PGRP-LC

Summary

Gene Symbol: PGRP-LC
Description: Peptidoglycan recognition protein LC
Alias: (PGRP)-LC, CG4432, Dm PGRP-LC, Dmel\CG4432, PGRP-LCa, PGRP-LCx, PGRPLC, Pgrp-LC, ird7, pgrp lc, pgrp-lc, tot, CG4432 gene product from transcript CG4432-RD, CG4432-PA, CG4432-PB, CG4432-PC, CG4432-PD, CG4432-PE, CG4432-PG, CG4432-PH, CG4432-PI, PGRP-LC-PA, PGRP-LC-PB, PGRP-LC-PC, PGRP-LC-PD, PGRP-LC-PE, PGRP-LC-PG, PGRP-LC-PH, PGRP-LC-PI, Peptidoglycan-recognition protein-LC, immune response deficient 7, peptidoglycan recognition protein LC, peptidoglycan recognition protein-LC, totem
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. pmc Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitro
    Peter Mellroth
    Department of Genetics, Microbiology, and Toxicology, University of Stockholm, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6455-60. 2005
  2. ncbi Eater, a transmembrane protein mediating phagocytosis of bacterial pathogens in Drosophila
    Christine Kocks
    Laboratory of Developmental Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Cell 123:335-46. 2005
  3. ncbi PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE have essential yet distinct functions in the drosophila immune response to monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycan
    Takashi Kaneko
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:715-23. 2006
  4. pmc A member of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family is responsible for transcriptional induction of Dopa decarboxylase in the epidermis of Drosophila melanogaster during the innate immune response
    Monica M Davis
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 28:4883-95. 2008
  5. doi Tissue- and ligand-specific sensing of gram-negative infection in drosophila by PGRP-LC isoforms and PGRP-LE
    Claudine Neyen
    Global Health Institute, School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Immunol 189:1886-97. 2012
  6. pmc The peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-SC1a is essential for Toll signaling and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in Drosophila
    Lindsey S Garver
    Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 5115 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:660-5. 2006
  7. pmc Downregulation of the Drosophila immune response by peptidoglycan-recognition proteins SC1 and SC2
    Vincent Bischoff
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Strasbourg, France
    PLoS Pathog 2:e14. 2006
  8. pmc Ubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD is required for innate immune signalling
    Annika Meinander
    The Breakthrough Toby Robins Breast Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, London, UK
    EMBO J 31:2770-83. 2012
  9. pmc Dual detection of fungal infections in Drosophila via recognition of glucans and sensing of virulence factors
    Marie Gottar
    UPR 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Cell 127:1425-37. 2006
  10. pmc Toll and IMD pathways synergistically activate an innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster
    Takahiro Tanji
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:4578-88. 2007

Scientific Experts

  • Vassilis Stratoulias
  • Nicolas Buchon
  • Peter Vandenabeele
  • Timothy B Sackton
  • Claudine Neyen
  • Angela E Douglas
  • Shubha Govind
  • Dominic P Kwiatkowski
  • Jules Hoffmann
  • Shoichiro Kurata
  • Christina Wagner
  • Laurent Seroude
  • Neal Silverman
  • Julien Royet
  • Deniz Erturk-Hasdemir
  • François Leulier
  • Eun Mi Ha
  • Vincent Bischoff
  • Kamna Aggarwal
  • Jean Marc Reichhart
  • Bruno Lemaitre
  • Marie Gottar
  • Tamaki Yano
  • Yoshiteru Oshima
  • Peter Mellroth
  • Anni Kleino
  • Dominique Thevenon
  • Pascal Meier
  • William E Goldman
  • Rebecca L Schmidt
  • Nicholas Paquette
  • Akira Goto
  • Jackie Perrin
  • Laure El Chamy
  • Won Jae Lee
  • Dan Hultmark
  • Florentina Rus
  • Leena Maija Vanha-Aho
  • Marie Odile Fauvarque
  • Chung I Chang
  • Meike Broemer
  • Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx
  • Takashi Kaneko
  • Sebastien Pili-Floury
  • Mickael Poidevin
  • Philippe Leone
  • Dominique Ferrandon
  • Hakan Steiner
  • Mika Ramet
  • Evelyne Bergeret
  • Johanna Ulvila
  • Vanessa Gobert
  • Kwang Min Choe
  • Byung Ha Oh
  • Nathan Harris
  • Rebecca I Clark
  • Svenja Stoven
  • Ryu Ueda
  • Cecile Vignal
  • Annika Meinander
  • Virginie Bosco-Drayon
  • Bernard Charroux
  • Huiwen W Zhao
  • Idir Akhouayri
  • Nada Basbous
  • Li Chen
  • Chan Hee Kim
  • Marcia Belvin
  • Susanna Valanne
  • Tencho Tenev
  • Paulo S Ribeiro
  • Ahmed Abdelsadik
  • Jeffrey L Platt
  • Christine Kellenberger
  • Alain Roussel
  • Amy H Tang
  • Mathilde Gendrin
  • Justin R DiAngelo
  • Kyung Ah Lee
  • Alexandre Costa
  • Thomas Werner
  • Sung Hee Kim
  • Emmanuel Taillebourg
  • Elodie Engel
  • Malin Vonkavaara
  • Nouara Lhocine
  • Jung Eun Lee
  • Monica M Davis
  • C W Tsai
  • Jodell E Linder

Detail Information

Publications83

  1. pmc Ligand-induced dimerization of Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition proteins in vitro
    Peter Mellroth
    Department of Genetics, Microbiology, and Toxicology, University of Stockholm, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:6455-60. 2005
    ..Instead, PGRP-LCa can form heterodimers with LCx when the latter is bound to monomeric peptidoglycan. Hence, PGRP-LCa can be said to function as an adaptor, thus adding a new function to a member of the PGRP family...
  2. ncbi Eater, a transmembrane protein mediating phagocytosis of bacterial pathogens in Drosophila
    Christine Kocks
    Laboratory of Developmental Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Cell 123:335-46. 2005
    ..Our results suggest that Eater is a major phagocytic receptor for a broad range of bacterial pathogens in Drosophila and provide a powerful model to address the role of phagocytosis in vivo...
  3. ncbi PGRP-LC and PGRP-LE have essential yet distinct functions in the drosophila immune response to monomeric DAP-type peptidoglycan
    Takashi Kaneko
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01605, USA
    Nat Immunol 7:715-23. 2006
    ..These data demonstrate that like mammals, drosophila use both extracellular and intracellular receptors, which have conserved signaling mechanisms, for innate immune recognition...
  4. pmc A member of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family is responsible for transcriptional induction of Dopa decarboxylase in the epidermis of Drosophila melanogaster during the innate immune response
    Monica M Davis
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E9, Canada
    Mol Cell Biol 28:4883-95. 2008
    ..We propose that the involvement of DDC in a new pathway involved in Drosophila immunity increases the levels of dopamine, which is metabolized to produce reactive quinones that exert an antimicrobial effect on invading bacteria...
  5. doi Tissue- and ligand-specific sensing of gram-negative infection in drosophila by PGRP-LC isoforms and PGRP-LE
    Claudine Neyen
    Global Health Institute, School of Life Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    J Immunol 189:1886-97. 2012
    ....
  6. pmc The peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-SC1a is essential for Toll signaling and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus in Drosophila
    Lindsey S Garver
    Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, 5115 Plant Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:660-5. 2006
    ....
  7. pmc Downregulation of the Drosophila immune response by peptidoglycan-recognition proteins SC1 and SC2
    Vincent Bischoff
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9022 du CNRS, Strasbourg, France
    PLoS Pathog 2:e14. 2006
    ..We further show that a strict control of IMD-pathway activation is essential to prevent bacteria-induced developmental defects and larval death...
  8. pmc Ubiquitylation of the initiator caspase DREDD is required for innate immune signalling
    Annika Meinander
    The Breakthrough Toby Robins Breast Cancer Research Centre, Institute of Cancer Research, Chester Beatty Laboratories, London, UK
    EMBO J 31:2770-83. 2012
    ..The direct involvement of ubiquitylation in caspase activation represents a novel mechanism for non-apoptotic caspase-mediated signalling...
  9. pmc Dual detection of fungal infections in Drosophila via recognition of glucans and sensing of virulence factors
    Marie Gottar
    UPR 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Cell 127:1425-37. 2006
    ..Thus, the detection of fungal infections in Drosophila relies both on the recognition of invariant microbial patterns and on monitoring the effects of virulence factors on the host...
  10. pmc Toll and IMD pathways synergistically activate an innate immune response in Drosophila melanogaster
    Takahiro Tanji
    Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 27:4578-88. 2007
    ..of antimicrobial peptide genes in Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by the conserved Toll and peptidoglycan recognition protein LC/immune deficiency (PGRP-LC/IMD) signaling pathways...
  11. ncbi A Drosophila ortholog of the human cylindromatosis tumor suppressor gene regulates triglyceride content and antibacterial defense
    Theodore Tsichritzis
    Institute of Immunology, Biomedical Sciences Research Center Al Fleming, 34 Al Fleming Street, 16672 Vari, Greece
    Development 134:2605-14. 2007
    ..All mutant phenotypes described were reversible upon conditional expression of CYLD transgenes. Our results implicate CYLD in a broad range of functions associated with fat homeostasis and host defence in Drosophila...
  12. doi Infection-induced proteolysis of PGRP-LC controls the IMD activation and melanization cascades in Drosophila
    Rebecca L Schmidt
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905 USA
    FASEB J 22:918-29. 2008
    ....
  13. pmc Drosophila melanogaster mounts a unique immune response to the Rhabdovirus sigma virus
    C W Tsai
    Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University OARDC, Wooster, Ohio 44691, USA
    Appl Environ Microbiol 74:3251-6. 2008
    ..These results highlight shared and unique aspects of the Drosophila immune response to the three viruses and may shed light on the nature of the interaction with the host and the evolution of these associations...
  14. ncbi Pirk is a negative regulator of the Drosophila Imd pathway
    Anni Kleino
    Institute of Medical Technology, University of Tampere, Finland
    J Immunol 180:5413-22. 2008
    ..pirk encodes a cytoplasmic protein that coimmunoprecipitates with Imd and the cytoplasmic tail of peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC)...
  15. doi The Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-LF blocks PGRP-LC and IMD/JNK pathway activation
    Frédéric Maillet
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, UMR 6216 CNRS, Université de la Méditérannée Aix Marseille II, Parc Scientifique de Luminy Case 907, F 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France
    Cell Host Microbe 3:293-303. 2008
    ..Thus, PGRP-LF prevents constitutive activation of both the JNK and the IMD pathways. We propose a model in which PGRP-LF keeps the Drosophila IMD pathway silent by sequestering circulating peptidoglycan...
  16. pmc Caspar, a suppressor of antibacterial immunity in Drosophila
    Myungjin Kim
    National Creative Research Initiatives Center for Cell Growth Regulation and Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373 1 Kusong Dong, Yusong, Taejon 305 701, Korea
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:16358-63. 2006
    ..Collectively, our elucidation of an inhibitory mechanism of the Imd pathway by Caspar will provide a valuable insight into understanding complex regulatory mechanisms of the innate immune systems in both Drosophila and mammals...
  17. pmc Autophagic control of listeria through intracellular innate immune recognition in drosophila
    Tamaki Yano
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
    Nat Immunol 9:908-16. 2008
    ..Autophagy induction occurred independently of the Toll and IMD innate signaling pathways. Our findings define a pathway leading from the intracellular pattern-recognition receptors to the induction of autophagy to host defense...
  18. pmc Rudra interrupts receptor signaling complexes to negatively regulate the IMD pathway
    Kamna Aggarwal
    Divison of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000120. 2008
    ..These results show that Rudra is a critical component in a negative feedback loop, whereby immune-induced gene expression rapidly produces a potent inhibitor that binds and inhibits pattern recognition receptors...
  19. doi PIMS modulates immune tolerance by negatively regulating Drosophila innate immune signaling
    Nouara Lhocine
    CNRS, Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, UPR2167, Gif sur Yvette, F 91198, France
    Cell Host Microbe 4:147-58. 2008
    ..Therefore, PIMS is required to establish immune tolerance to commensal bacteria and to maintain a balanced Imd response following exposure to bacterial infections...
  20. pmc Chronic activation of the epithelial immune system of the fruit fly's salivary glands has a negative effect on organismal growth and induces a peculiar set of target genes
    Ahmed Abdelsadik
    Christian Albrechts University of Kiel, Zoophysiology, Kiel, Germany
    BMC Genomics 11:265. 2010
    ..Our major goal was to elucidate if the fly's salivary glands are able to mount an immune response and what the major characteristics of this immune response are...
  21. pmc Molecular architecture of the fruit fly's airway epithelial immune system
    Christina Wagner
    Forschungszentrum Borstel, Department of Immunology and Cell Biology, Borstel, Germany
    BMC Genomics 9:446. 2008
    ..Elucidating the structure of the innate immune system of this "airway epithelial cell culture" might enable us to understand why deregulatory processes in innate immune signalling cascades lead to long lasting inflammatory events...
  22. doi Regulation of DUOX by the Galphaq-phospholipase Cbeta-Ca2+ pathway in Drosophila gut immunity
    Eun Mi Ha
    Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science, Ewha Woman s University, Seoul 120 750, South Korea
    Dev Cell 16:386-97. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate that the Galphaq-PLCbeta-Ca(2+)-DUOX-ROS signaling pathway acts as a bona fide first line of defense that enables gut epithelia to dynamically control yeast during the Drosophila life cycle...
  23. pmc Two roles for the Drosophila IKK complex in the activation of Relish and the induction of antimicrobial peptide genes
    Deniz Erturk-Hasdemir
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9779-84. 2009
    ..Instead they are critical for recruitment of RNA polymerase II and antimicrobial peptide gene induction, whereas IKK functions noncatalytically to support Dredd-mediated cleavage of Relish...
  24. doi Coordination of multiple dual oxidase-regulatory pathways in responses to commensal and infectious microbes in drosophila gut
    Eun Mi Ha
    Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Science, National Creative Research Initiative Center for Symbiosystem, Ewha Woman s University, Seoul, South Korea
    Nat Immunol 10:949-57. 2009
    ..Thus, the coordinated regulation of DUOX enables the host to achieve gut-microbe homeostasis by efficiently combating infection while tolerating commensal microbes...
  25. pmc Invasive and indigenous microbiota impact intestinal stem cell activity through multiple pathways in Drosophila
    Nicolas Buchon
    Global Health Institute, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, CH 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
    Genes Dev 23:2333-44. 2009
    ..Altogether, these results indicate that gut homeostasis is achieved by a complex interregulation of the immune response, gut microbiota, and stem cell activity...
  26. doi The Drosophila ubiquitin-specific protease dUSP36/Scny targets IMD to prevent constitutive immune signaling
    Dominique Thevenon
    CEA, DSV, iRTSV, LTS, Institut de Recherches en Technologies et Sciences pour le Vivant, Laboratoire de Transduction du Signal, CEA Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble, France
    Cell Host Microbe 6:309-20. 2009
    ..Our findings identify dUSP36 as a repressor whose IMD deubiquitination activity prevents nonspecific activation of innate immune signaling...
  27. pmc The immune response attenuates growth and nutrient storage in Drosophila by reducing insulin signaling
    Justin R DiAngelo
    The Institute for Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:20853-8. 2009
    ..These data suggest that communication between these two regulatory systems evolved as a means to divert energy in times of need from organismal growth to the acute requirement of combating infection...
  28. pmc Caspase-mediated cleavage, IAP binding, and ubiquitination: linking three mechanisms crucial for Drosophila NF-kappaB signaling
    Nicholas Paquette
    Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Mol Cell 37:172-82. 2010
    ..Through its association with DIAP2, IMD is rapidly conjugated with K63-linked polyubiquitin chains. These results mechanistically connect caspase-mediated cleavage and K63 ubiquitination in immune-induced NF-kappaB signaling...
  29. doi Peptidoglycan sensing by the receptor PGRP-LE in the Drosophila gut induces immune responses to infectious bacteria and tolerance to microbiota
    Virginie Bosco-Drayon
    Institut de Biologie du Developpement de Marseille Luminy, CNRS UMR, Aix Marseille Universite, France
    Cell Host Microbe 12:153-65. 2012
    ..Together these data indicate that PGRP-LE functions as a master gut bacterial sensor that induces balanced responses to infectious bacteria and tolerance to microbiota...
  30. ncbi Requirement for a peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) in Relish activation and antibacterial immune responses in Drosophila
    Kwang Min Choe
    Molecular Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Science 296:359-62. 2002
    ....
  31. ncbi The Drosophila immune response against Gram-negative bacteria is mediated by a peptidoglycan recognition protein
    Marie Gottar
    UPR 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg, Cedex, France
    Nature 416:640-4. 2002
    ..The data on PGRP-SA with respect to the response to Gram-positive infections, together with the present report, indicate that the PGRP family has a principal role in sensing microbial infections in Drosophila...
  32. ncbi A scavenger function for a Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein
    Peter Mellroth
    Department of Microbiology, Stockholm University, S 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 278:7059-64. 2003
    ..Furthermore, a sequence homology comparison with phage T7 lysozyme, also an N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, shows that as many as six of the Drosophila PGRPs could belong to this class of proteins...
  33. ncbi The Drosophila immune system detects bacteria through specific peptidoglycan recognition
    François Leulier
    Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Nat Immunol 4:478-84. 2003
    ..Thus, the ability of Drosophila to discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria relies on the recognition of specific forms of peptidoglycan...
  34. ncbi Functional diversity of the Drosophila PGRP-LC gene cluster in the response to lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan
    Thomas Werner
    Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    J Biol Chem 278:26319-22. 2003
    ..Two additional PGRP domains in the gene cluster, z and w, are both included in a single transcript of a separate gene, PGRP-LF. Suppression of this transcript does not block the response to any of the microorganisms tested...
  35. ncbi The immune response of Drosophila
    Jules A Hoffmann
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nature 426:33-8. 2003
    ..Recent progress in research on Drosophila immune defence provides evidence for similarities and differences between Drosophila immune responses and mammalian innate immunity...
  36. ncbi Dual activation of the Drosophila toll pathway by two pattern recognition receptors
    Vanessa Gobert
    Unité Propre de Recherche 9022 du CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, 15 rue Rene Descartes, F67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Science 302:2126-30. 2003
    ..The potential for a combination of distinct proteins to mediate detection of infectious nonself in the fly will refine the concept of pattern recognition in insects...
  37. ncbi In vivo RNA interference analysis reveals an unexpected role for GNBP1 in the defense against Gram-positive bacterial infection in Drosophila adults
    Sebastien Pili-Floury
    Centre de Genetique Moleculaire, CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
    J Biol Chem 279:12848-53. 2004
    ..Altogether, our results demonstrate that the detection of Gram-positive bacteria in Drosophila requires two putative pattern recognition receptors, PGRP-SA and GNBP1...
  38. ncbi Monomeric and polymeric gram-negative peptidoglycan but not purified LPS stimulate the Drosophila IMD pathway
    Takashi Kaneko
    Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    Immunity 20:637-49. 2004
    ..Recognition of monomeric and polymeric peptidoglycan required different PGRP-LC splice isoforms, while lipid A recognition required an unidentified soluble factor in the hemolymph of Bombyx morii...
  39. ncbi Function of the drosophila pattern-recognition receptor PGRP-SD in the detection of Gram-positive bacteria
    Vincent Bischoff
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UPR 9022, 15 rue Rene Descartes, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nat Immunol 5:1175-80. 2004
    ..These data indicate that PGRP-SD can function as a receptor for Gram-positive bacteria and shows partial redundancy with the PGRP-SA-GNBP1 complex...
  40. ncbi An antioxidant system required for host protection against gut infection in Drosophila
    Eun Mi Ha
    Division of Molecular Life Science and Center for Cell Signaling Research, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120 750, South Korea
    Dev Cell 8:125-32. 2005
    ..These results imply that homeostasis of redox balance by IRC is one of the most critical factors affecting host survival during continuous host-microbe interaction in the gastrointestinal tract...
  41. pmc Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC) acts as a signal-transducing innate immune receptor
    Kwang Min Choe
    Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:1122-6. 2005
    Drosophila peptidoglycan recognition protein LC (PGRP-LC), a transmembrane protein required for the response to bacterial infection, acts at the top of a cytoplasmic signaling cascade that requires the death-domain protein Imd and an ..
  42. pmc Ecdysone triggered PGRP-LC expression controls Drosophila innate immunity
    Florentina Rus
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA
    EMBO J 32:1626-38. 2013
    ..Together, our results demonstrate that Drosophila use complex mechanisms to modulate innate immune responses, and identify a transcriptional hierarchy that integrates steroid signalling and immunity in animals...
  43. pmc A family of peptidoglycan recognition proteins in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster
    T Werner
    Umea Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis, Umea University, S 901 87 Umea, Sweden
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:13772-7. 2000
    ..We demonstrate that at least PGRP-SA and SC1B can bind peptidoglycan, and a function in immunity is likely for this family...
  44. pmc Peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP)-LE and PGRP-LC act synergistically in Drosophila immunity
    Aya Takehana
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Sendai, Japan
    EMBO J 23:4690-700. 2004
    ..A role for PGRP-LE in the epithelial induction of antimicrobial peptides is also suggested...
  45. ncbi The Drosophila amidase PGRP-LB modulates the immune response to bacterial infection
    Anna Zaidman-Rémy
    Centre de Génétique Moléculaire du CNRS, F 91198 Gif sur Yvette, France
    Immunity 24:463-73. 2006
    ..Our work highlights the key role of PGRPs that encode both sensors and scavengers of peptidoglycan, which modulate the level of the host immune response to the presence of infectious microorganisms...
  46. pmc Long-range activation of systemic immunity through peptidoglycan diffusion in Drosophila
    Mathilde Gendrin
    Global Health Institute, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
    PLoS Pathog 5:e1000694. 2009
    ..Genital infection is thus an intriguing new model for studying the systemic immune response to local epithelial infections and a potential route of entry for naturally occurring pathogens of Drosophila...
  47. doi The role of the IAP E3 ubiquitin ligases in regulating pattern-recognition receptor signalling
    Peter Vandenabeele
    Department for Molecular Biomedical Research, VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
    Nat Rev Immunol 12:833-44. 2012
    ..Understanding the role of IAPs in innate immunity may open new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of PRR-dependent inflammatory diseases...
  48. pmc Distinct Shifts in Microbiota Composition during Drosophila Aging Impair Intestinal Function and Drive Mortality
    Rebecca I Clark
    Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA Electronic address
    Cell Rep 12:1656-67. 2015
    ..Our results indicate that alterations in microbiota dynamics could contribute to and also predict varying rates of health decline during aging in mammals...
  49. doi The multilayered innate immune defense of the gut
    Laure El Chamy
    Laboratory of Drosophila Genetics and Microbial Virulence, EGFEM, Faculty of Sciences, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon
    Biomed J 38:276-84. 2015
    ..Accordingly, the Drosophila gut innate immune response is tightly regulated to maintain the endogenous microbiota, while preventing infections by pathogenic microorganisms. ..
  50. doi All for one and one for all: Regionalization of the Drosophila intestine
    Nicolas Buchon
    Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA Electronic address
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 67:2-8. 2015
    ..Further characterization of the gene regulatory networks underlying gut compartmentalization will pave the way for a better understanding of gastrointestinal function in insects and mammals, in both health and disease conditions. ..
  51. doi The nonaspanins TM9SF2 and TM9SF4 regulate the plasma membrane localization and signalling activity of the peptidoglycan recognition protein PGRP-LC in Drosophila
    Jackie Perrin
    Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France
    J Innate Immun 7:37-46. 2015
    ..Finally, we provide a set of data suggesting that TM9 proteins can prevent inappropriate signalling from the unstimulated receptor...
  52. pmc The Innate Immune Receptor PGRP-LC Controls Presynaptic Homeostatic Plasticity
    Nathan Harris
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158 0822, USA
    Neuron 88:1157-64. 2015
    ..Thus, PGRP-LC is a candidate receptor for retrograde, trans-synaptic signaling, a novel activity for innate immune signaling and the first known function of a PGRP-type receptor in the nervous system of any organism. ..
  53. pmc Toll-8/Tollo negatively regulates antimicrobial response in the Drosophila respiratory epithelium
    Idir Akhouayri
    IBDML, UMR 6216 CNRS, Universite Aix Marseille, Marseille, France
    PLoS Pathog 7:e1002319. 2011
    ..Our data show that, in addition to Toll-1 whose function is essential during the systemic immune response, Drosophila relies on another Toll family member to control the immune response in the respiratory epithelium...
  54. pmc Cleavage of PGRP-LC receptor in the Drosophila IMD pathway in response to live bacterial infection in S2 cells
    Rebecca L Schmidt
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Mayo Clinic Cancer Center Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Rochester, MN USA
    Self Nonself 2:125-141. 2011
    ....
  55. doi A cyclopentanediol analogue selectively suppresses the conserved innate immunity pathways, Drosophila IMD and TNF-alpha pathways
    Mizuki Sekiya
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6 3 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
    Biochem Pharmacol 75:2165-74. 2008
    ..In human cells, the compound suppressed TNF-alpha, but not IL-1beta, stimulation-induced activation of NF-kappaB, suggesting that its target molecules are upstream of TAK1 in mammalian innate immunity...
  56. pmc Requirements of peptidoglycan structure that allow detection by the Drosophila Toll pathway
    Sergio R Filipe
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK
    EMBO Rep 6:327-33. 2005
    ..We suggest a model whereby GNBP1 is involved in the hydrolysis of Gram-positive peptidoglycan producing new glycan reducing ends, which are subsequently detected by PGRP-SA...
  57. pmc Functional characterization of the infection-inducible peptide Edin in Drosophila melanogaster
    Leena Maija Vanha-Aho
    BioMediTech and Institute of Biomedical Technology, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland
    PLoS ONE 7:e37153. 2012
    ..faecalis infection via an uncharacterized mechanism. Further studies are still required to elucidate the exact role of Edin in the Drosophila immune response...
  58. doi Crystal structure of Drosophila PGRP-SD suggests binding to DAP-type but not lysine-type peptidoglycan
    Philippe Leone
    Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, UMR 6098 CNRS and Universités Aix Marseille I and II, Marseille, France
    Mol Immunol 45:2521-30. 2008
    ..Our hypothesis is that the role of PGRP-SD is the recognition of DAP-type PGNs responsible for the activation of the Toll pathway by Gram-negative bacteria...
  59. pmc Genotype and gene expression associations with immune function in Drosophila
    Timothy B Sackton
    Field of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Genet 6:e1000797. 2010
    ..These results show that polymorphism in genes near the top of the immune system signaling cascade can have a disproportionate effect on organismal phenotype due to the amplification of minor effects through the cascade...
  60. pmc Antimicrobial peptides increase tolerance to oxidant stress in Drosophila melanogaster
    Huiwen W Zhao
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA
    J Biol Chem 286:6211-8. 2011
    ....
  61. pmc Circadian regulation in the ability of Drosophila to combat pathogenic infections
    Jung Eun Lee
    Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Rutgers University, 679 Hoes Lane, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA
    Curr Biol 18:195-9. 2008
    ..Our findings suggest that medical intervention strategies incorporating chronobiological considerations could enhance the innate immune response, boosting the efficacy of combating pathogenic infections...
  62. pmc Cooperative regulation of the induction of the novel antibacterial Listericin by peptidoglycan recognition protein LE and the JAK-STAT pathway
    Akira Goto
    Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
    J Biol Chem 285:15731-8. 2010
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that the Listericin gene encodes a novel antibacterial peptide-like protein whose induction is cooperatively regulated by PGRP-LE and the JAK-STAT pathway...
  63. pmc The Drosophila peptidoglycan-recognition protein LF interacts with peptidoglycan-recognition protein LC to downregulate the Imd pathway
    Nada Basbous
    Centre de Biophysique Moleculaire, UPR 4301 CNRS, rue Charles Sadron, Orléans 2 45071, France
    EMBO Rep 12:327-33. 2011
    ..Our results suggest a mechanism for downregulation of the Imd pathway on the basis of the competition between PRGP-LCa and PGRP-LF to bind to PGRP-LCx...
  64. pmc The Imd pathway is involved in antiviral immune responses in Drosophila
    Alexandre Costa
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 4:e7436. 2009
    ..Our data show that antiviral innate immune responses in flies infected with CrPV depend upon hemocytes and signaling through the Imd pathway...
  65. ncbi Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it
    Ranjiv S Khush
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Science 296:273-5. 2002
  66. ncbi Spatio-temporal analysis of gene expression during aging in Drosophila melanogaster
    Laurent Seroude
    California Institute of Technology, Division of Biology 156 29, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
    Aging Cell 1:47-56. 2002
    ....
  67. pmc Role of Toll-like receptors in pathogen recognition
    S Janssens
    Unit for Molecular Signal Transduction in Inflammation, Department of Molecular Biomedical Research, Ghent University VIB, B 9052 Ghent, Belgium
    Clin Microbiol Rev 16:637-46. 2003
    ..The fact that TLR expression is regulated in both a cell type- and stimulus-dependent fashion further contributes to the complexity...
  68. pmc Innate immunity in fruit flies: a textbook example of genomic recycling
    Shubha Govind
    Department of Biology and The Graduate Center, City College of New York, New York, New York, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:E276. 2004
  69. ncbi The complexity of genetic variation in a simple immune system
    Dominic P Kwiatkowski
    Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford, UK OX3 7BN
    Trends Genet 21:197-9. 2005
    ..However, the effects of individual polymorphisms on the resistance phenotype were modest, and epistatic interactions appeared to be common. What might these findings tell us about genetic resistance to infection in humans?..
  70. ncbi Insect renal tubules constitute a cell-autonomous immune system that protects the organism against bacterial infection
    J McGettigan
    Division of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
    Insect Biochem Mol Biol 35:741-54. 2005
    ..coli challenge. Thus, we describe a novel role of Malpighian tubules in immune sensing and insect survival...
  71. pmc Structure of the ectodomain of Drosophila peptidoglycan-recognition protein LCa suggests a molecular mechanism for pattern recognition
    Chung I Chang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390 9050, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10279-84. 2005
    ..Such features include N-acetyl glucosamine and the anhydro bond in the glycan of the muropeptide, which have been demonstrated to be critical for immune stimulatory activity...
  72. ncbi Eater: a big bite into phagocytosis
    Deniz Erturk-Hasdemir
    Division of Infectious Disease, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01605, USA
    Cell 123:190-2. 2005
    ..In this issue of Cell, Kocks et al. (2005) demonstrate that Eater, a scavenger receptor, plays an important role in the recognition and phagocytosis of bacteria in the fruit fly Drosophila...
  73. pmc Dual strategies for peptidoglycan discrimination by peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs)
    Chittoor P Swaminathan
    Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology, W M Keck Laboratory for Structural Biology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:684-9. 2006
    ..The plasticity of the PGRP-binding site revealed by these mutants suggests an intrinsic capacity of the innate immune system to rapidly evolve specificities to meet new microbial challenges...
  74. ncbi Structure of tracheal cytotoxin in complex with a heterodimeric pattern-recognition receptor
    Chung I Chang
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX 75390 9050, USA
    Science 311:1761-4. 2006
    ....
  75. ncbi Trade-offs between longevity and pathogen resistance in Drosophila melanogaster are mediated by NFkappaB signaling
    Sergiy Libert
    Huffington Center on Aging, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Aging Cell 5:533-43. 2006
    ..These phenotypes are dependent on the NFkappaB-related transcriptional factor, Relish, and they establish a mechanistic basis for a link between immunity, inflammation, and longevity...
  76. ncbi Crystal cell rupture after injury in Drosophila requires the JNK pathway, small GTPases and the TNF homolog Eiger
    Gawa Bidla
    Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics, University of Stockholm, Svante Arrheniusväg 16 18, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Cell Sci 120:1209-15. 2007
    ..Our results provide a more comprehensive view of immune signal transduction pathways, with implications for immune reactions where cell death is used as a terminal mode of cell activation...
  77. pmc The effects of temperature on host-pathogen interactions in D. melanogaster: who benefits?
    Jodell E Linder
    Department of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    J Insect Physiol 54:297-308. 2008
    ..The approach described here allows us to determine whether this effect is due primarily to temperature-specific effects on the host or on its pathogen. These results suggest that both may be important...
  78. pmc Akirins are highly conserved nuclear proteins required for NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in drosophila and mice
    Akira Goto
    Institut de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire, CNRS UPR 9022, Universite Louis Pasteur, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France
    Nat Immunol 9:97-104. 2008
    ..Thus, Akirin is a conserved nuclear factor required for innate immune responses...
  79. doi Drosophila melanogaster as a model for elucidating the pathogenicity of Francisella tularensis
    Malin Vonkavaara
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umea University, 90185 Umea, Sweden
    Cell Microbiol 10:1327-38. 2008
    ..melanogaster is a suitable model for the analysis of interactions between F. tularensis and its arthropod hosts and that it can also be used to identify F. tularensis virulence factors relevant for mammalian hosts...
  80. doi TM9SF4 is required for Drosophila cellular immunity via cell adhesion and phagocytosis
    Evelyne Bergeret
    CEA, iRTSV, LTS, 38054 Grenoble, France
    J Cell Sci 121:3325-34. 2008
    ..Our study highlights the contribution of phagocytes to host defence in an organism possessing a complex innate immune response and suggests an evolutionarily conserved function of TM9SF4 in eukaryotic phagocytes...
  81. pmc Extracellular and intracellular pathogen recognition by Drosophila PGRP-LE and PGRP-LC
    Shoichiro Kurata
    Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tohoku University, 6 3 Aza Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba ku, Sendai 980 8578, Japan
    Int Immunol 22:143-8. 2010
    ..Some intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes are, nevertheless, eliminated by immune reactions such as autophagy through intracellular identification by pattern-recognition receptors...
  82. pmc Drosophila immunity: genes on the third chromosome required for the response to bacterial infection
    L P Wu
    Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA
    Genetics 159:189-99. 2001
    ..These genetic studies should provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic control of immune responses in Drosophila...