alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase

Summary

Gene Symbol: alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase
Description: alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase
Alias: AGT, AGT1, AGXT1, PH1, SPAT, SPT, TLH6, serine--pyruvate aminotransferase, L-alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase 1, hepatic peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
Species: human

Top Publications

  1. ncbi A glycine-to-glutamate substitution abolishes alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase catalytic activity in a subset of patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    P E Purdue
    Biochemical Genetics Research Group, Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Genomics 13:215-8. 1992
  2. pmc Identification of mutations associated with peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting of alanine/glyoxylate aminotransferase in primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    P E Purdue
    Biochemical Genetics Research Group, Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    J Cell Biol 111:2341-51. 1990
  3. ncbi Primary hyperoxaluria type I due to a point mutation of T to C in the coding region of the serine:pyruvate aminotransferase gene
    K Nishiyama
    Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 176:1093-9. 1991
  4. ncbi Characterization and chromosomal mapping of a genomic clone encoding human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    P E Purdue
    Biochemical Genetics Research Group, Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Genomics 10:34-42. 1991
  5. ncbi Peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase deficiency in primary hyperoxaluria type I
    C J Danpure
    FEBS Lett 201:20-4. 1986
  6. pmc Enzymological and mutational analysis of a complex primary hyperoxaluria type 1 phenotype involving alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting and intraperoxisomal aggregation
    C J Danpure
    Biochemical Genetics Research Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Genet 53:417-32. 1993
  7. ncbi Functional synergism between the most common polymorphism in human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and four of the most common disease-causing mutations
    M J Lumb
    Medical Research Council Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and the Department of Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 275:36415-22. 2000
  8. pmc The peroxisomal targeting sequence type 1 receptor, Pex5p, and the peroxisomal import efficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    T G Knott
    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, U K
    Biochem J 352:409-18. 2000
  9. ncbi AGXT gene mutations and their influence on clinical heterogeneity of type 1 primary hyperoxaluria
    A Amoroso
    Section of Genetics, Department of Reproductive and Developmental Science, University of Trieste, Via dell Istria 65 1 34137 Trieste, Italy
    J Am Soc Nephrol 12:2072-9. 2001
  10. pmc Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in the Canary Islands: a conformational disease due to I244T mutation in the P11L-containing alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    A Santana
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7277-82. 2003

Research Grants

  1. Genetics of Angiotensinogen-Mediated Hypertension: Stage, Background & Gender
    Donald E Kohan; Fiscal Year: 2010
  2. Adipocyte Renin-Angiotensin System and Programming of Hypertension
    Mina Desai; Fiscal Year: 2010
  3. SIGNIFICANCE OF ANGIOTENSINOGEN VARIANTS IN HYPERTENSION
    CURT DANIEL SIGMUND; Fiscal Year: 2013
  4. Ashok Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2014
  5. CHRISTOPHER O BRIAN PHILLIPS; Fiscal Year: 2014
  6. Transcriptional Regulation of Angiotensinogen Gene
    Ashok Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
  7. Placental Insufficiency in Transgenic Mouse Model of Preeclampsia and IUGR
    TERRY KNUD MORGAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
  8. Lisa A Cassis; Fiscal Year: 2016
  9. Potential of Urinary AGT as a Novel Biomarker for Intrarenal RAS Activity in T1DM
    LUIS GABRIEL NAVAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
  10. GENETICS OF BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN MEXICAN AMERICANS
    Larry Atwood; Fiscal Year: 2000

Detail Information

Publications245 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi A glycine-to-glutamate substitution abolishes alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase catalytic activity in a subset of patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    P E Purdue
    Biochemical Genetics Research Group, Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Genomics 13:215-8. 1992
    We have synthesized and sequenced alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT; HGMW-approved symbol for the gene--AGXT) cDNA from the liver of a primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) patient who had normal levels of hepatic peroxisomal ..
  2. pmc Identification of mutations associated with peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting of alanine/glyoxylate aminotransferase in primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    P E Purdue
    Biochemical Genetics Research Group, Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    J Cell Biol 111:2341-51. 1990
    We have previously shown that in some patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), disease is associated with mistargeting of the normally peroxisomal enzyme alanine/glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) to mitochondria (Danpure, C.J...
  3. ncbi Primary hyperoxaluria type I due to a point mutation of T to C in the coding region of the serine:pyruvate aminotransferase gene
    K Nishiyama
    Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 176:1093-9. 1991
    cDNA clones for serine:pyruvate aminotransferase (SPT, alternative name: alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase) were obtained from a cDNA library constructed from the liver of a primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) case in which the SPT ..
  4. ncbi Characterization and chromosomal mapping of a genomic clone encoding human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    P E Purdue
    Biochemical Genetics Research Group, Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Genomics 10:34-42. 1991
    ..the isolation of a genomic clone encoding human liver-specific peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT, EC 2.6.1.44), the deficient enzyme in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) (P. E. Purdue, Y. Takada, and C. J...
  5. ncbi Peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase deficiency in primary hyperoxaluria type I
    C J Danpure
    FEBS Lett 201:20-4. 1986
    ..This enzyme deficiency explains most of the biochemical characteristics of the disease and means that primary hyperoxaluria type I should be added to the rather select list of peroxisomal disorders...
  6. pmc Enzymological and mutational analysis of a complex primary hyperoxaluria type 1 phenotype involving alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting and intraperoxisomal aggregation
    C J Danpure
    Biochemical Genetics Research Group, Medical Research Council Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Genet 53:417-32. 1993
    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT)...
  7. ncbi Functional synergism between the most common polymorphism in human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and four of the most common disease-causing mutations
    M J Lumb
    Medical Research Council Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and the Department of Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 275:36415-22. 2000
    The autosomal recessive disorder primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT)...
  8. pmc The peroxisomal targeting sequence type 1 receptor, Pex5p, and the peroxisomal import efficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    T G Knott
    MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and Department of Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, U K
    Biochem J 352:409-18. 2000
    ..in which the cytosolic levels of two peroxisomal proteins, catalase and alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), are much higher than those found in human (Homo sapiens) hepatocytes, for example...
  9. ncbi AGXT gene mutations and their influence on clinical heterogeneity of type 1 primary hyperoxaluria
    A Amoroso
    Section of Genetics, Department of Reproductive and Developmental Science, University of Trieste, Via dell Istria 65 1 34137 Trieste, Italy
    J Am Soc Nephrol 12:2072-9. 2001
    ..1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by a deficiency of alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which is encoded by a single copy gene (AGXT)...
  10. pmc Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in the Canary Islands: a conformational disease due to I244T mutation in the P11L-containing alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    A Santana
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:7277-82. 2003
    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of metabolism resulting from a deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT; EC 2.6.1.44)...
  11. ncbi Crystal structure of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and the relationship between genotype and enzymatic phenotype in primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    Xiaoxuan Zhang
    Department of Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    J Mol Biol 331:643-52. 2003
    ..AGT) is responsible for the potentially lethal hereditary kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1)...
  12. ncbi Clinical implications of mutation analysis in primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    Christiaan S van Woerden
    Emma Children s Hospital AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Kidney Int 66:746-52. 2004
    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an inborn error of glyoxylate metabolism with an extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity...
  13. ncbi Evaluation of mutation screening as a first line test for the diagnosis of the primary hyperoxalurias
    Gill Rumsby
    Clinical Biochemistry, UCL Hospitals, London, United Kingdom
    Kidney Int 66:959-63. 2004
    A definitive diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) and primary hyperoxaluria type 2 (PH2) requires the measurement of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) and glyoxylate reductase (GR) activities, respectively, in a liver ..
  14. ncbi Novel mutations of the AGXT gene causing primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    Yuet Ping Yuen
    Department of Pathology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong, China
    J Nephrol 17:436-40. 2004
    ..is due to a functional defect of the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT)...
  15. ncbi Overexpression of human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase in Escherichia coli: renaturation from guanidine-HCl and affinity for pyridoxal phosphate co-factor
    Marion B Coulter-Mackie
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6H 3N1
    Protein Expr Purif 41:18-26. 2005
    ..AGT) is a human liver peroxisomal enzyme whose deficiency results in, primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), a fatal metabolic disease. AGT requires a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) co-factor in its active site...
  16. ncbi Implications of genotype and enzyme phenotype in pyridoxine response of patients with type I primary hyperoxaluria
    Carla G Monico
    Mayo Clinic Hyperoxaluria Center, Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minn 55905, USA
    Am J Nephrol 25:183-8. 2005
    Marked hyperoxaluria due to liver-specific deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity (AGT) characterizes type I primary hyperoxaluria (PHI)...
  17. ncbi Molecular etiology of primary hyperoxaluria type 1: new directions for treatment
    Christopher J Danpure
    Department of Biology, University College London, London, UK
    Am J Nephrol 25:303-10. 2005
    ..disorder caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT)...
  18. ncbi Consequences of missense mutations for dimerization and turnover of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase: study of a spectrum of mutations
    M B Coulter-Mackie
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Children s and Women s Health Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Mol Genet Metab 89:349-59. 2006
    Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is a liver peroxisomal enzyme, deficiency of which results in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1)...
  19. pmc Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase-deficient mice, a model for primary hyperoxaluria that responds to adenoviral gene transfer
    Eduardo C Salido
    Unidad Investigación, Hospital Universitario Canarias, University La Laguna, Tenerife 38320, Spain
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:18249-54. 2006
    ..Hepatic expression of human AGT1, the protein encoded by AGXT, by adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer in Agxt(-/-) mice normalized urinary ..
  20. ncbi Comprehensive mutation screening in 55 probands with type 1 primary hyperoxaluria shows feasibility of a gene-based diagnosis
    Carla G Monico
    Mayo Clinic Hyperoxaluria Center and Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55902, USA
    J Am Soc Nephrol 18:1905-14. 2007
    Mutations in AGXT, a locus mapped to 2q37.3, cause deficiency of liver-specific alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), the metabolic error in type 1 primary hyperoxaluria (PH1)...
  21. ncbi Selected exonic sequencing of the AGXT gene provides a genetic diagnosis in 50% of patients with primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    Emma Williams
    Clinical Biochemistry, University College London Hospitals, London, United Kingdom
    Clin Chem 53:1216-21. 2007
    Definitive diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) requires analysis of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) activity in the liver...
  22. ncbi Construction, purification and characterization of untagged human liver alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase expressed in Escherichia coli
    Barbara Cellini
    Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico Biomediche, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Strada Le Grazie, 8, 37134 Verona, Italy
    Protein Pept Lett 15:153-9. 2008
    ..Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is a peroxisomal pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme which catalyzes the transamination of alanine and ..
  23. doi Partial trypsin digestion as an indicator of mis-folding of mutant alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and chaperone effects of specific ligands. Study of a spectrum of missense mutants
    M B Coulter-Mackie
    Department of Pediatrics, Children and Women s Health Centre of BC, University of British Columbia, 4500 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada
    Mol Genet Metab 94:368-74. 2008
    ..aminotransferase (AGT) is a liver peroxisomal enzyme whose deficiency results in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1). More than 75 PH1 mutations are now documented in the AGT gene (AGXT), of which about 50% are missense...
  24. pmc In vivo and in vitro examination of stability of primary hyperoxaluria-associated human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    Erin D Hopper
    Department of Biology and Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:30493-502. 2008
    ..type I is a severe kidney stone disease caused by mutations in the protein alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT)...
  25. pmc Molecular Insight into the Synergism between the Minor Allele of Human Liver Peroxisomal Alanine:Glyoxylate Aminotransferase and the F152I Mutation
    Barbara Cellini
    Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Strada Le Grazie, 8, 37134 Verona, Italy
    J Biol Chem 284:8349-58. 2009
    Human liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that converts glyoxylate into glycine...
  26. doi Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: update and additional mutation analysis of the AGXT gene
    Emma L Williams
    Clinical Biochemistry, University College London UCL Hospitals National Health Service NHS Trust, London, UK
    Hum Mutat 30:910-7. 2009
    ..inherited disorder of glyoxylate metabolism arising from a deficiency of the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) enzyme, encoded by the AGXT gene...
  27. pmc Structure of GroEL in complex with an early folding intermediate of alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase
    Armando Albert
    Grupo de Cristalografia Macromolecular y Biologia Estructural, Instituto de Quimica Fisica Rocasolano, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid E 28006, Spain
    J Biol Chem 285:6371-6. 2010
    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase gene (AGXT)...
  28. doi Role of low native state kinetic stability and interaction of partially unfolded states with molecular chaperones in the mitochondrial protein mistargeting associated with primary hyperoxaluria
    Angel L Pey
    Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Spain
    Amino Acids 41:1233-45. 2011
    The G170R variant of the alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is the most common pathogenic allele associated to primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1), leading to mitochondrial mistargeting when combined with the P11L and I340M ..
  29. pmc Biochemical analyses are instrumental in identifying the impact of mutations on holo and/or apo-forms and on the region(s) of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase variants associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I
    Elisa Oppici
    Department of Life Sciences and Reproduction, Section of Biological Chemistry, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8 37134 Verona, Italy
    Mol Genet Metab 105:132-40. 2012
    ..caused by mutations in the human AGXT gene encoding liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme...
  30. doi The N-terminal extension is essential for the formation of the active dimeric structure of liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    Riccardo Montioli
    Department of Life Sciences and Reproduction, Section of Biological Chemistry, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona, Italy
    Int J Biochem Cell Biol 44:536-46. 2012
    Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is a pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme. Its deficiency causes the hereditary kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1...
  31. pmc Molecular requirements for peroxisomal targeting of alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase as an essential determinant in primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    Krisztian Fodor
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    PLoS Biol 10:e1001309. 2012
    ..We discuss how the knowledge of the molecular parameters for alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase required for peroxisomal translocation could become useful for improved hyperoxaluria type 1 treatment...
  32. pmc Four of the most common mutations in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 unmask the cryptic mitochondrial targeting sequence of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase encoded by the polymorphic minor allele
    Sonia Fargue
    Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 288:2475-84. 2013
    ..the unmasking of which occurs in the hereditary calcium oxalate kidney stone disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1)...
  33. pmc Crystal structure of the S187F variant of human liver alanine: glyoxylate [corrected] aminotransferase associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I and its functional implications
    Elisa Oppici
    Department of Life Sciences and Reproduction, Section of Biological Chemistry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
    Proteins 81:1457-65. 2013
    ..Ser187, a residue located far from the active site of human liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), by Phe gives rise to a variant associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I...
  34. doi Mutation spectrum of primary hyperoxaluria type 1 in Tunisia: implication for diagnosis in North Africa
    Majdi Nagara
    Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Laboratoire de Génomique Biomédicale et Oncogénétique, Tunis 1002, Tunisia
    Gene 527:316-20. 2013
    ..Mutations in the AGXT gene, encoding the liver-specific enzyme alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase, are responsible for the disease...
  35. doi Gly161 mutations associated with Primary Hyperoxaluria Type I induce the cytosolic aggregation and the intracellular degradation of the apo-form of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    Elisa Oppici
    Department of Life Sciences and Reproduction, Section of Biological Chemistry, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8 37134 Verona, Italy
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1832:2277-88. 2013
    ..rare disorder of metabolism due to inherited mutations on liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme whose deficiency causes the deposition of calcium oxalate ..
  36. pmc The role of protein denaturation energetics and molecular chaperones in the aggregation and mistargeting of mutants causing primary hyperoxaluria type I
    Noel Mesa-Torres
    Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain
    PLoS ONE 8:e71963. 2013
    Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is a conformational disease which result in the loss of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) function...
  37. ncbi A serine-to-phenylalanine substitution leads to loss of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase catalytic activity and immunoreactivity in a patient with primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    Y Minatogawa
    Department of Biochemistry, Wakayama Medical College, Japan
    Hum Mol Genet 1:643-4. 1992
  38. pmc Mistargeting of peroxisomal L-alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase to mitochondria in primary hyperoxaluria patients depends upon activation of a cryptic mitochondrial targeting sequence by a point mutation
    P E Purdue
    Biochemical Genetics Research Group, Clinical Research Centre, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:10900-4. 1991
    ..disease is associated with a unique protein sorting defect in which hepatic L-alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT; EC 2.6.1.44), which is normally peroxisomal, is mistargeted to mitochondria...
  39. ncbi Cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding human liver serine-pyruvate aminotransferase
    K Nishiyama
    Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan
    Eur J Biochem 194:9-18. 1990
    ....
  40. pmc Human peroxisomal L-alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase. Evolutionary loss of a mitochondrial targeting signal by point mutation of the initiation codon
    Y Takada
    Biochemistry Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan
    Biochem J 268:517-20. 1990
    ..These data suggest that the targeting defect in primary hyperoxaluria type 1, in which AGT1 is diverted from the peroxisomes to the mitochondria, could be due to a point mutation that reintroduces all or ..
  41. pmc Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: a cluster of new mutations in exon 7 of the AGXT gene
    C von Schnakenburg
    Department of Molecular Pathology, University College London Hospitals, UK
    J Med Genet 34:489-92. 1997
    ..Enzyme studies in these patients showed that AGT catalytic activity was either very low or absent and that little or no immunoreactive protein was present...
  42. ncbi Identification of 5 novel mutations in the AGXT gene
    O Basmaison
    Laboratoire de Biochimie Pédiatrique, Hopital Debrousse, Lyon, France
    Hum Mutat 15:577. 2000
    ..Their consequence is always a lack of enzymatic activity of the Alanine-Glyoxylate Aminotransferase (AGT); for 4 of them, we were able to deduce that they were associated to the absence of AGT protein...
  43. ncbi Peroxisomal import of human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase requires ancillary targeting information remote from its C terminus
    Pia A J Huber
    Department of Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
    J Biol Chem 280:27111-20. 2005
    Although human alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) is imported into peroxisomes by a Pex5p-dependent pathway, the properties of its C-terminal tripeptide (KKL) are unlike those of any other type 1 peroxisomal targeting sequence (..
  44. ncbi Presentation and role of transplantation in adult patients with type 1 primary hyperoxaluria and the I244T AGXT mutation: Single-center experience
    V Lorenzo
    Nephrology Section, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, La Laguna, Spain
    Kidney Int 70:1115-9. 2006
    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by allelic and clinical heterogeneity...
  45. pmc Human wild-type alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase and its naturally occurring G82E variant: functional properties and physiological implications
    Barbara Cellini
    Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Strada Le Grazie, 8, 37134 Verona, Italy
    Biochem J 408:39-50. 2007
    Human hepatic peroxisomal AGT (alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase) is a PLP (pyridoxal 5'-phosphate)-dependent enzyme whose deficiency causes primary hyperoxaluria Type I, a rare autosomal recessive disorder...
  46. pmc Molecular defects of the glycine 41 variants of alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase associated with primary hyperoxaluria type I
    Barbara Cellini
    Dipartimento di Scienze Morfologico Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Strada Le Grazie, 8, 37134 Verona, Italy
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:2896-901. 2010
    G41 is an interfacial residue located within the alpha-helix 34-42 of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT)...
  47. doi Human liver peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase: Different stability under chemical stress of the major allele, the minor allele, and its pathogenic G170R variant
    Barbara Cellini
    Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e della Riproduzione, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Strada Le Grazie, 8 37134 Verona, Italy
    Biochimie 92:1801-11. 2010
    ..1 M urea. These biochemical results are discussed in the light of the characteristics of the enzymatic phenotype of PH1 patients bearing G170R mutation in AGT-Mi and the positive response of these patients to pyridoxine treatment.
  48. ncbi Contribution of angiotensin I converting enzyme gene polymorphism and angiotensinogen gene polymorphism to blood pressure regulation in essential hypertension
    U F Mondorf
    Division of Nephrology, Medizinische Klinik IV, , Frankfurt, Germany
    Am J Hypertens 11:174-83. 1998
    ..of the insertion/deletion polymorphisms of the ACE gene and the M235T polymorphism of the Angiotensinogen (Agt) gene in patients with essential hypertension in comparison with normotensive subjects...
  49. pmc Further analysis of the mechanisms underlying the tracheal relaxant action of SCA40
    S J Cook
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester
    Br J Pharmacol 114:143-51. 1995
    ..The tracheal relaxant action of SCA40 was unaffected by suramin (100 microM) or 8-(p)-sulphophenyltheophylline (8-SPT; 140 microM). 2...
  50. ncbi Oxalate synthesis in mammals: properties and subcellular distribution of serine:pyruvate/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase in the liver
    A Ichiyama
    First Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan
    Mol Urol 4:333-40. 2000
    Primary hyperoxaluria Type 1 (PH1) is caused by a functional deficiency of a liver enzyme, serine:pyruvate/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (SPT/AGT), which catalyzes transamination between L-serine or l-alanine as an amino acid ..
  51. ncbi Combined liver-kidney transplantation in primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    P Cochat
    Unité de Néphrologie Pédiatrique, Hopital Edouard Herriot, 69437 Lyon Cedex 03, France
    Eur J Pediatr 158:S75-80. 1999
    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterised by an increased urinary excretion of calcium oxalate, leading to recurrent urolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and accumulation of insoluble oxalate ..
  52. pmc Contractions mediated by alpha 1-adrenoceptors and P2-purinoceptors in a cat colon circular muscle
    K Venkova
    Department of Physiology, Michigan State Univ, East Lansing 48823 1101
    Br J Pharmacol 112:1237-43. 1994
    ..blue 2 (100 microM), a selective antagonist of the P2Y-purinoceptor, and 8-(p-sulphophenyl)-theophylline (8-SPT) (1 microM), a selective antagonist of the PI-purinoceptor, did not antagonize the contractile responses to alpha,..
  53. pmc A role for mast cells in adenosine A3 receptor-mediated hypotension in the rat
    J P Hannon
    Preclinical Research, Sandoz Pharma Ltd, Basel, Switzerland
    Br J Pharmacol 115:945-52. 1995
    ..which the A3 receptor-mediated response had been isolated by pretreatment with 8-(p-sulphophenyl) theophylline (8-SPT)), induced dose-related falls in blood pressure accompanied at higher doses by small falls in heart rate...
  54. pmc Mammalian alanine/glyoxylate aminotransferase 1 is imported into peroxisomes via the PTS1 translocation pathway. Increased degeneracy and context specificity of the mammalian PTS1 motif and implications for the peroxisome-to-mitochondrion mistargeting of
    A Motley
    Department of Biochemistry, E C Slater Institute, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Cell Biol 131:95-109. 1995
    ..peroxisomal in most normal humans, but in some patients with the hereditary disease primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1), AGT is mislocalized to the mitochondria...
  55. doi Correction of hyperoxaluria by liver repopulation with hepatocytes in a mouse model of primary hyperoxaluria type-1
    Jinlan Jiang
    Department of Medicine, and Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA
    Transplantation 85:1253-60. 2008
    Primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by excessive oxalate production by hepatocytes caused by the deficiency of peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) activity...
  56. ncbi Gene polymorphism of the renin-angiotensin system associates with risk for lacunar infarction. The Ohasama study
    S Takami
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Osaka University Medical School, Suita, Japan
    Am J Hypertens 13:121-7. 2000
    ..four candidate gene polymorphisms: angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)/Insertion(I)-Deletion(D), angiotensinogen (AGT)/M235T, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1)/ A1166C, type 2 receptor (AT2)/C3123A, to examine the association ..
  57. ncbi Differential rates of reversibility of ecteinascidin 743-DNA covalent adducts from different sequences lead to migration to favored bonding sites
    M Zewail-Foote
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 123:6485-95. 2001
    ..Quite unexpectedly, it was found that although the rates of alkylation are similar for the 5'-AGT and 5'-AGC sequences, reversal from the 5'-AGT sequence occurs faster than from the 5'-AGC sequence...
  58. pmc Phenotypic and functional analysis of human SLC26A6 variants in patients with familial hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis
    Carla G Monico
    Mayo Clinic Hyperoxaluria Center, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Departments of Internal Medicine and Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA
    Am J Kidney Dis 52:1096-103. 2008
    ..arises from mutations in 2 separate loci, AGXT and GRHPR, the causes of primary hyperoxaluria (PH) types 1 (PH1) and 2 (PH2), respectively...
  59. ncbi Ketotifen in prevention and therapy of food allergy
    P Molkhou
    Allergy Department, , Paris, France
    Ann Allergy 59:187-93. 1987
    ..Food allergy was proved by clinical history, exclusion diet positive challenge test, skin prick tests (SPT) total IgE (PRIST) and specific IgE (RAST)...
  60. ncbi Genetic heterogeneity in primary hyperoxaluria type 1: impact on diagnosis
    Marion B Coulter-Mackie
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Children s and Women s Health Centre of B C 4500 Oak Street, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6H 3N1
    Mol Genet Metab 83:38-46. 2004
    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive kidney failure due to renal deposition of calcium oxalate...
  61. doi Transplantation procedures in children with primary hyperoxaluria type 1: outcome and longitudinal growth
    Florian Brinkert
    Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Transplantation 87:1415-21. 2009
    Cure of the metabolic defect in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is possible with liver transplantation (LTx). Preemptive LTx (PLTx) was promoted to prevent chronic kidney disease due to nephrocalcinosis and urolithiasis...
  62. pmc Characterization of the adenosine receptors mediating hypothermia in the conscious mouse
    R Anderson
    Department of Cellular Sciences, Glaxo Research and Development Ltd, Ware, Hertfordshire
    Br J Pharmacol 113:1386-90. 1994
    ..1 mg kg-1, i.p.). 4.8(p-Sulphophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT, 10 and 30 mg kg-1, i.p...
  63. pmc Phenotypic correction of a mouse model for primary hyperoxaluria with adeno-associated virus gene transfer
    Eduardo Salido
    Centre for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases, Hospital Universitario Canarias, Instituto Tecnologías Biomédicas, University of La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
    Mol Ther 19:870-5. 2011
    Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of the hepatic enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGXT or AGT) which leads to overproduction of oxalate by the liver and subsequent ..
  64. ncbi Molecular aetiology of primary hyperoxaluria type 1
    Christopher J Danpure
    Department of Biology, University College London, London, UK
    Nephron Exp Nephrol 98:e39-44. 2004
    ..caused by a deficiency of the liver-specific intermediary-metabolic enzyme alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT)...
  65. ncbi Preliminary evidence for ethnic differences in primary hyperoxaluria type 1 genotype
    Marion B Coulter-Mackie
    Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
    Am J Nephrol 25:264-8. 2005
    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is caused by a deficiency of peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). In about one third of patients, enzymatically active AGT is synthesized but is mistargeted to mitochondria...
  66. ncbi Primary hyperoxaluria type 1: AGT mistargeting highlights the fundamental differences between the peroxisomal and mitochondrial protein import pathways
    Christopher J Danpure
    Department of Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1763:1776-84. 2006
    Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an atypical peroxisomal disorder, as befits a deficiency of alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), which is itself an atypical peroxisomal enzyme...
  67. pmc Further investigations into adenosine A1 receptor-mediated contraction in rat colonic muscularis mucosae and its augmentation by certain alkylxanthine antagonists
    J J Reeves
    Department of Cellular Science, Glaxo Research, Ware, Herts
    Br J Pharmacol 114:999-1004. 1995
    1. The alkylxanthine antagonists, 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT), 8-p-sulphophenyltheophylline (8-SPT) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) produced rightward displacements of contractile concentration-effect curves to 5'-N-..
  68. pmc Cellular transfection to deliver alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase to hepatocytes: a rational gene therapy for primary hyperoxaluria-1 (PH-1)
    Sweaty Koul
    Signal Transduction Laboratory, Program in Urosciences, Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colo 80262, USA
    Am J Nephrol 25:176-82. 2005
    ..metabolism caused by deficiency in the liver-specific peroxisomal enzyme alanine-glyoxalate transaminase 1 (AGT) resulting in the increased oxidation of glyoxalate to oxalate...
  69. ncbi The mouse alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase gene (Agxt1): cloning, expression, and mapping to chromosome 1
    X M Li
    Department of Pediatrics, UCSF School of Medicine, San Francisco, California 94143, USA
    Somat Cell Mol Genet 25:67-77. 1999
    ..Thus, we have carried out the molecular cloning and analysis of the mouse Agxt1 gene, as a necessary first step towards the generation of a mouse model for PH1...
  70. ncbi Molecular aetiology of primary hyperoxaluria and its implications for clinical management
    Christopher J Danpure
    Department of Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK
    Expert Rev Mol Med 6:1-16. 2004
    ..oxalate kidney stone diseases caused by deficiencies of the metabolic enzymes alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) and glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GR/HPR), respectively...
  71. ncbi [Transient global amnesia. Case-control study of 24 cases]
    X C Moreno Lugris
    , Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital Xeral Calde, Lugo
    Rev Neurol 24:554-7. 1996
    Transient global amnesia (AGT) is a well-defined syndrome of unknown aetiology. It is generally believed to be of vascular origin. Other theories suggest epilepsy or migraine as the cause...
  72. pmc Failure of CGS15943A to block the hypotensive action of agonists acting at the adenosine A3 receptor
    M Patel
    Glaxo Research and Development Ltd, Ware, Herts
    Br J Pharmacol 113:741-8. 1994
    ..the hypotension was not blocked by pretreatment with the xanthine antagonist, 8-P-sulphophenyltheophylline (8-sPT; 40 mg kg-1, i.v.), whereas the bradycardia was attenuated...
  73. ncbi Flux of the L-serine metabolism in rabbit, human, and dog livers. Substantial contributions of both mitochondrial and peroxisomal serine:pyruvate/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase
    H H Xue
    First Department of Biochemistry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431 3192, Japan
    J Biol Chem 274:16028-33. 1999
    ..pathways, one initiated by serine dehydratase, another by serine:pyruvate/alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (SPT/AGT), and the other involving serine hydroxymethyltransferase and the mitochondrial glycine cleavage enzyme system (GCS)..
  74. pmc Purinoceptors mediating relaxation and spasm in the rat gastric fundus
    M S Matharu
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Medical School, Manchester University
    Br J Pharmacol 106:395-403. 1992
    ..3 and 30 microM), an adenosine-uptake inhibitor. 8-Sulphophenyl-theophylline (8-SPT, 30 microM), a selective P1-purinoceptor antagonist, antagonized adenosine and 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)..
  75. pmc Cross-linking of the DNA repair protein Omicron6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase to DNA in the presence of antitumor nitrogen mustards
    Rachel Loeber
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Cancer Center and Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Chem Res Toxicol 21:787-95. 2008
    ..Here, we show that the DNA repair protein, O (6)-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), can be readily cross-linked to DNA in the presence of nitrogen mustards...
  76. ncbi Genetic polymorphism of human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase: identification of a missense variation in the active site region
    C Deng
    Laboratory for Cancer Research, College of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway 08854 8020, USA
    Pharmacogenetics 9:81-7. 1999
    O6-Alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT, EC 2.1.1.63) is a principle DNA repair protein in repairing O6-alkylguanine in DNA, a major premutagenic lesion produced by environmental and therapeutic alkylating agents...
  77. ncbi The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT14 gene is essential for normal expression of the yeast transposon, Ty, as well as for expression of the HIS4 gene and several genes in the mating pathway
    J S Fassler
    Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242
    Mol Gen Genet 230:310-20. 1991
    To investigate the role of the trans-acting transcription factor encoded by the essential SPT14 (SPT = Suppressor of Ty insertion mutations) gene, we have cloned, mapped and sequenced the gene...
  78. ncbi The natural history of sensitizations to food and aeroallergens in atopic dermatitis: a 4-year follow-Up
    A Patrizi
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Dermatology, and Department of Pediatrics, University of the Study of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
    Pediatr Dermatol 17:261-5. 2000
    ..An ARD appeared in 38% of all patients: in 75% of those with severe AD and in 54% of those with a positive first SPT. Allergic screening should be carried out at an early age, especially in severe AD, since SPT positivity to food ..
  79. ncbi O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: implications for treatment with alkylating agents
    M E Dolan
    Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA
    Clin Cancer Res 5:2059-64. 1999
    ..thought to be due to the presence in tumor cells of the DNA repair protein, O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT)...
  80. ncbi [Urticaria in relation to mite sensitivity and immunotherapy with Injection dermatophagoidei farinae]
    Dao rong Xing
    Department of Pathogen Biology, Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou 221002, China
    Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 26:422-7. 2008
    ..To investigate the prevalence of mite sensitivity in patients with urticaria or other skin rashes, and to observe the clinical efficacy of a specific immunotherapy (SIT) by the Injection dermatophagoides farinae for the patients...
  81. pmc Novel functional association of serine palmitoyltransferase subunit 1-A peptide in sphingolipid metabolism with cytochrome P4501A1 transactivation and proliferative capacity of the human Glioma LN18 brain tumor cell line
    T Yerokun
    Department of Biological Sciences, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314, USA
    Int J Environ Res Public Health 3:252-61. 2006
    ..modulators of cytochrome P4501A1, Cyp1A1, expression also perturb the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, SPT, a heterodimeric protein responsible for catalyzing the first reaction in sphingolipid biosynthesis...
  82. doi Utility of diagnostic tests in the follow-up of egg-allergic children
    Ma C Diéguez
    Servicio de Alergologia, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid, Spain
    Clin Exp Allergy 39:1575-84. 2009
    Better knowledge of the accuracy of a skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) levels to egg allergens would help to identify persistent egg-allergic children, avoiding unnecessary risky challenges...
  83. ncbi Identification of a novel Na+-independent acidic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to the member of a heterodimeric amino acid transporter family associated with unknown heavy chains
    Hirotaka Matsuo
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 6 20 2 Shinkawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181 8611, Japan
    J Biol Chem 277:21017-26. 2002
    We identified a novel Na(+)-independent acidic amino acid transporter designated AGT1 (aspartate/glutamate transporter 1)...
  84. ncbi Sleep EEG of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder
    F Hohagen
    Psychiatric Department, University of Freiburg, Germany
    Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 243:273-8. 1994
    ..Sleep efficiency was significantly lower and wake % SPT was significantly increased in the patient group compared to healthy subjects...
  85. ncbi Renal ischemia/reperfusion remotely improves myocardial energy metabolism during myocardial ischemia via adenosine receptors in rabbits: effects of "remote preconditioning"
    A Takaoka
    First Department of Internal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Seta, Otsu, Japan
    J Am Coll Cardiol 33:556-64. 1999
    ..This study examined the changes in myocardial energy metabolism during myocardial ischemia after "remote preconditioning" and investigated the involvement of adenosine receptors in the mechanisms of this effect...
  86. doi Sensitivity and specificity of different skin prick tests with latex extracts in pediatric patients with suspected natural rubber latex allergy--a cohort study
    Roberto Bernardini
    Paediatric Allergy and Pneumology Centre, Anna Meyer Children s Hospital, Florence, Italy
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 19:315-8. 2008
    Skin prick tests (SPT) with latex extracts are commonly used in the diagnostic approach of natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy. Non-ammoniated latex extracts are commonly utilized for this purpose...
  87. ncbi Single-patient drug trial methodology for allergic rhinitis
    Donald P Reitberg
    Scientific Affairs, Opt e scrip, Inc, Morristown, NJ 07960 4455, USA
    Ann Pharmacother 36:1366-74. 2002
    Historically, single-patient trials (SPTs) have been specifically designed for each patient, requiring significant time and effort for execution. There has been no previous attempt to standardize an SPT for routine commercial availability.
  88. ncbi [Usefulness of skin prick test using bifurcated needle for the diagnosis of food allergy in infantile atopic dermatitis--1st report. Case of egg allergy]
    Mika Ogata
    Division of Pediatric Allergy, Sagamihara National Hospital
    Arerugi 57:843-52. 2008
    We investigated the usefulness of skin prick test (SPT) for the diagnosis of egg white (EW) allergy in infants with atopic dermatitis who showed negative to EW CAPRAST, and followed up the EW-CAPRAST in this study.
  89. pmc Direct effects of adenylyl 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene)diphosphonate, a stable ATP analogue, on relaxant P1-purinoceptors in smooth muscle
    S M Hourani
    Receptors and Cellular Regulation Research Group, School of Biological Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford
    Br J Pharmacol 104:685-90. 1991
    ..3. The P1 antagonist 8-(p-sulphophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT) (100 microM) did not affect the responses to ATP, 2-MeSATP or AMPCPP in either tissue, but inhibited the responses ..
  90. ncbi [Cerebral blood flow study using SPECT in patients with memory disorders]
    E Valiente
    , Hospital de San Juan, Alicante,
    Rev Neurol 25:460-4. 1997
    ..OBJECTIVE: To study the cerebral blood flow in patients with temporary global amnesia (AGT) or permanent global amnesia (AGP) using functional neuroimaging techniques...
  91. ncbi The impact of smoking status, disease stage, and index tumor site on second primary tumor incidence and tumor recurrence in the head and neck retinoid chemoprevention trial
    F R Khuri
    University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10:823-9. 2001
    ..In a previous Phase III study, we observed that high doses of 13-cis-retinoic acid reduced the SPT rate in this disease...
  92. ncbi Halogen immunoassay, a new method for the detection of sensitization to fungal allergens; comparisons with conventional techniques
    Brett James Green
    Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
    Allergol Int 55:131-9. 2006
    ..We compared the halogen immunoassay (HIA), which uses allergens expressed by freshly germinated spores that are bound to protein binding membranes (PBM), with the commercial Pharmacia UniCap assay (CAP) and with skin prick tests (SPT).
  93. ncbi Plasma angiotensinogen concentrations in obese patients
    S Umemura
    Second Department of Internal Medicine, Yokohama City University, School of Medicine, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan
    Am J Hypertens 10:629-33. 1997
    ..relationship between obesity and hypertension has been recognized, and plasma angiotensinogen concentrations (p-AGT) have been reported to correlate with blood pressure (BP)...
  94. doi Osmoregulatory fluid intake but not hypovolemic thirst is intact in mice lacking angiotensin
    Michael J McKinley
    Howard Florey Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic, Australia
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294:R1533-43. 2008
    ..stimuli were investigated in mice lacking angiotensin II as a result of deletion of the angiotensinogen gene (Agt-/- mice), and in C57BL6 wild-type (WT) mice...
  95. ncbi Atopy patch test in the diagnosis of food allergy in children with atopic eczema dermatitis syndrome
    B Cudowska
    III Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Białystok, Poland
    Rocz Akad Med Bialymst 50:261-7. 2005
    ..The diagnostic work-up of suspected immediate food reactions includes skin prick tests (SPT) and the measurement of food-specific antibodies (sIgE)...
  96. ncbi N-ras mutations in myeloid leukemias
    G Saglio
    , Italy
    Tumori 75:337-40. 1989
    ..reaction technique in twenty patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) at onset and in four patients with Ph1 positive chronic myelogeneous leukemia (CML) either in chronic phase or in blast crisis...
  97. ncbi A clinical comparison of three powered toothbrushes
    G A van der Weijden
    Department of Periodontology, ACTA, Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Clin Periodontol 29:1042-7. 2002
    ..was to compare the ability of the Braun Oral-B 3D Excel power toothbrush (BPT), the Sonicare power toothbrush (SPT) and the Philips Sensiflex 2000 (HX 2550) power toothbrush (PPT) to control plaque and reduce experimentally ..
  98. ncbi Adrenal gland trauma is associated with high injury severity and mortality
    Stanislaw P Stawicki
    Department of Surgery, St Lukes Hospital and Health Network, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA
    Curr Surg 60:431-6. 2003
    To review a statewide experience of adrenal gland trauma (AGT), incidence, demographics, associated injuries, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), mechanisms of injury, and complications, associated with AGT.
  99. doi A novel selective growth medium-PCR assay to isolate and detect Sphingomonas in environmental samples
    Mi Sung Yim
    Department of Biology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada P7B 5E1
    J Microbiol Methods 82:19-27. 2010
    ..In addition, two sets of PCR primers targeting the serine palmitoyltransferase gene (spt), a crucial sphingolipid biosynthesis gene, were developed...
  100. ncbi Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism (Met235Thr) influences visceral obesity and insulin resistance in obese Japanese women
    Yasuto Takakura
    Department of Internal Medicine, Fukuchiyama City Hospital, Fukuchiyama 620 8505, Japan
    Metabolism 55:819-24. 2006
    To investigate the relationship between angiotensinogen (AGT) Met235Thr polymorphism (M235T) and human obesity, because AGT is regarded as one of the cytokines produced from adipocytes and serum AGT concentrations are reported to be ..
  101. ncbi Recurrence in patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: human papillomavirus and other risk factors
    Kerstin Rosenquist
    Department of Oral Surgery and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Odontology, Malmo University, Malmo, Sweden
    Acta Otolaryngol 127:980-7. 2007
    The results confirm that tumour stage influences the risk of recurrence/second primary tumour (SPT)...

Research Grants68

  1. Genetics of Angiotensinogen-Mediated Hypertension: Stage, Background & Gender
    Donald E Kohan; Fiscal Year: 2010
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Common genetic variation in the angiotensinogen (AGT) gene predisposes to essential hypertension (EH) and increased plasma AGT in humans...
  2. Adipocyte Renin-Angiotensin System and Programming of Hypertension
    Mina Desai; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In particular, studies have shown that adipose-derived angiotensinogen (AGT) can contribute to approximately 20% of plasma AGT concentrations and modulate blood pressure...
  3. SIGNIFICANCE OF ANGIOTENSINOGEN VARIANTS IN HYPERTENSION
    CURT DANIEL SIGMUND; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Angiotensinogen (AGT), the initiating substrate of the system has been genetically linked to hypertension...
  4. Ashok Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Angiotensinogen (AGT) gene locus is associated with human essential hypertension and its expression is increased by glucocorticoid and ..
  5. CHRISTOPHER O BRIAN PHILLIPS; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..index [Aix]) compared with age/sex matched controls: ii) Allele frequencies for gain of function angiotensinogen (AGT) variants and AGT levels are significantly higher: iii) levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, biomarker of renal ..
  6. Transcriptional Regulation of Angiotensinogen Gene
    Ashok Kumar; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Previous studies have suggested that: (a) angiotensinogen (AGT) gene locus is associated with human essential hypertension, (b) variant -6A of the AGT gene is associated with ..
  7. Placental Insufficiency in Transgenic Mouse Model of Preeclampsia and IUGR
    TERRY KNUD MORGAN; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..this hypothesis, we validated a genetically engineered mouse model that simulates a common human angiotensinogen (AGT) variant that is associated with preeclampsia and IUGR...
  8. Lisa A Cassis; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1aR), and ACE2 are three components of the RAS that were regulated specifically ..
  9. Potential of Urinary AGT as a Novel Biomarker for Intrarenal RAS Activity in T1DM
    LUIS GABRIEL NAVAR; Fiscal Year: 2013
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the only known substrate for renin, which is the rate-limiting enzyme of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS)...
  10. GENETICS OF BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN MEXICAN AMERICANS
    Larry Atwood; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..methods will be used to identify and characterize genes that affect plasma or serum levels of angiotensinogen (AGT), tissue kallikrein, and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in 40 families comprising approximately 1200 ..
  11. MECHANISMS UNDERLYING CARDIOVASCULAR RISKS IN DIABETES
    Gordon Williams; Fiscal Year: 2000
    ..the investigator will address four Specific Aims: 1) to determine the relationship between angiotensinogen (AGT) genotype and hypertension in DM; 2) to test the hypothesis that variation in the pressor and hemodynamic responses ..
  12. The Angiotensinogen Gene and Human Hypertension
    Lynn Jorde; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..Many, but not all, studies have shown that variants of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) affect the risk of hypertension, but association studies conducted to date have been compromised by genetic ..
  13. PATHOGENESIS OF RADIATION-INDUCED KIDNEY INJURY
    Michael Robbins; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), TGF-B and angiotensinogen (AGT, precursor of Ang II)...
  14. AGING AND HYPERTENSION--GENDER, GENES AND RISK
    Naomi Fisher; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..human hypertension, one of the very few for which linkage has been documented is that coding for angiotensinogen (AGT), a key element of the renin-angiotensin system - yet linkage has been convincingly shown only in males...
  15. Identification of a Multi-Analyte Profile for Primary Hyperoxaluria
    James P Mapes; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Primary hyperoxaluria, type 1 (PH1) is a rare, monogenic disorder in which a mutation in the AGXT gene leads to overproduction of oxalate by the liver, resulting in widespread deposition of calcium ..
  16. Mapping for Specialized Domains for FCeRI Signaling &Internalization
    Bridget S Wilson; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Single particle tracking (SPT) with multiple colors of monomeric IgE-quantum dot probes will reveal consequences of this disruption for receptor ..
  17. Multiplexed Bead-based In Vitro Pediatric Allergy Test
    Mark Lim; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..While the in vivo skin prick test (SPT) and in vitro allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) tests are the majr modes of allergy diagnosis (along with physical ..
  18. Marguerite Hatch; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..endogenous production of oxalate, due to a deficiency of the liver enzyme alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), results in hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate kidney stone formation in addition to tissue deposition of oxalate (..
  19. Hepatocyte - Based Therapies of Primary Hyperoxaluria 1
    Namita Roy Chowdhury; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..caused by excessive oxalate production by hepatocytes due to peroxisomal alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT) deficiency, leading to increased conversion of glyoxylate to oxalate...
  20. Hydroxproline Catabolism and Hyperoxaluria
    W Todd Lowther; Fiscal Year: 2012
    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Primary hyperoxaluria types I and 2 (PH1 and PH2) are characterized by an inability to efficiently metabolize glyoxylate as a consequence of functional defects in alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase ..
  21. Analysis of PH1-associated alanine:glyoxylate aminotranferase (AGT) using yeast
    Chandra L Tucker; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..I (PH1) is a severe kidney stone disease caused by deficiency of the protein alanine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT)...
  22. Renal Function Derangements in Hypertension
    LUIS GABRIEL NAVAR; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Ang II, AT1 receptor mediated uptake of Ang II into endosomes and augmentation of intrarenal angiotensinogen (AGT) and tubular renin mRNA and protein via AT1 receptor mechanisms...
  23. Mechanisms of Oxalobacter-Induced Enteric Oxalate Excretion
    Marguerite Hatch; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..affords us a unique opportunity to evaluate PAT1 function/activity in the setting of Primary Hyperoxaluria, type1 (PH1), with and without Oxalobacter colonization...
  24. Spinocerebellar ataxia 7 protein function.
    Patrick A Grant; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..SAGA (Spt- Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase) and SLIK (SAGA-Like) are 2 homologous and highly conserved multi-subunit HAT complexes ..
  25. Lentiviral-MGMT gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells
    Stanton L Gerson; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..The MGMT gene product (also known as AGT, O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase) repairs DNA damaged by alkylating agents...
  26. Deciphering T-box gene-dependent mesoderm development with synthetic probes
    James K Chen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Tbx) transcription factors work in concert to pattern the mesoderm lineage, including no tail (ntl), spadetail (spt), and tbx6...
  27. Pax5:Hematopoietic Transcription Factor Involved in ALL
    HAROLD PHILLIP KOEFFLER; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Third, we will determine if PAX5 deletions affect the course of human Ph1+ ALL xenografts...
  28. Scott J Russo; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..females exhibit greater immobility on the forced swim test (FST), anhedonic responses on sucrose preference tests (SPT), decreased time grooming on the splash test, increased latency to feed on novelty suppressed feeding (NSF), and ..
  29. MULTI-TARGETED RNAI THERAPEUTICS FOR GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME (GBM)
    Patrick Y Lu; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..Three small interfering RNA (siRNA) cocktails targeting EGFR-VEGF-AGT, or EGFR-VEGF-MMP9, or EGFR-VEGF-TGF respectively, will be packaged with Histidine and Lysine polymer (HKP) and ..
  30. Role of RNA Binding Proteins in BCR/ABL Leukemogenesis
    Danilo Perrotti; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..indicate the incorporation of drugs capable of antagonizing the BCR/ABL-hnRNP-regulated pathways in the therapy of Ph1 leukemias and, perhaps, of other cancers characterized by similar alteration in mRNA metabolism...
  31. AFAP-110 as a cSrc activator in breast cancer
    Jeffrey T Holt; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..We also find that the ability of AFAP-110 to activate cSrc requires that the PH1 domain bind to phosphatidic acid (PA). There are two grooves in the PH1 domain that can bind phospholipids...
  32. Kelly L Drew; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..caused by stimulation of A1AR in the heart and other peripheral organs using 8-(p-sulfophenyl) theophylline (8-SPT), an adenosine receptor antagonist that does not penetrate the brain...
  33. TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR REGULATION BY THE BCR/ABL ONCOGENE
    Bruno Calabretta; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..by applicant): The BCR/ABL oncoproteins, the leukemia-specific gene products of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1) translocation, induce and maintain the leukemic phenotype through their deregulated tyrosine kinase activity;such ..
  34. Xueding Wang; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..in soft tissues with imaging depth up to several centimeters, innovative spectroscopic photoacoustic tomography (SPAT) offers significant benefits to the diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory arthritis, particularly in combination ..
  35. Metabolic Determinants of Cardiac Bioactive Sphingolipids in Lipid Overload
    Sarah Brice Russo; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..Ceramide contains two acyl chains, which are added sequentially by the enzymes serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and (dihydro)ceramide synthase (CerS)...
  36. Novel SET Antagonists for the Treatment of Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
    Dale J Christensen; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..In CML, a chromosomal translocation leads to production of the Philadelphia Chromosome (Ph1) in which the BCR protein is fused to the Abl kinase to form the BCR/ABL oncogene, a constitutively activated form ..
  37. GANESA REBECCA WEGIENKA; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..the associations between multiple serological levels of vitamin D (25(OH)D) and the outcomes of skin prick testing (SPT) and total and specific serum IgE (sIgE) concentration, as well as wheeze and doctor-diagnosed atopic dermatitis at ..
  38. Florian S Eichler; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) and is based on the insight that mutant serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) activity leads to production of two potentially neurotoxic sphingolipids...
  39. John A Tainer; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..Our efforts to date have helped elucidate the structural chemistry for human direct reversal proteins AGT (O6- alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferases) and ABH3 (the dealkylation dioxygenase AlkB homolog 3) and support their ..
  40. Regulation of Syntrophin Function
    Stanley C Froehner; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..the interaction of alpha-syntrophin with dystrophin (via the PH2-SU domains) and with nNOS and AQP4 (via the PH1-PDZ domains)...
  41. F Peter Guengerich; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..by glutathione (GSH) transferases (GSTs) and the DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine DNA- alkyltransferase (AGT)...
  42. Alan S Verkman; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..Building on quantum dot-single particle tracking (SPT) studies of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels, we will use multi-color SPT and quantum rod polarization correlation ..
  43. Philip R Mayeux; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..This Systems Pharmacology and Toxicology (SPaT) Program is designed for PhD students pursuing dissertation research projects in the pharmacological sciences...
  44. Sphingolipid Rheostat in Neurodegeneration
    Lihong Zhao; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..Modulation of sphingolipid profile will be accomplished by two methods, decreasing serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) activity by using Sptlc1 heterozygosity or increasing ceramide synthesis by transgenic overexpression of CerS6...
  45. Two-photon microscope Adapted for Automated 3D Tissue Reconstruction at High Spat
    RAIMOND LESTER WINSLOW; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..In fact, we envision most data acquired being used at least three times: as an image;as a component of an atlas;and as the basis of at least one computational model. ..
  46. P2X channel mobility in the plasma membrane of neurons
    Esther Richler; Fiscal Year: 2011
    ..of this proposal are 1) to use fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single particle tracking (SPT) of Quantum dot labelled P2X2 receptees to probe the cellular settings in which P2X2 receptor mobility occurs in ..
  47. DNA Repair in Cancer Biology and Therapy
    Peter M Glazer; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..hypoxia-activated prodrugs that are designed to inhibit the repair factor, O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), as well as prodrugs that, upon activation in hypoxic cells, will damage and crosslink DNA. Dr...
  48. STEWART AARON SHANKMAN; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..two transdiagnostic dimensions - reduced reward anticipation (RRA) and heightened sensitivity to potential threat (SPT) - represent risk factors for internalizing (i.e., depression and anxiety) psychopathology...
  49. ALKYLTRANSFERASE INHIBITORS FOR CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY
    Sreenivas Kanugula; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..2) To investigate the relationship between folate transport and the ability of BF to inactivate cellular AGT and overcome AGT-mediated resistance to alkylating agents...
  50. Ruben J Boado; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..The HIRMAb-TNFR fusion protein is named AGT-110...
  51. Sabine Wilhelm; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..This study will compare our personalized and manualized CBT-BDD to manualized supportive psychotherapy (SPT). SPT appears to be the psychosocial treatment most often used for BDD, yet it appears to have a low response rate...
  52. KATHARINE ANNE PHILLIPS; Fiscal Year: 2015
    ..This study will compare our personalized and manualized CBT-BDD to manualized supportive psychotherapy (SPT). SPT appears to be the psychosocial treatment most often used for BDD, yet it appears to have a low response rate...
  53. Xian Cheng Jiang; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..This was done by inhibiting serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), which is the key enzyme for SM biosynthesis...
  54. Hypoxia-Activated O6-Benzylguanine Prodrugs
    ALAN CLAYTON SARTORELLI; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..of DNA guanine which leads to a G-C crosslink, is susceptible to repair by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), a protein that transfers alkyl and methyl groups from the O-6 position of guanine to the AGT molecule...
  55. KA WAI HUI; Fiscal Year: 2014
    ..is fused to the heavy chain of the HIRMAb to create a new biological entity, the HIRMAb-ASA fusion protein named AGT-183...
  56. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF AGT GENETIC POLYMORPHISM
    Jun yan Hong; Fiscal Year: 2001
    ..Human O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT, EC 2.1.1...
  57. Regulation of transcriptional initiation by the 19S proteasome subcomplex.
    Sukesh R Bhaumik; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..UAS (upstream activating sequence), and establishes a specific interaction network of Gal4-SAGA- Mediator (SAGA, Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase) at the UAS by enhancing the interaction of activator Gal4 with coactivator SAGA, which ..
  58. Florian S Eichler; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..is caused by missense mutations in the SPTLC1 gene encoding a subunit of the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). In normal circumstances the SPT enzyme catalyzes the reaction of palmitoyl-CoA with serine to form sphinganine...
  59. Enzyme replacement therapy of the brain in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II
    Zhiqiang Lu; Fiscal Year: 2013
    ..The AGT-182 produced in phase II will be evaluated for safety, toxicology and pharmacokinetics in 8 Rhesus monkeys...
  60. COOPERATIVE INTERACTIONS IN DNA REPAIR
    Michael G Fried; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..As immediate objectives, we will investigate the interactions of human 0 6- alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) with O6-alkylguanine (lesion)-containing and lesion-free DNAs...
  61. Florian S Eichler; Fiscal Year: 2016
    ..is caused by missense mutations in the SPTLC1 gene encoding a subunit of the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). In normal circumstances the SPT enzyme catalyzes the reaction of palmitoyl-CoA with serine to form sphinganine...
  62. 2/2-Treatment of Adolescent Bulimics
    Daniel le Grange; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..between specific treatments (CBT-A and FBT-BN) compared to a non-specific treatment (Supportive Psychotherapy - SPT) in order to examine nonspecific treatment effects (passage of time and nonspecific therapeutic influences)...
  63. 1/2-Treatment of Bulimic Adolescents
    James D Lock; Fiscal Year: 2012
    ..between specific treatments (CBT-A and FBT-BN) compared to a non-specific treatment (Supportive Psychotherapy - SPT) in order to examine nonspecific treatment effects (passage of time and nonspecific therapeutic influences)...
  64. Imaging of O6-Alkylguanine-DNA Alkyltransferase
    Ganesan Vaidyanathan; Fiscal Year: 2005
    ..of guanine and thymine residues by the alkylating agents, by the repair protein O6 alkyl-DNA alkyltrasferase (AGT). AGT repairs the lesions by transferring the alkyl groups from the modified DNA to a cysteine in its active site...
  65. AGT DEPLETION FOR THERAPY OF CNS TUMORS
    Jennifer Quinn; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..to alkylnitrosourea and methylator therapy is the DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). AGT removes chlorethylation or methylation damage from the O6-position of guanine prior to cell injury and death...
  66. Creation of AlkB Mutants for Protection of Bone Marrow
    Manel Camps; Fiscal Year: 2010
    ..The most effective one is AGT, which directly removes toxic modifications caused by methylation of the cell's genetic material (DNA)...
  67. Development of Anticancer 1,2-Bis(sulfonyl)hydrazines
    Alan Sartorelli; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ..Methyl isocyanate functions in part by inhibiting O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase activity (AGT), a major mechanism of resistance to agents such as Cloretazine, which alkylate the O-6 position of guanine in DNA...
  68. CO-CARCINOGENIC ACTIVITY OF NITROSAMINE METABOLITES
    Lisa Peterson; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..are capable of interfering the repair of O6-mG by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT)...