1-2 Family Proteins in the Ischemic Neuronal Injury
    Xiao Ming Yin; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Two pro-apoptosis Bcl-2 family members, Bid and Bax, can activate caspases by triggering mitochondrial dysfunction including cytochrome c release...
  72. Mechanism of Apoptosis Inhibition By Bcl-XL
    Yi Te Hsu; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of apoptosis by promoting either ceR survival as in the case of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, or cell death as in the case of Bax. Upregulation of the pro-apoptotic factor Bax has been reported in the affected area of the brain, implicating the ..
  73. Jialing Lin; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The fundamental question we will address is how Bcl-XL and Bax can have opposite functions (anti- and pro- cell death, respectively) yet display similar structures in solution...
  74. APOPTOSIS AND REPRODUCTIVE AGING OF THE FEMALE
    Jonathan Tilly; Fiscal Year: 2003
    ..both oocytes and GC is regulated by a genetic program conserved through evolution, with the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, standing out as a principal player...
  75. Mechanisms of Aryl-Hydrocarbon-Induced Ovotoxicity
    Jonathan Tilly; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..that PAN-mediated activation of the AHR in oocytes induces apoptosis by increasing expression of the gene encoding Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of the bcl-2 gene family. However, several new questions arose during these studies...