PGRP-SA

Summary

Gene Symbol: PGRP-SA
Description: Peptidoglycan recognition protein SA
Alias: BcDNA:AT30827, CG11709, Dm PGRP-SA, Dmel\CG11709, SEMMELWEIS, pgrp-sa, seml, CG11709 gene product from transcript CG11709-RA, CG11709-PA, CG11709-PB, PG recognition Protein-SA, PGRP-SA-PA, PGRP-SA-PB, Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-SA precursor, peptidoglycan recognition protein SA, peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA, protein semmelweis, semmelweis, semmelweiss
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. pmc A Drosophila pattern recognition receptor contains a peptidoglycan docking groove and unusual L,D-carboxypeptidase activity
    Chung I Chang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E277. 2004
  2. pmc Dual detection of fungal infections in Drosophila via recognition of glucans and sensing of virulence factors
    Marie Gottar
    UPR 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Cell 127:1425-37. 2006
  3. pmc Sensing of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila: GNBP1 is needed to process and present peptidoglycan to PGRP-SA
    Lihui Wang
    Genetics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    EMBO J 25:5005-14. 2006
  4. ncbi Drosophila immunity: a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen identifies five serine proteases required for Toll activation
    Zakaria Kambris
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, Gif sur Yvette, France
    Curr Biol 16:808-13. 2006
  5. pmc Downregulation of the Drosophila immune response by peptidoglycan-recognition proteins SC1 and SC2
    Vincent Bischoff
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Strasbourg, France
    PLoS Pathog 2:e14. 2006
  6. pmc A specific primed immune response in Drosophila is dependent on phagocytes
    Linh N Pham
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e26. 2007
  7. pmc The peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-SC1a is essential for Toll signaling and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in Drosophila
    Lindsey S Garver
    Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 5115 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:660-5. 2006
  8. ncbi A Spätzle-processing enzyme required for toll signaling activation in Drosophila innate immunity
    In Hwan Jang
    Division of Molecular Life Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120 750, South Korea
    Dev Cell 10:45-55. 2006
  9. pmc Immune challenge induces N-terminal cleavage of the Drosophila serpin Necrotic
    Nadège Pelte
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 36:37-46. 2006
  10. doi Crystal structure of Drosophila PGRP-SD suggests binding to DAP-type but not lysine-type peptidoglycan
    Philippe Leone
    Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Universités Aix Marseille I and II, Marseille, France
    Mol Immunol 45:2521-30. 2008

Scientific Experts

  • Agnieszka Doroszuk
  • Dominic P Kwiatkowski
  • S Akira
  • Jules Hoffmann
  • Shubha Govind
  • Francis M Jiggins
  • Christina Wagner
  • Bruno Lemaitre
  • Petros Ligoxygakis
  • Sergio R Filipe
  • Magda L Atilano
  • Dominique Ferrandon
  • Vincent Bischoff
  • Won Jae Lee
  • Patricia Reed
  • Julien Royet
  • François Leulier
  • Marie Gottar
  • Lihui Wang
  • Zakaria Kambris
  • In Hwan Jang
  • Peter Mellroth
  • Ryu Ueda
  • Sebastien Pili-Floury
  • Vanessa Gobert
  • Jean Marc Reichhart
  • Miki Yamamoto-Hino
  • Magda Luciana Atilano
  • Paolo Innocenti
  • Ji Hwan Ryu
  • Edwige Rancès
  • Andrew J Petersen
  • Zhipeng Wang
  • Rebecca L Schmidt
  • Richard Bou Aoun
  • Nadine T Nehme
  • Ane Fullaondo
  • Marcia Belvin
  • Jean Luc Aymeric
  • Charles Hetru
  • Erin M Hill-Burns
  • Peter Geuking
  • Nicolas Buchon
  • David Gubb
  • Monica M Davis
  • C W Tsai
  • Jung Eun Lee
  • Laure El Chamy
  • Philippe Leone
  • Bok Luel Lee
  • Huaping Tang
  • Bernard Duvic
  • Carl Hashimoto
  • Nicholas J Gay
  • Gawa Bidla
  • Linh N Pham
  • Ji Won Park
  • Lindsey S Garver
  • Sylvain Brun
  • Hyuck Jin Nam
  • Nadège Pelte
  • Paul T Brey
  • Eun Mi Ha
  • Kuniaki Takahashi
  • Cecile Vignal
  • Ivo G Boneca
  • Alexey A Matskevich
  • Chung I Chang
  • Jenny Karlsson
  • Hakan Steiner
  • Aya Takehana
  • Jean Baptiste Reiser
  • Claudine Parquet
  • Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx
  • Tatiana Michel
  • S Janssens
  • David Underhill
  • Shu Kondo
  • Masatoshi Muraoka
  • Egbert Hoiczyk
  • Terry Roemer
  • Pedro M Pereira
  • Mariana G Pinho
  • Satoshi Goto
  • Xinwei Sher
  • Nathalie T Reichmann
  • Renato Alves
  • Hideyuki Okano
  • Jose B Pereira-Leal
  • Rita Goncalves Sobral

Detail Information

Publications58

  1. pmc A Drosophila pattern recognition receptor contains a peptidoglycan docking groove and unusual L,D-carboxypeptidase activity
    Chung I Chang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E277. 2004
    The Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA) is critically involved in sensing bacterial infection and activating the Toll signaling pathway, which induces the expression of specific antimicrobial peptide genes...
  2. pmc Dual detection of fungal infections in Drosophila via recognition of glucans and sensing of virulence factors
    Marie Gottar
    UPR 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Cell 127:1425-37. 2006
    ..Thus, the detection of fungal infections in Drosophila relies both on the recognition of invariant microbial patterns and on monitoring the effects of virulence factors on the host...
  3. pmc Sensing of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila: GNBP1 is needed to process and present peptidoglycan to PGRP-SA
    Lihui Wang
    Genetics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    EMBO J 25:5005-14. 2006
    ..recognition receptors acting upstream of Toll, namely Gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1) and peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA)...
  4. ncbi Drosophila immunity: a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen identifies five serine proteases required for Toll activation
    Zakaria Kambris
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, Gif sur Yvette, France
    Curr Biol 16:808-13. 2006
    ..These results demonstrate the existence of a common cascade of SPs upstream of Spz, integrating signals sent by various secreted recognition molecules via more specialized SPs...
  5. pmc Downregulation of the Drosophila immune response by peptidoglycan-recognition proteins SC1 and SC2
    Vincent Bischoff
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Strasbourg, France
    PLoS Pathog 2:e14. 2006
    ..We further show that a strict control of IMD-pathway activation is essential to prevent bacteria-induced developmental defects and larval death...
  6. pmc A specific primed immune response in Drosophila is dependent on phagocytes
    Linh N Pham
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 3:e26. 2007
    ..This work contradicts the paradigm that insect immune responses cannot adapt and will promote the search for similar responses overlooked in organisms with an adaptive immune response...
  7. pmc The peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-SC1a is essential for Toll signaling and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in Drosophila
    Lindsey S Garver
    Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 5115 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:660-5. 2006
    ....
  8. ncbi A Spätzle-processing enzyme required for toll signaling activation in Drosophila innate immunity
    In Hwan Jang
    Division of Molecular Life Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120 750, South Korea
    Dev Cell 10:45-55. 2006
    ....
  9. pmc Immune challenge induces N-terminal cleavage of the Drosophila serpin Necrotic
    Nadège Pelte
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67000 Strasbourg, France
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 36:37-46. 2006
    ..This modification is blocked in PGRP-SA(semmelweiss) mutants after Gram-positive bacterial challenge and in persephone mutants after fungal or Gram-positive ..
  10. doi Crystal structure of Drosophila PGRP-SD suggests binding to DAP-type but not lysine-type peptidoglycan
    Philippe Leone
    Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Universités Aix Marseille I and II, Marseille, France
    Mol Immunol 45:2521-30. 2008
    ..Our hypothesis is that the role of PGRP-SD is the recognition of DAP-type PGNs responsible for the activation of the Toll pathway by Gram-negative bacteria...
  11. pmc Peptidoglycan recognition protein-SD provides versatility of receptor formation in Drosophila immunity
    Lihui Wang
    Genetics Unit, Department of Biochemistry, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11881-6. 2008
    ..of the glucan binding protein GNBP1 is needed to present Gram-positive peptidoglycan (PG) to peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA)...
  12. pmc Requirements of peptidoglycan structure that allow detection by the Drosophila Toll pathway
    Sergio R Filipe
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK
    EMBO Rep 6:327-33. 2005
    ..Detection of Gram-positive bacteria involves a complex of two pattern recognition receptors: peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA) and Gram-negative binding protein 1 (GNBP1). These activate the Toll signalling pathway...
  13. ncbi An antioxidant system required for host protection against gut infection in Drosophila
    Eun Mi Ha
    Division of Molecular Life Science and Center for Cell Signaling Research, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120 750, South Korea
    Dev Cell 8:125-32. 2005
    ..These results imply that homeostasis of redox balance by IRC is one of the most critical factors affecting host survival during continuous host-microbe interaction in the gastrointestinal tract...
  14. ncbi Function of the drosophila pattern-recognition receptor PGRP-SD in the detection of Gram-positive bacteria
    Vincent Bischoff
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UPR 9022, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nat Immunol 5:1175-80. 2004
    ..These data indicate that PGRP-SD can function as a receptor for Gram-positive bacteria and shows partial redundancy with the PGRP-SA-GNBP1 complex...
  15. pmc Wall teichoic acids of Staphylococcus aureus limit recognition by the drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA to promote pathogenicity
    Magda L Atilano
    Laboratory of Bacterial Cell Surfaces and Pathogenesis, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002421. 2011
    ..We propose that different PGRPs work in concert to counter this strategy...
  16. ncbi In vivo RNA interference analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adults
    Sebastien Pili-Floury
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 279:12848-53. 2004
    ..Altogether, our results demonstrate that the detection of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila requires two putative pattern recognition receptors, PGRP-SA and GNBP1...
  17. ncbi Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptors
    Vanessa Gobert
    Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Science 302:2126-30. 2003
    ..defense against Gram-positive bacterial infections in Drosophila is mediated through the peptidoglycan recognition protein SA (PGRP-SA)...
  18. ncbi The immune response of Drosophila
    Jules A Hoffmann
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nature 426:33-8. 2003
    ..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity...
  19. ncbi The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognition
    François Leulier
    Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Nat Immunol 4:478-84. 2003
    ..Thus, the ability of Drosophila to discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria relies on the recognition of specific forms of peptidoglycan...
  20. ncbi A scavenger function for a Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein
    Peter Mellroth
    Department of Microbiology, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 278:7059-64. 2003
    ..Furthermore, a sequence homology comparison with phage T7 lysozyme, also an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, shows that as many as six of the Drosophila PGRPs could belong to this class of proteins...
  21. ncbi The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein
    Marie Gottar
    UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, Cedex, France
    Nature 416:640-4. 2002
    ..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila...
  22. ncbi Drosophila Toll is activated by Gram-positive bacteria through a circulating peptidoglycan recognition protein
    T Michel
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, 15 rue Rene Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nature 414:756-9. 2001
    ..The mutation semmelweis (seml) inactivates the gene encoding a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP-SA)...
  23. pmc Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunity
    Aya Takehana
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Sendai, Japan
    EMBO J 23:4690-700. 2004
    ..A role for PGRP-LE in the epithelial induction of antimicrobial peptides is also suggested...
  24. pmc A family of peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster
    T Werner
    Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13772-7. 2000
    ..We demonstrate that at least PGRP-SA and SC1B can bind peptidoglycan, and a function in immunity is likely for this family...
  25. pmc Staphylococcus aureus Survives with a Minimal Peptidoglycan Synthesis Machine but Sacrifices Virulence and Antibiotic Resistance
    Patricia Reed
    Laboratory of Bacterial Cell Biology, Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica António Xavier, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras, Portugal
    PLoS Pathog 11:e1004891. 2015
    ..aureus. However a complex molecular machine is important in environments other than in vitro growth as the expendable PG synthesis enzymes play an important role in the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus. ..
  26. pmc ATM kinase inhibition in glial cells activates the innate immune response and causes neurodegeneration in Drosophila
    Andrew J Petersen
    Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53706, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E656-64. 2012
    ....
  27. pmc Transcriptome analysis of a long-lived natural Drosophila variant: a prominent role of stress- and reproduction-genes in lifespan extension
    Agnieszka Doroszuk
    Evolutionary Biology, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, The Netherlands
    BMC Genomics 13:167. 2012
    ..We do this at two time points representing middle age (90% survival) and old age (10% survival) respectively, in three adult diets (malnutrition, optimal food, and overfeeding)...
  28. doi Interspecific divergence of transcription networks along lines of genetic variance in Drosophila: dimensionality, evolvability, and constraint
    Paolo Innocenti
    Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology Center, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Mol Biol Evol 30:1358-67. 2013
    ....
  29. pmc Bacterial autolysins trim cell surface peptidoglycan to prevent detection by the Drosophila innate immune system
    Magda Luciana Atilano
    Laboratory of Bacterial Cell Surfaces and Pathogenesis, Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Universidade Nova de Lisboa ITQB UNL, Oeiras, Portugal
    elife 3:e02277. 2014
    ..DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02277.001. ..
  30. pmc Dynamic regulation of innate immune responses in Drosophila by Senju-mediated glycosylation
    Miki Yamamoto-Hino
    Department of Life Science, Rikkyo University, Tokyo 171 8501, Japan
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:5809-14. 2015
    ....
  31. pmc Cleavage of PGRP-LC receptor in the Drosophila IMD pathway in response to live bacterial infection in S2 cells
    Rebecca L Schmidt
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Mayo Clinic Cancer Center Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Rochester, MN USA
    Self Nonself 2:125-141. 2011
    ....
  32. pmc Host and pathogen glycosaminoglycan-binding proteins modulate antimicrobial peptide responses in Drosophila melanogaster
    Zhipeng Wang
    Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Infect Immun 79:606-16. 2011
    ....
  33. pmc Analysis of thioester-containing proteins during the innate immune response of Drosophila melanogaster
    Richard Bou Aoun
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Propre de Recherche 9022, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
    J Innate Immun 3:52-64. 2011
    ..TEPs may thus provide a subtle selective advantage during evolution. Alternatively, they may be required in host defense against specific as yet unidentified natural pathogens of Drosophila...
  34. doi Imd pathway is involved in the interaction of Drosophila melanogaster with the entomopathogenic bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens
    Jean Luc Aymeric
    UMR INRA UM2 1133, Laboratoire Ecologie Microbienne des Insectes et Interactions hôte Pathogène, France
    Mol Immunol 47:2342-8. 2010
    ..coli-induced protection. However, phoP recovered a level of pathogenicity comparable to P. luminescens wild-type TT01 when injected to Drosophila flies affected on the imd pathway...
  35. pmc Relative roles of the cellular and humoral responses in the Drosophila host defense against three gram-positive bacterial infections
    Nadine T Nehme
    Equipe Fondation Recherche Médicale, UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
    PLoS ONE 6:e14743. 2011
    ..However, it is less clear to what extent macrophage-like hemocytes contribute to host defense...
  36. pmc Spn1 regulates the GNBP3-dependent Toll signaling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster
    Ane Fullaondo
    CIC bioGUNE, Biscay Technology Park, Building 801A, 48160 Derio, Spain
    Mol Cell Biol 31:2960-72. 2011
    ..Spn1 null mutants show altered susceptibility to fungal infection compared to the wild type, demonstrating a requirement for Spn1 in the fine regulation of the immune response...
  37. ncbi Crystal structure of the Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-SA at 1.56 A resolution
    Jean Baptiste Reiser
    Department of Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla CA 92037, USA
    J Mol Biol 340:909-17. 2004
    ....
  38. pmc The relative importance of innate immune priming in Wolbachia-mediated dengue interference
    Edwige Rancès
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Australia
    PLoS Pathog 8:e1002548. 2012
    ....
  39. pmc A member of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family is responsible for transcriptional induction of Dopa decarboxylase in the epidermis of Drosophila melanogaster during the innate immune response
    Monica M Davis
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 28:4883-95. 2008
    ..We propose that the involvement of DDC in a new pathway involved in Drosophila immunity increases the levels of dopamine, which is metabolized to produce reactive quinones that exert an antimicrobial effect on invading bacteria...
  40. pmc Drosophila melanogaster mounts a unique immune response to the Rhabdovirus sigma virus
    C W Tsai
    Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University OARDC, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3251-6. 2008
    ..These results highlight shared and unique aspects of the Drosophila immune response to the three viruses and may shed light on the nature of the interaction with the host and the evolution of these associations...
  41. pmc The evolution of parasite recognition genes in the innate immune system: purifying selection on Drosophila melanogaster peptidoglycan recognition proteins
    Francis M Jiggins
    Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK
    J Mol Evol 57:598-605. 2003
    ..Therefore, interactions between these genes are unlikely to be the focus of host-parasite coevolution, at least in Drosophila. We also found evidence of gene conversion occurring between two genes, PGRP-SC1A and PGRP-SC1B...
  42. pmc Innate immunity in fruit flies: a textbook example of genomic recycling
    Shubha Govind
    Department of Biology and The Graduate Center, City College of New York, New York, New York, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E276. 2004
  43. pmc Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognition
    S Janssens
    Unit for Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, Department of Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
    Clin Microbiol Rev 16:637-46. 2003
    ..The fact that TLR expression is regulated in both a cell type- and stimulus-dependent fashion further contributes to the complexity...
  44. ncbi Toll gets tied in a knot
    David Underhill
    Nat Immunol 4:723-4. 2003
  45. ncbi Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it
    Ranjiv S Khush
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 296:273-5. 2002
  46. ncbi Pathogen recognition and innate immunity
    Shizuo Akira
    Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3 1 Yamada oka, Suita, Osaka 565 0871, Japan
    Cell 124:783-801. 2006
    ..New insights into innate immunity are changing the way we think about pathogenesis and the treatment of infectious diseases, allergy, and autoimmunity...
  47. ncbi Bug detectors
    T Kaisho
    Nature 414:701-3. 2001
  48. pmc A non-redundant role for Drosophila Mkk4 and hemipterous/Mkk7 in TAK1-mediated activation of JNK
    Peter Geuking
    Institut fur Molekularbiologie, Universitat Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
    PLoS ONE 4:e7709. 2009
    ..Mkk7 plays a prominent role upon Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) stimulation. Eiger, the unique TNF-superfamily ligand in Drosophila, potently activates JNK signaling through the activation of the MAPKKK Tak1...
  49. pmc X-linked variation in immune response in Drosophila melanogaster
    Erin M Hill-Burns
    Field of Genetics and Development, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA
    Genetics 183:1477-91. 2009
    ..Many of the associations act in a sex-specific or sexually antagonistic manner, supporting the theory that with the selective pressures facing genes on the X chromosome, sexually antagonistic variation may be more easily maintained...
  50. pmc A single modular serine protease integrates signals from pattern-recognition receptors upstream of the Drosophila Toll pathway
    Nicolas Buchon
    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:12442-7. 2009
    ..It also reveals the conserved role of modular serine proteases in the activation of insect immune reactions...
  51. pmc A serpin that regulates immune melanization in the respiratory system of Drosophila
    Huaping Tang
    Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
    Dev Cell 15:617-26. 2008
    ..Such signaling between local and systemic immune responses could represent an alarm mechanism that prepares the host in case a pathogen breaches epithelial defenses to invade internal tissues...
  52. pmc Molecular architecture of the fruit fly's airway epithelial immune system
    Christina Wagner
    Forschungszentrum Borstel, Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Borstel, Germany
    BMC Genomics 9:446. 2008
    ..Elucidating the structure of the innate immune system of this "airway epithelial cell culture" might enable us to understand why deregulatory processes in innate immune signalling cascades lead to long lasting inflammatory events...
  53. pmc Sensing of 'danger signals' and pathogen-associated molecular patterns defines binary signaling pathways 'upstream' of Toll
    Laure El Chamy
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Propre de Recherche 9022, Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nat Immunol 9:1165-70. 2008
    ..Hence, Persephone defines a parallel proteolytic cascade activated by 'danger signals' such as abnormal proteolytic activities...
  54. ncbi The complexity of genetic variation in a simple immune system
    Dominic P Kwiatkowski
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK OX3 7BN
    Trends Genet 21:197-9. 2005
    ..However, the effects of individual polymorphisms on the resistance phenotype were modest, and epistatic interactions appeared to be common. What might these findings tell us about genetic resistance to infection in humans?..
  55. pmc Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitro
    Peter Mellroth
    Department of Genetics, Microbiology, and Toxicology, University of Stockholm, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6455-60. 2005
    ..Instead, PGRP-LCa can form heterodimers with LCx when the latter is bound to monomeric peptidoglycan. Hence, PGRP-LCa can be said to function as an adaptor, thus adding a new function to a member of the PGRP family...
  56. pmc Circadian regulation in the ability of Drosophila to combat pathogenic infections
    Jung Eun Lee
    Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, 679 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Curr Biol 18:195-9. 2008
    ..Our findings suggest that medical intervention strategies incorporating chronobiological considerations could enhance the innate immune response, boosting the efficacy of combating pathogenic infections...
  57. pmc Clustering of peptidoglycan recognition protein-SA is required for sensing lysine-type peptidoglycan in insects
    Ji Won Park
    National Research Laboratory of Defense Proteins, College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 609 735, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6602-7. 2007
    ....
  58. ncbi Crystal cell rupture after injury in Drosophila requires the JNK pathway, small GTPases and the TNF homolog Eiger
    Gawa Bidla
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, University of Stockholm, Svante Arrheniusväg 16 18, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Cell Sci 120:1209-15. 2007
    ..Our results provide a more comprehensive view of immune signal transduction pathways, with implications for immune reactions where cell death is used as a terminal mode of cell activation...