Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: PGRP-SA
Description: Peptidoglycan recognition protein SA
Alias: BcDNA:AT30827, CG11709, Dm PGRP-SA, Dmel\CG11709, SEMMELWEIS, pgrp-sa, seml, CG11709 gene product from transcript CG11709-RA, CG11709-PA, CG11709-PB, PG recognition Protein-SA, PGRP-SA-PA, PGRP-SA-PB, Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-SA precursor, peptidoglycan recognition protein SA, peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA, protein semmelweis, semmelweis, semmelweiss
Species: fruit fly
- A Drosophila pattern recognition receptor contains a peptidoglycan docking groove and unusual L,D-carboxypeptidase activityChung I Chang
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
PLoS Biol 2:E277. 2004The Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA) is critically involved in sensing bacterial infection and activating the Toll signaling pathway, which induces the expression of specific antimicrobial peptide genes...
- Dual detection of fungal infections in Drosophila via recognition of glucans and sensing of virulence factorsMarie Gottar
UPR 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Cell 127:1425-37. 2006..Thus, the detection of fungal infections in Drosophila relies both on the recognition of invariant microbial patterns and on monitoring the effects of virulence factors on the host...
- Sensing of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila: GNBP1 is needed to process and present peptidoglycan to PGRP-SALihui Wang
Genetics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
EMBO J 25:5005-14. 2006..recognition receptors acting upstream of Toll, namely Gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1) and peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA)...
- Drosophila immunity: a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen identifies five serine proteases required for Toll activationZakaria Kambris
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, Gif sur Yvette, France
Curr Biol 16:808-13. 2006..These results demonstrate the existence of a common cascade of SPs upstream of Spz, integrating signals sent by various secreted recognition molecules via more specialized SPs...
- Downregulation of the Drosophila immune response by peptidoglycan-recognition proteins SC1 and SC2Vincent Bischoff
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Strasbourg, France
PLoS Pathog 2:e14. 2006..We further show that a strict control of IMD-pathway activation is essential to prevent bacteria-induced developmental defects and larval death...
- A specific primed immune response in Drosophila is dependent on phagocytesLinh N Pham
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
PLoS Pathog 3:e26. 2007..This work contradicts the paradigm that insect immune responses cannot adapt and will promote the search for similar responses overlooked in organisms with an adaptive immune response...
- The peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-SC1a is essential for Toll signaling and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in DrosophilaLindsey S Garver
Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 5115 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:660-5. 2006....
- A Spätzle-processing enzyme required for toll signaling activation in Drosophila innate immunityIn Hwan Jang
Division of Molecular Life Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120 750, South Korea
Dev Cell 10:45-55. 2006....
- Immune challenge induces N-terminal cleavage of the Drosophila serpin NecroticNadège Pelte
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67000 Strasbourg, France
Insect Biochem Mol Biol 36:37-46. 2006..This modification is blocked in PGRP-SA(semmelweiss) mutants after Gram-positive bacterial challenge and in persephone mutants after fungal or Gram-positive ..
- Crystal structure of Drosophila PGRP-SD suggests binding to DAP-type but not lysine-type peptidoglycanPhilippe Leone
Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Universités Aix Marseille I and II, Marseille, France
Mol Immunol 45:2521-30. 2008..Our hypothesis is that the role of PGRP-SD is the recognition of DAP-type PGNs responsible for the activation of the Toll pathway by Gram-negative bacteria...
- Peptidoglycan recognition protein-SD provides versatility of receptor formation in Drosophila immunityLihui Wang
Genetics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11881-6. 2008..of the glucan binding protein GNBP1 is needed to present Gram-positive peptidoglycan (PG) to peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA)...
- Requirements of peptidoglycan structure that allow detection by the Drosophila Toll pathwaySergio R Filipe
Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK
EMBO Rep 6:327-33. 2005..Detection of Gram-positive bacteria involves a complex of two pattern recognition receptors: peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA) and Gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1). These activate the Toll signalling pathway...
- An antioxidant system required for host protection against gut infection in DrosophilaEun Mi Ha
Division of Molecular Life Science and Center for Cell Signaling Research, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120 750, South Korea
Dev Cell 8:125-32. 2005..These results imply that homeostasis of redox balance by IRC is one of the most critical factors affecting host survival during continuous host-microbe interaction in the gastrointestinal tract...
- Function of the drosophila pattern-recognition receptor PGRP-SD in the detection of Gram-positive bacteriaVincent Bischoff
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UPR 9022, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nat Immunol 5:1175-80. 2004..These data indicate that PGRP-SD can function as a receptor for Gram-positive bacteria and shows partial redundancy with the PGRP-SA-GNBP1 complex...
- Wall teichoic acids of Staphylococcus aureus limit recognition by the drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA to promote pathogenicityMagda L Atilano
Laboratory of Bacterial Cell Surfaces and Pathogenesis, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal
PLoS Pathog 7:e1002421. 2011..We propose that different PGRPs work in concert to counter this strategy...
- In vivo RNA interference analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adultsSebastien Pili-Floury
Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
J Biol Chem 279:12848-53. 2004..Altogether, our results demonstrate that the detection of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila requires two putative pattern recognition receptors, PGRP-SA and GNBP1...
- Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptorsVanessa Gobert
Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Science 302:2126-30. 2003..defense against Gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila is mediated through the peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA)...
- The immune response of DrosophilaJules A Hoffmann
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nature 426:33-8. 2003..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity...
- The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognitionFrançois Leulier
Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
Nat Immunol 4:478-84. 2003..Thus, the ability of Drosophila to discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria relies on the recognition of specific forms of peptidoglycan...
- A scavenger function for a Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteinPeter Mellroth
Department of Microbiology, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
J Biol Chem 278:7059-64. 2003..Furthermore, a sequence homology comparison with phage T7 lysozyme, also an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, shows that as many as six of the Drosophila PGRPs could belong to this class of proteins...
- The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition proteinMarie Gottar
UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, Cedex, France
Nature 416:640-4. 2002..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila...
- Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition proteinT Michel
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nature 414:756-9. 2001..The mutation semmelweis (seml) inactivates the gene encoding a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-SA)...
- Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunityAya Takehana
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Sendai, Japan
EMBO J 23:4690-700. 2004..A role for PGRP-LE in the epithelial induction of antimicrobial peptides is also suggested...
- A family of peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogasterT Werner
Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13772-7. 2000..We demonstrate that at least PGRP-SA and SC1B can bind peptidoglycan, and a function in immunity is likely for this family...
- Staphylococcus aureus Survives with a Minimal Peptidoglycan Synthesis Machine but Sacrifices Virulence and Antibiotic ResistancePatricia Reed
Laboratory of Bacterial Cell Biology, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal
PLoS Pathog 11:e1004891. 2015..aureus. However a complex molecular machine is important in environments other than in vitro growth as the expendable PG synthesis enzymes play an important role in the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus. ..
- ATM kinase inhibition in glial cells activates the innate immune response and causes neurodegeneration in DrosophilaAndrew J Petersen
Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E656-64. 2012....
- Transcriptome analysis of a long-lived natural Drosophila variant: a prominent role of stress- and reproduction-genes in lifespan extensionAgnieszka Doroszuk
Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, The Netherlands
BMC Genomics 13:167. 2012..We do this at two time points representing middle age (90% survival) and old age (10% survival) respectively, in three adult diets (malnutrition, optimal food, and overfeeding)...
- Interspecific divergence of transcription networks along lines of genetic variance in Drosophila: dimensionality, evolvability, and constraintPaolo Innocenti
Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Mol Biol Evol 30:1358-67. 2013....
- Bacterial autolysins trim cell surface peptidoglycan to prevent detection by the Drosophila innate immune systemMagda Luciana Atilano
Laboratory of Bacterial Cell Surfaces and Pathogenesis, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa ITQB UNL, Oeiras, Portugal
elife 3:e02277. 2014..DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02277.001. ..
- Dynamic regulation of innate immune responses in Drosophila by Senju-mediated glycosylationMiki Yamamoto-Hino
Department of Life Science, Rikkyo University, Tokyo 171 8501, Japan
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:5809-14. 2015....
- Cleavage of PGRP-LC receptor in the Drosophila IMD pathway in response to live bacterial infection in S2 cellsRebecca L Schmidt
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Mayo Clinic Cancer Center Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Rochester, MN USA
Self Nonself 2:125-141. 2011....
- Host and pathogen glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins modulate antimicrobial peptide responses in Drosophila melanogasterZhipeng Wang
Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Infect Immun 79:606-16. 2011....
- Analysis of thioester-containing proteins during the innate immune response of Drosophila melanogasterRichard Bou Aoun
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Propre de Recherche 9022, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
J Innate Immun 3:52-64. 2011..TEPs may thus provide a subtle selective advantage during evolution. Alternatively, they may be required in host defense against specific as yet unidentified natural pathogens of Drosophila...
- Imd pathway is involved in the interaction of Drosophila melanogaster with the entomopathogenic bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescensJean Luc Aymeric
UMR INRA UM2 1133, Laboratoire Ecologie Microbienne des Insectes et Interactions hôte Pathogène, France
Mol Immunol 47:2342-8. 2010..coli-induced protection. However, phoP recovered a level of pathogenicity comparable to P. luminescens wild-type TT01 when injected to Drosophila flies affected on the imd pathway...
- Relative roles of the cellular and humoral responses in the Drosophila host defense against three gram-positive bacterial infectionsNadine T Nehme
Equipe Fondation Recherche Médicale, UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
PLoS ONE 6:e14743. 2011..However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense...
- Spn1 regulates the GNBP3-dependent Toll signaling pathway in Drosophila melanogasterAne Fullaondo
CIC bioGUNE, Biscay Technology Park, Building 801A, 48160 Derio, Spain
Mol Cell Biol 31:2960-72. 2011..Spn1 null mutants show altered susceptibility to fungal infection compared to the wild type, demonstrating a requirement for Spn1 in the fine regulation of the immune response...
- Crystal structure of the Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-SA at 1.56 A resolutionJean Baptiste Reiser
Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla CA 92037, USA
J Mol Biol 340:909-17. 2004....
- The relative importance of innate immune priming in Wolbachia-mediated dengue interferenceEdwige Rancès
School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
PLoS Pathog 8:e1002548. 2012....
- A member of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family is responsible for transcriptional induction of Dopa decarboxylase in the epidermis of Drosophila melanogaster during the innate immune responseMonica M Davis
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada
Mol Cell Biol 28:4883-95. 2008..We propose that the involvement of DDC in a new pathway involved in Drosophila immunity increases the levels of dopamine, which is metabolized to produce reactive quinones that exert an antimicrobial effect on invading bacteria...
- Drosophila melanogaster mounts a unique immune response to the Rhabdovirus sigma virusC W Tsai
Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University OARDC, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA
Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3251-6. 2008..These results highlight shared and unique aspects of the Drosophila immune response to the three viruses and may shed light on the nature of the interaction with the host and the evolution of these associations...
- The evolution of parasite recognition genes in the innate immune system: purifying selection on Drosophila melanogaster peptidoglycan recognition proteinsFrancis M Jiggins
Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK
J Mol Evol 57:598-605. 2003..Therefore, interactions between these genes are unlikely to be the focus of host-parasite coevolution, at least in Drosophila. We also found evidence of gene conversion occurring between two genes, PGRP-SC1A and PGRP-SC1B...
- Innate immunity in fruit flies: a textbook example of genomic recyclingShubha Govind
Department of Biology and The Graduate Center, City College of New York, New York, New York, USA
PLoS Biol 2:E276. 2004
- Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognitionS Janssens
Unit for Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, Department of Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
Clin Microbiol Rev 16:637-46. 2003..The fact that TLR expression is regulated in both a cell type- and stimulus-dependent fashion further contributes to the complexity...
- Toll gets tied in a knotDavid Underhill
Nat Immunol 4:723-4. 2003
- Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have itRanjiv S Khush
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
Science 296:273-5. 2002
- Pathogen recognition and innate immunityShizuo Akira
Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
Cell 124:783-801. 2006..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity...
- Bug detectorsT Kaisho
Nature 414:701-3. 2001
- A non-redundant role for Drosophila Mkk4 and hemipterous/Mkk7 in TAK1-mediated activation of JNKPeter Geuking
Institut fur Molekularbiologie, Universitat Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
PLoS ONE 4:e7709. 2009..Mkk7 plays a prominent role upon Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) stimulation. Eiger, the unique TNF-superfamily ligand in Drosophila, potently activates JNK signaling through the activation of the MAPKKK Tak1...
- X-linked variation in immune response in Drosophila melanogasterErin M Hill-Burns
Field of Genetics and Development, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
Genetics 183:1477-91. 2009..Many of the associations act in a sex-specific or sexually antagonistic manner, supporting the theory that with the selective pressures facing genes on the X chromosome, sexually antagonistic variation may be more easily maintained...
- A single modular serine protease integrates signals from pattern-recognition receptors upstream of the Drosophila Toll pathwayNicolas Buchon
Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12442-7. 2009..It also reveals the conserved role of modular serine proteases in the activation of insect immune reactions...
- A serpin that regulates immune melanization in the respiratory system of DrosophilaHuaping Tang
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
Dev Cell 15:617-26. 2008..Such signaling between local and systemic immune responses could represent an alarm mechanism that prepares the host in case a pathogen breaches epithelial defenses to invade internal tissues...
- Molecular architecture of the fruit fly's airway epithelial immune systemChristina Wagner
Forschungszentrum Borstel, Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Borstel, Germany
BMC Genomics 9:446. 2008..Elucidating the structure of the innate immune system of this "airway epithelial cell culture" might enable us to understand why deregulatory processes in innate immune signalling cascades lead to long lasting inflammatory events...
- Sensing of 'danger signals' and pathogen-associated molecular patterns defines binary signaling pathways 'upstream' of TollLaure El Chamy
Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Propre de Recherche 9022, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg Cedex, France
Nat Immunol 9:1165-70. 2008..Hence, Persephone defines a parallel proteolytic cascade activated by 'danger signals' such as abnormal proteolytic activities...
- The complexity of genetic variation in a simple immune systemDominic P Kwiatkowski
Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK OX3 7BN
Trends Genet 21:197-9. 2005..However, the effects of individual polymorphisms on the resistance phenotype were modest, and epistatic interactions appeared to be common. What might these findings tell us about genetic resistance to infection in humans?..
- Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitroPeter Mellroth
Department of Genetics, Microbiology, and Toxicology, University of Stockholm, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6455-60. 2005..Instead, PGRP-LCa can form heterodimers with LCx when the latter is bound to monomeric peptidoglycan. Hence, PGRP-LCa can be said to function as an adaptor, thus adding a new function to a member of the PGRP family...
- Circadian regulation in the ability of Drosophila to combat pathogenic infectionsJung Eun Lee
Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, 679 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
Curr Biol 18:195-9. 2008..Our findings suggest that medical intervention strategies incorporating chronobiological considerations could enhance the innate immune response, boosting the efficacy of combating pathogenic infections...
- Clustering of peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA is required for sensing lysine-type peptidoglycan in insectsJi Won Park
National Research Laboratory of Defense Proteins, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609 735, Korea
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6602-7. 2007....
- Crystal cell rupture after injury in Drosophila requires the JNK pathway, small GTPases and the TNF homolog EigerGawa Bidla
Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, University of Stockholm, Svante Arrheniusväg 16 18, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
J Cell Sci 120:1209-15. 2007..Our results provide a more comprehensive view of immune signal transduction pathways, with implications for immune reactions where cell death is used as a terminal mode of cell activation...