msl-2

Summary

Gene Symbol: msl-2
Description: male-specific lethal 2
Alias: CG3241, Dmel\CG3241, MSL, MSL-2, MSL2, Msl 1-3, Msl-2, Msl2, km(2)A, kmA, msl, msl2, CG3241 gene product from transcript CG3241-RB, CG3241-PA, CG3241-PB, killer of males, killer-of-males-A, male specifc lethal, male specific lethal 2, male specific-lethal 2, male-specific-lethal 2, male-specific-lethal-2, msl-2-PA, msl-2-PB
Species: fruit fly

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Molecular characterization of the male-specific lethal-3 gene and investigations of the regulation of dosage compensation in Drosophila
    M Gorman
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    Development 121:463-75. 1995
  2. pmc Complex formation by the Drosophila MSL proteins: role of the MSL2 RING finger in protein complex assembly
    K Copps
    Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    EMBO J 17:5409-17. 1998
  3. pmc MSL1 plays a central role in assembly of the MSL complex, essential for dosage compensation in Drosophila
    M J Scott
    Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    EMBO J 19:144-55. 2000
  4. pmc Targeting the chromatin-remodeling MSL complex of Drosophila to its sites of action on the X chromosome requires both acetyl transferase and ATPase activities
    W Gu
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    EMBO J 19:5202-11. 2000
  5. pmc Targeting determinants of dosage compensation in Drosophila
    Ina K Dahlsveen
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, Molekularbiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    PLoS Genet 2:e5. 2006
  6. ncbi MSL complex is attracted to genes marked by H3K36 trimethylation using a sequence-independent mechanism
    Erica Larschan
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Cell 28:121-33. 2007
  7. ncbi The JIL-1 tandem kinase mediates histone H3 phosphorylation and is required for maintenance of chromatin structure in Drosophila
    Y Wang
    Department of Zoology and Genetics, 3154 Molecular Biology Building, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Cell 105:433-43. 2001
  8. ncbi The regulation of the Drosophila msl-2 gene reveals a function for Sex-lethal in translational control
    G J Bashaw
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Cell 89:789-98. 1997
  9. doi The activation potential of MOF is constrained for dosage compensation
    Matthias Prestel
    Adolf Butenandt Institute and Centre for Integrated Protein Science, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Mol Cell 38:815-26. 2010
  10. pmc mof, a putative acetyl transferase gene related to the Tip60 and MOZ human genes and to the SAS genes of yeast, is required for dosage compensation in Drosophila
    A Hilfiker
    Department of Biology and Graduate Program in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    EMBO J 16:2054-60. 1997

Research Grants

Scientific Experts

Detail Information

Publications143 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi Molecular characterization of the male-specific lethal-3 gene and investigations of the regulation of dosage compensation in Drosophila
    M Gorman
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    Development 121:463-75. 1995
    ..This hypertranscription requires four autosomal male-specific lethal (msl) genes and is negatively regulated by the Sxl gene in females...
  2. pmc Complex formation by the Drosophila MSL proteins: role of the MSL2 RING finger in protein complex assembly
    K Copps
    Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    EMBO J 17:5409-17. 1998
    ..We found that the MSL1, MSL2 and MSL3 proteins are associated in immunoprecipitations, chromatographic steps and in the yeast two-hybrid system, ..
  3. pmc MSL1 plays a central role in assembly of the MSL complex, essential for dosage compensation in Drosophila
    M J Scott
    Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    EMBO J 19:144-55. 2000
    ..Here we show that one of these proteins, MSL1, interacts with three others, MSL2, MSL3 and MOF. The latter is a putative histone acetyl transferase...
  4. pmc Targeting the chromatin-remodeling MSL complex of Drosophila to its sites of action on the X chromosome requires both acetyl transferase and ATPase activities
    W Gu
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    EMBO J 19:5202-11. 2000
    ..The role that histone H4 acetylation plays in this process is supported by our observations that MOF overexpression leads to the ectopic association of the complex with autosomal sites...
  5. pmc Targeting determinants of dosage compensation in Drosophila
    Ina K Dahlsveen
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, Molekularbiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany
    PLoS Genet 2:e5. 2006
    ..Our bioinformatics analysis suggests that DCC binding sites may be composed of variable combinations of degenerate motifs...
  6. ncbi MSL complex is attracted to genes marked by H3K36 trimethylation using a sequence-independent mechanism
    Erica Larschan
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Mol Cell 28:121-33. 2007
    In Drosophila, X chromosome dosage compensation requires the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which associates with actively transcribed genes on the single male X chromosome to upregulate transcription approximately 2-fold...
  7. ncbi The JIL-1 tandem kinase mediates histone H3 phosphorylation and is required for maintenance of chromatin structure in Drosophila
    Y Wang
    Department of Zoology and Genetics, 3154 Molecular Biology Building, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
    Cell 105:433-43. 2001
    ..We propose a model where JIL-1 kinase activity is required for maintaining the structure of the more open chromatin regions that facilitate gene transcription...
  8. ncbi The regulation of the Drosophila msl-2 gene reveals a function for Sex-lethal in translational control
    G J Bashaw
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Cell 89:789-98. 1997
    ..is restricted to males by the splicing regulator Sex-lethal, which functions to prevent the production of the MSL-2 protein in females by an unknown mechanism...
  9. doi The activation potential of MOF is constrained for dosage compensation
    Matthias Prestel
    Adolf Butenandt Institute and Centre for Integrated Protein Science, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Mol Cell 38:815-26. 2010
    ....
  10. pmc mof, a putative acetyl transferase gene related to the Tip60 and MOZ human genes and to the SAS genes of yeast, is required for dosage compensation in Drosophila
    A Hilfiker
    Department of Biology and Graduate Program in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    EMBO J 16:2054-60. 1997
    ....
  11. pmc Translational control of dosage compensation in Drosophila by Sex-lethal: cooperative silencing via the 5' and 3' UTRs of msl-2 mRNA is independent of the poly(A) tail
    F Gebauer
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Gene Expression Programme, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 18:6146-54. 1999
    Translational repression of male-specific-lethal 2 (msl-2) mRNA by Sex-lethal (SXL) controls dosage compensation in Drosophila...
  12. pmc Drosophila male-specific lethal-2 protein: structure/function analysis and dependence on MSL-1 for chromosome association
    L M Lyman
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Genetics 147:1743-53. 1997
    b>MSL-2 is required for the male-specific assembly of a dosage compensation regulatory complex on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster...
  13. pmc The COOH-terminal domain of the JIL-1 histone H3S10 kinase interacts with histone H3 and is required for correct targeting to chromatin
    Xiaomin Bao
    Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Molecular Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    J Biol Chem 283:32741-50. 2008
    ..Taken together these findings indicate that JIL-1 may participate in regulating chromatin structure by multiple and partially redundant mechanisms...
  14. ncbi roX1 RNA paints the X chromosome of male Drosophila and is regulated by the dosage compensation system
    V H Meller
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cell 88:445-57. 1997
    ..The novel regulation and subnuclear localization of roX1 RNAs makes them candidates for an RNA component of the dosage compensation machinery...
  15. ncbi Ordered assembly of roX RNAs into MSL complexes on the dosage-compensated X chromosome in Drosophila
    V H Meller
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Tufts University, Houston, Medford 77030, 02155, USA
    Curr Biol 10:136-43. 2000
    ..is transcriptionally upregulated to achieve dosage compensation, in a process that depends on association of the MSL proteins with the X chromosome. A role for non-coding RNAs has been suggested in recent studies...
  16. pmc Modulation of msl-2 5' splice site recognition by Sex-lethal
    P Förch
    Gene Expression Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    RNA 7:1185-91. 2001
    ..dosage compensation in Drosophila by inhibiting splicing and subsequently translation of male-specific-lethal-2 (msl-2) transcripts...
  17. ncbi Initiation of dosage compensation in Drosophila embryos depends on expression of the roX RNAs
    Victoria H Meller
    Department of Biology, 120 Dana Hall, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
    Mech Dev 120:759-67. 2003
    ..Either roX transcript can support X-localization of the complex, but localization is delayed in roX1 mutants until roX2 expression. These results support a model for the ordered assembly of the complex in embryos...
  18. pmc A sequence motif within chromatin entry sites directs MSL establishment on the Drosophila X chromosome
    Artyom A Alekseyenko
    Harvard Partners Center for Genetics and Genomics, Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Cell 134:599-609. 2008
    The Drosophila MSL complex associates with active genes specifically on the male X chromosome to acetylate histone H4 at lysine 16 and increase expression approximately 2-fold...
  19. ncbi Evidence that MSL-mediated dosage compensation in Drosophila begins at blastoderm
    A Franke
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, CA 94305, USA
    Development 122:2751-60. 1996
    ..This process, dosage compensation, is controlled by a set of male-specific lethal (msl) genes, that appear to act at the level of chromatin structure...
  20. ncbi Mutations affecting dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster: effects in the germline
    D Bachiller
    Dev Biol 118:379-84. 1986
    ..These mutations are the male-specific lethals msl-1, msl-2, and mle, which have been analyzed in the somatic tissues...
  21. pmc Studies on the sex-specific lethals of Drosophila melanogaster. V. Sex transformation caused by interactions between a female-specific lethal, Sxlf 1, and the male-specific lethals mle(3)132, msl-2(27), and mle
    T Uenoyama
    Genetics 102:233-43. 1982
    ..between a female-specific lethal mutant, Sxlf 1, and each of three male-specific lethal mutants, mle(3)132, msl-2(27) and mle, of Drosophila melanogaster were observed to produce morphological changes in various sexually ..
  22. ncbi Dosage compensation in Drosophila
    B S Baker
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305
    Annu Rev Genet 28:491-521. 1994
  23. ncbi Dosage compensation in flies and worms: the ups and downs of X-chromosome regulation
    J C Lucchesi
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 8:179-84. 1998
    ..These two different solutions to the common problem of unequal dosage of X-linked genes in different sexes provide invaluable paradigms for the study of gene regulation at the level of chromatin remodeling...
  24. pmc The roX genes encode redundant male-specific lethal transcripts required for targeting of the MSL complex
    Victoria H Meller
    Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
    EMBO J 21:1084-91. 2002
    ..and roX2 genes of Drosophila produce male-specific non-coding RNAs that co-localize with the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) protein complex...
  25. ncbi MLE functions as a transcriptional regulator of the roX2 gene
    Chee Gun Lee
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:47740-5. 2004
    ..In Drosophila, two non-coding RNA, roX1 and roX2, and at least six protein regulators, MSL-1, MSL-2, MSL-3, MLE, MOF, and JIL-1, have been identified as essential for dosage compensation...
  26. pmc SU(VAR)3-7 links heterochromatin and dosage compensation in Drosophila
    Anne Spierer
    NCCR Frontiers in Genetics, Department of Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland
    PLoS Genet 4:e1000066. 2008
    ..In addition, reduced or increased amounts of SU(VAR)3-7 result in redistribution of the DCC proteins MSL1 and MSL2, and of Histone 4 acetylation of lysine 16, indicating that a wild-type dose of SU(VAR)3-7 is required for X-..
  27. pmc Long-range spreading of dosage compensation in Drosophila captures transcribed autosomal genes inserted on X
    Andrey A Gorchakov
    Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 23:2266-71. 2009
    Dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster males is achieved via targeting of male-specific lethal (MSL) complex to X-linked genes...
  28. pmc Male-specific lethal complex of Drosophila targets activated regions of the X chromosome for chromatin remodeling
    Georgette L Sass
    Department of Biology, Emory University, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:8287-91. 2003
    The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex of Drosophila is responsible for the presence of a monoacetylated isoform of histone H4 (H4Ac16), found exclusively on the X chromosome of males...
  29. ncbi A dual inhibitory mechanism restricts msl-2 mRNA translation for dosage compensation in Drosophila
    Karsten Beckmann
    Gene Expression Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Cell 122:529-40. 2005
    Drosophila MSL-2 is the limiting component of the dosage compensation complex...
  30. pmc The MLE subunit of the Drosophila MSL complex uses its ATPase activity for dosage compensation and its helicase activity for targeting
    Rosa Morra
    Department of Biology, Emory University, 1510 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 28:958-66. 2008
    ..compensation-the equalization of most X-linked gene products between XY males and XX females-is mediated by the MSL complex that preferentially associates with numerous sites on the X chromosome in somatic cells of males, but not ..
  31. ncbi Control of X chromosome transcription by the maleless gene in Drosophila
    J M Belote
    Nature 285:573-5. 1980
    ..Autoradiographic monitoring of RNA synthesis in larval polytene chromosomes of males homozygous for one of these mutations, mlets, reveals a significant reduction in the rate of X chromosome transcription...
  32. ncbi Expression of msl-2 causes assembly of dosage compensation regulators on the X chromosomes and female lethality in Drosophila
    R L Kelley
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cell 81:867-77. 1995
    Male-specific lethal-2 (msl-2) is a RING finger protein that is required for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila males...
  33. pmc Male-specific lethal 2, a dosage compensation gene of Drosophila, undergoes sex-specific regulation and encodes a protein with a RING finger and a metallothionein-like cysteine cluster
    S Zhou
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
    EMBO J 14:2884-95. 1995
    ..Three of these genes, maleless (mle), male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) and male-specific lethal 3 (msl-3), have been cloned and their products have been shown to interact and to bind ..
  34. ncbi Acetylated histone H4 on the male X chromosome is associated with dosage compensation in Drosophila
    J R Bone
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030
    Genes Dev 8:96-104. 1994
    ..elevated expression requires the function of at least four loci, known collectively as the male-specific lethal (msl) genes...
  35. ncbi Dosage compensation and chromatin structure in Drosophila
    G J Bashaw
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 94305 5020, USA
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 6:496-501. 1996
    The past year has brought significant advances in our understanding of the male-specific lethal (msl genes and dosage compensation in Drosophila...
  36. ncbi Epigenetic spreading of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex from roX RNA genes into flanking chromatin
    R L Kelley
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Cell 98:513-22. 1999
    The multisubunit MSL dosage compensation complex binds to hundreds of sites along the Drosophila single male X chromosome, mediating its hypertranscription. The male X chromosome is also coated with noncoding roX RNAs...
  37. ncbi Guilt by association: non-coding RNAs, chromosome-specific proteins and dosage compensation in Drosophila
    C Stuckenholz
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Department of Cell Biology, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Trends Genet 15:454-8. 1999
    ..The discovery of non-coding RNAs that 'paint' dosage-compensated X chromosomes in mammals and in Drosophila suggests that RNAs play an intriguing, unexpected role in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression...
  38. ncbi Dosage compensation rox!
    A Franke
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
    Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:351-4. 2000
    ....
  39. ncbi Chromodomains are protein-RNA interaction modules
    A Akhtar
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, Molekularbiologie, Ludwig Maximilians Universitat, Munchen, Germany
    Nature 407:405-9. 2000
    ..MOF is part of a chromosome-associated complex comprising male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins and at least one non-coding roX RNA...
  40. pmc Modulation of ISWI function by site-specific histone acetylation
    Davide F V Corona
    Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
    EMBO Rep 3:242-7. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that H4K16 acetylation directly counteracts chromatin compaction mediated by the ISWI ATPase...
  41. ncbi Dosage compensation: an intertwined world of RNA and chromatin remodelling
    Asifa Akhtar
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, Heidelberg, Germany
    Curr Opin Genet Dev 13:161-9. 2003
    ..Furthermore, non-coding RNAs appear to play a dual role, being targeting modules as well as encoding for target sites for complex recognition...
  42. ncbi MOF-regulated acetylation of MSL-3 in the Drosophila dosage compensation complex
    Alessia Buscaino
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, Heidelberg, Germany
    Mol Cell 11:1265-77. 2003
    ..We show that interaction of MOF with MSL-3 leads to specific acetylation of MSL-3 at a single lysine residue adjacent to one of its chromodomains...
  43. ncbi Drosophila sex-lethal inhibits the stable association of the 40S ribosomal subunit with msl-2 mRNA
    Fátima Gebauer
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Gene Expression Programme, Meyerhofstrasse 1, D 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Mol Cell 11:1397-404. 2003
    The inhibition of male-specific lethal-2 (msl-2) mRNA translation in female flies is essential for X chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster...
  44. pmc The Drosophila roX1 RNA gene can overcome silent chromatin by recruiting the male-specific lethal dosage compensation complex
    Richard L Kelley
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Genetics 164:565-74. 2003
    The Drosophila MSL complex consists of at least six proteins and two noncoding roX RNAs that mediate dosage compensation. It acts to remodel the male's X chromatin by covalently modifying the amino terminal tails of histones...
  45. ncbi The MSL complex levels are critical for its correct targeting to the chromosomes in Drosophila melanogaster
    Olga V Demakova
    Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia
    Chromosoma 112:103-15. 2003
    ..Overexpression of both MSL1 and MSL2 stabilizes this binding and results in inappropriate MSL binding to the chromocenter and the 4th chromosome...
  46. pmc The Drosophila GAGA factor is required for dosage compensation in males and for the formation of the male-specific-lethal complex chromatin entry site at 12DE
    Anthony J Greenberg
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Genetics 166:279-89. 2004
    ..Here, we report that mutations in Trithorax-like (Trl) lead to the loss of a single chromatin entry site on the X, male lethality, and mislocalization of dosage compensation complexes...
  47. ncbi Dosage compensation in flies: mechanism, models, mystery
    Tobias Straub
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, Molekularbiologie, Schillerstrasse 44, 80336 Munchen, Germany
    FEBS Lett 579:3258-63. 2005
    ..We discuss the prevalent models in the context of recent experimental observations...
  48. pmc The Drosophila dosage compensation complex binds to polytene chromosomes independently of developmental changes in transcription
    I V Kotlikova
    Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia
    Genetics 172:963-74. 2006
    ..These data imply that, independently of other MSL proteins, the RNA-helicase MLE might participate in general transcriptional regulation or RNA processing.
  49. pmc The amino-terminal region of Drosophila MSL1 contains basic, glycine-rich, and leucine zipper-like motifs that promote X chromosome binding, self-association, and MSL2 binding, respectively
    Fang Li
    Centre for Functional Genomics, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Mol Cell Biol 25:8913-24. 2005
    ..X chromosome binding also requires a conserved leucine zipper-like motif that binds to MSL2. A glycine-rich motif between the basic and leucine-zipper-like motifs mediates MSL1 self-association in vitro and ..
  50. ncbi Dosage compensation: the beginning and end of generalization
    Tobias Straub
    Adolf Butenandt Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Nat Rev Genet 8:47-57. 2007
    ....
  51. pmc Cotranscriptional recruitment of the dosage compensation complex to X-linked target genes
    Jop Kind
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg 69117, Germany
    Genes Dev 21:2030-40. 2007
    ..In Drosophila this is achieved by targeting the dosage compensation complex or the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex to the male X chromosome...
  52. pmc Incorporation of the noncoding roX RNAs alters the chromatin-binding specificity of the Drosophila MSL1/MSL2 complex
    Fang Li
    Centre for Functional Genomics, Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Massey University, Private Bag 11222, Palmerston North, New Zealand
    Mol Cell Biol 28:1252-64. 2008
    ..The MSL2 and MSL1 proteins form a complex and are essential for X chromosome binding...
  53. ncbi Equality for X chromosomes
    R L Kelley
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Science 270:1607-10. 1995
    ..A common theme in the Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans systems is that a subtle alteration of chromatin structure may impose this modest, but vital adjustment of the X chromosome transcription level...
  54. ncbi Sex-specific regulation of the male-specific lethal-1 dosage compensation gene in Drosophila
    M J Palmer
    Department of Entomology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater 74078
    Genes Dev 8:698-706. 1994
    ..b>msl-1 is one of four genes that are essential for dosage compensation in males, and MSL-1 protein is associated ..
  55. ncbi The dosage compensation regulators MLE, MSL-1 and MSL-2 are interdependent since early embryogenesis in Drosophila
    L Rastelli
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Mech Dev 53:223-33. 1995
    We have analyzed the expression pattern and localization of MLE, MLS-1, MSL-2, and histone H4Ac16 during embryogenesis to determine when msl-dependent dosage compensation begins...
  56. ncbi The dosage compensation system of Drosophila is co-opted by newly evolved X chromosomes
    I Marin
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Nature 383:160-3. 1996
    ..melanogaster, dosage compensation is mediated by the binding of the products of the male-specific lethal (msl) genes to the single male X chromosome...
  57. ncbi Vive la différence: males vs females in flies vs worms
    T W Cline
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley 94720 3204, USA
    Annu Rev Genet 30:637-702. 1996
    ..Although no overlap has been found among the molecules used by flies and worms to achieve sex determination, striking similarities have been found in the genetic strategies used by these two species to differentiate their sexes...
  58. ncbi Genes expressed in neurons of adult male Drosophila
    H Amrein
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA
    Cell 88:459-69. 1997
    ..Our data suggest that the multimeric complex of dosage compensation proteins may operate in different ways on different sets of X-linked genes...
  59. ncbi Sex lethal controls dosage compensation in Drosophila by a non-splicing mechanism
    R L Kelley
    Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Nature 387:195-9. 1997
    ..Although msl2 RNA is alternatively spliced in males and females, this does not alter its coding potential and splicing is not ..
  60. ncbi Targeting of MOF, a putative histone acetyl transferase, to the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster
    W Gu
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Dev Genet 22:56-64. 1998
    ..The products of at least five genes, maleless (mle), male-specific lethal 1, 2, and 3 (msl-1, msl-2, msl-3) and males absent on the first (mof), are necessary for dosage compensation...
  61. ncbi An analysis of maleless and histone H4 acetylation in Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis
    L Rastelli
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Mech Dev 71:107-17. 1998
    ..We observed that MLE is the only MSL expressed in the male germ cells and it is not localized to the X chromosome...
  62. ncbi Suppression of distinct ovo phenotypes in the Drosophila female germline by maleless- and Sex-lethal
    B Oliver
    Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
    Dev Genet 23:335-46. 1998
    ..Thus, ovo+ is required for at least two distinct functions, one involving mle+, and one mediated by Sxl+ gene products. The existence of ovo+ functions independent of mle+ and Sxl+ is likely...
  63. pmc An N-terminal truncation uncouples the sex-transforming and dosage compensation functions of sex-lethal
    J L Yanowitz
    Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 19:3018-28. 1999
    ..This negative autoregulatory activity may be a homeostasis mechanism...
  64. pmc Role of the male specific lethal (msl) genes in modifying the effects of sex chromosomal dosage in Drosophila
    U Bhadra
    Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 7400, USA
    Genetics 152:249-68. 1999
    Immunostaining of chromosomes shows that the male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins are associated with all female chromosomes at a low level but are sequestered to the X chromosome in males...
  65. ncbi The rox1 and rox2 RNAs are essential components of the compensasome, which mediates dosage compensation in Drosophila
    A Franke
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, California 94305, USA
    Mol Cell 4:117-22. 1999
    ..The rox RNAs and MSL proteins also colocalize with the X chromosome in all somatic cells and are expressed in the same temporal pattern ..
  66. pmc The drosophila MSL complex acetylates histone H4 at lysine 16, a chromatin modification linked to dosage compensation
    E R Smith
    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA
    Mol Cell Biol 20:312-8. 2000
    ..These results demonstrate that the MSL complex is responsible for the specific chromatin modification characteristic of the X chromosome in Drosophila ..
  67. ncbi Inhibition of msl-2 splicing by Sex-lethal reveals interaction between U2AF35 and the 3' splice site AG
    L Merendino
    Gene Expression Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Nature 402:838-41. 1999
    ..controls dosage compensation in Drosophila by inhibiting the splicing and translation of male-specific-lethal-2 (msl-2) transcripts...
  68. pmc JIL-1, a chromosomal kinase implicated in regulation of chromatin structure, associates with the male specific lethal (MSL) dosage compensation complex
    Y Jin
    Department of Zoology and Genetics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, USA
    J Cell Biol 149:1005-10. 2000
    ..Furthermore, ectopic expression of the MSL complex directed by MSL2 in females causes a concomitant upregulation of JIL-1 to the female X that is abolished in msl mutants unable to ..
  69. ncbi The ISWI chromatin-remodeling protein is required for gene expression and the maintenance of higher order chromatin structure in vivo
    R Deuring
    Department of Biology, University of California, Santa Cruz 95064, USA
    Mol Cell 5:355-65. 2000
    ..These findings reveal novel functions for the ISWI ATPase and underscore its importance in chromatin remodeling in vivo...
  70. ncbi The evolution of dosage-compensation mechanisms
    I Marin
    Departamento de Genetica, Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    Bioessays 22:1106-14. 2000
    ..Some tantalizing similarities in the fly and mammalian mechanisms, however, remain to be explained...
  71. pmc Association and spreading of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex from a discrete roX1 chromatin entry site
    Y Kageyama
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    EMBO J 20:2236-45. 2001
    In Drosophila, dosage compensation is controlled by the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex consisting of MSL proteins and roX RNAs...
  72. ncbi Epigenetic aspects of X-chromosome dosage compensation
    Y Park
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Science 293:1083-5. 2001
    ..The result in many organisms is a male-specific Y chromosome that has lost most of its original genetic content, and a difference in dosage of the X chromosome in males (XY) and females (XX)...
  73. ncbi Extent of chromatin spreading determined by roX RNA recruitment of MSL proteins
    Yongkyu Park
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Science 298:1620-3. 2002
    The untranslated roX1 and roX2 RNAs are components of the Drosophila male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which modifies histones to up-regulate transcription of the male X chromosome...
  74. pmc Local spreading of MSL complexes from roX genes on the Drosophila X chromosome
    Hyangyee Oh
    Interdepartmental Program in Cell and Molecular Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Genes Dev 17:1334-9. 2003
    b>MSL proteins and noncoding roX RNAs form complexes to up-regulate hundreds of genes on the Drosophila male X chromosome, and make X-linked gene expression equal in males and females...
  75. ncbi Male genes: X-pelled or X-cluded?
    David W Rogers
    The Galton Laboratory, University College London, London, UK
    Bioessays 25:739-41. 2003
    ..A number of evolutionary hypotheses for the expulsion or exclusion of male-biased genes from the X chromosome have been suggested. None is entirely consistent with the available evidence...
  76. pmc A co-repressor assembly nucleated by Sex-lethal in the 3'UTR mediates translational control of Drosophila msl-2 mRNA
    Marica Grskovic
    Gene Expression Programme, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO J 22:5571-81. 2003
    Drosophila Sex-lethal (dSXL)-mediated translational repression of male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2) mRNA is essential for X-chromosome dosage compensation...
  77. pmc Drosophila male-specific lethal 2 protein controls sex-specific expression of the roX genes
    Barbara P Rattner
    Department of Biology, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155, USA
    Genetics 166:1825-32. 2004
    ..We examine the transcriptional regulation of the roX genes and show that MSL2 controls male-specific roX expression in the absence of any other MSL protein...
  78. pmc Functional integration of the histone acetyltransferase MOF into the dosage compensation complex
    Violette Morales
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, Molekularbiologie, Munich, Germany
    EMBO J 23:2258-68. 2004
    ..In male cells, MOF resides in a complex (dosage compensation complex, DCC) with MSL proteins and noncoding roX RNA...
  79. ncbi Lifting a chromosome: dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster
    Gregor D Gilfillan
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, Molekularbiologie Schillerstrasse 44, 80336 Munich, Germany
    FEBS Lett 567:8-14. 2004
    ..Deciphering the principles of X chromosome recognition and the nature of the chromatin configuration, that allows fine-tuning of transcription, remain the most interesting challenges...
  80. pmc Sequence-specific targeting of MSL complex regulates transcription of the roX RNA genes
    Xiaoying Bai
    Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
    EMBO J 23:2853-61. 2004
    In Drosophila, dosage compensation is controlled by the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex consisting of at least five proteins and two noncoding RNAs, roX1 and roX2...
  81. pmc X chromosome sites autonomously recruit the dosage compensation complex in Drosophila males
    Delphine Fagegaltier
    Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA
    PLoS Biol 2:e341. 2004
    It has been proposed that dosage compensation in Drosophila males occurs by binding of two core proteins, MSL-1 and MSL-2, to a set of 35-40 X chromosome "entry sites" that serve to nucleate mature complexes, termed compensasomes, which ..
  82. pmc Bonus, a Drosophila TIF1 homolog, is a chromatin-associated protein that acts as a modifier of position-effect variegation
    R B Beckstead
    Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA
    Genetics 169:783-94. 2005
    ....
  83. ncbi The severity of roX1 mutations is predicted by MSL localization on the X chromosome
    Xinxian Deng
    Department of Biological Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Mech Dev 122:1094-105. 2005
    ..This ability predicts the level of male survival that each allele supports. This points to a peripheral or transient role for roX in the RNA and protein complex that binds to and regulates the X chromosome...
  84. pmc Global regulation of X chromosomal genes by the MSL complex in Drosophila melanogaster
    Fumika N Hamada
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 19:2289-94. 2005
    ..To distinguish between the two models, we used RNA interference to deplete Male-Specific Lethal (MSL) complexes from male-like tissue culture cells...
  85. ncbi Loss of the modifiers of variegation Su(var)3-7 or HP1 impacts male X polytene chromosome morphology and dosage compensation
    Anne Spierer
    Department of Zoology and Animal Biology, University of Geneva, 30 Quai Ernest Ansermet, CH 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland
    J Cell Sci 118:5047-57. 2005
    ..This observation reveals a new and intriguing genetic interaction between epigenetic silencing and compensation of dose...
  86. pmc Sex-lethal imparts a sex-specific function to UNR by recruiting it to the msl-2 mRNA 3' UTR: translational repression for dosage compensation
    Kent Duncan
    Gene Expression Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    Genes Dev 20:368-79. 2006
    b>MSL-2 (male-specific lethal 2) is the limiting component of the Drosophila dosage compensation complex (DCC) that specifically increases transcription from the male X chromosome...
  87. pmc Drosophila UNR is required for translational repression of male-specific lethal 2 mRNA during regulation of X-chromosome dosage compensation
    Irina Abaza
    Centre de Regulació Genòmica CRG UPF, 08003 Barcelona, Spain
    Genes Dev 20:380-9. 2006
    The inhibition of male-specific lethal 2 (msl-2) mRNA translation by the RNA-binding protein sex-lethal (SXL) is an essential regulatory step for X-chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster...
  88. pmc High-resolution ChIP-chip analysis reveals that the Drosophila MSL complex selectively identifies active genes on the male X chromosome
    Artyom A Alekseyenko
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Genes Dev 20:848-57. 2006
    X-chromosome dosage compensation in Drosophila requires the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which up-regulates gene expression from the single male X chromosome...
  89. pmc X-chromosome targeting and dosage compensation are mediated by distinct domains in MSL-3
    Alessia Buscaino
    Gene Expression Programme, EMBL, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
    EMBO Rep 7:531-8. 2006
    ..Genetic and biochemical studies have demonstrated that male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins together with roX RNAs regulate this process...
  90. ncbi Non-coding RNA in fly dosage compensation
    Xinxian Deng
    Department of Biological Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA
    Trends Biochem Sci 31:526-32. 2006
    ..Several recent studies in Drosophila provide new insight into the principles of X-chromosome recognition and the function of non-coding RNA in this process...
  91. pmc Cumulative contributions of weak DNA determinants to targeting the Drosophila dosage compensation complex
    Gregor D Gilfillan
    Adolf Butenandt Institut, Molekularbiologie, Ludwig Maximilian Universität, Schillerstrasse 44, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:3561-72. 2007
    ..a 'one-hybrid' assay, we identified minimal DNA elements that direct the interaction of the key DCC subunit, MSL2, in cells. Strikingly, several such novel MSL2 recruitment modules have very different DNA sequences...
  92. pmc Regional control of chromatin organization by noncoding roX RNAs and the NURF remodeling complex in Drosophila melanogaster
    X Bai
    Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Partners Center for Genetics and Genomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Genetics 176:1491-9. 2007
    ..The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex contains at least five proteins and two noncoding roX (RNA on X) RNAs...
  93. pmc Species-specific positive selection of the male-specific lethal complex that participates in dosage compensation in Drosophila
    Monica A Rodriguez
    Division of Basic Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:15412-7. 2007
    ..In particular, the MSL1 and MSL2 proteins have undergone dramatic positive selection in D...
  94. pmc An evolutionarily conserved domain of roX2 RNA is sufficient for induction of H4-Lys16 acetylation on the Drosophila X chromosome
    Seung Won Park
    Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, UMDNJ New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey 07103, USA
    Genetics 177:1429-37. 2007
    The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex, which includes two noncoding RNA on X (roX)1 and roX2 RNAs, induces histone H4-Lys16 acetylation for twofold hypertranscription of the male X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster...
  95. pmc Pervasive and largely lineage-specific adaptive protein evolution in the dosage compensation complex of Drosophila melanogaster
    Mia T Levine
    Section of Evolution and Ecology, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA
    Genetics 177:1959-62. 2007
    ..Here we report a population genetic analysis suggesting that four of the five core DCC proteins--MSL1, MSL2, MSL3, and MOF--are evolving under positive selection in D. melanogaster...
  96. pmc Positive selection at the binding sites of the male-specific lethal complex involved in dosage compensation in Drosophila
    Doris Bachtrog
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
    Genetics 180:1123-9. 2008
    ..In Drosophila, the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex binds to hundreds of sites along the male X chromosome and mediates twofold hypertranscription of the ..
  97. pmc The MSL3 chromodomain directs a key targeting step for dosage compensation of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome
    Tuba H Sural
    Harvard Partners Center for Genetics and Genomics, Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 15:1318-25. 2008
    The male-specific lethal (MSL) complex upregulates the single male X chromosome to achieve dosage compensation in Drosophila melanogaster...
  98. pmc Drosophila MSL complex globally acetylates H4K16 on the male X chromosome for dosage compensation
    Marnie E Gelbart
    Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Nat Struct Mol Biol 16:825-32. 2009
    The Drosophila melanogaster male-specific lethal (MSL) complex binds the single male X chromosome to upregulate gene expression to equal that from the two female X chromosomes...
  99. pmc The dosage compensation complex shapes the conformation of the X chromosome in Drosophila
    Charlotte Grimaud
    Adolf Butenandt Institute and Centre for Integrated Protein Science CiPSM, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Genes Dev 23:2490-5. 2009
    ..The core DCC subunits MSL1-MSL2 are responsible for this male-specific organization...
  100. doi The SXL-UNR corepressor complex uses a PABP-mediated mechanism to inhibit ribosome recruitment to msl-2 mRNA
    Kent E Duncan
    European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany
    Mol Cell 36:571-82. 2009
    Drosophila female viability requires translational repression of msl-2 mRNA by the SXL-UNR 3' UTR corepressor complex, which inhibits ribosome recruitment by an unknown mechanism...
  101. pmc The DNA binding CXC domain of MSL2 is required for faithful targeting the Dosage Compensation Complex to the X chromosome
    Torsten Fauth
    Adolf Butenandt Institute and Centre for Integrated Protein Science, Ludwig Maximilians University, 80336 Munich, Germany
    Nucleic Acids Res 38:3209-21. 2010
    ..Early genetic studies suggested that MSL1 and MSL2 serve to recognize high-affinity sites (HAS) in vivo, but a direct interaction of these DCC subunits with DNA has ..

Research Grants3

  1. Noncoding RNAs and Chromatin Structure
    Richard Kelley; Fiscal Year: 2007
    ..The Drosophila MSL (male-specific lethal) dosage compensation complex provides an outstanding model system to study chromatin ..
  2. TRANSLATIONAL CONTROL MEDIATED BY MRNA STRUCTURE
    Marilyn Kozak; Fiscal Year: 2002
    ..The reason why 40S ribosome/factor complexes protect "extra" sequences, which are accessible to RNase in 80S initiation complexes, will be studied. ..
  3. The Mechanisms and Regulatory Networks of Alternative Splicing in Drosophila
    BRENTON GRAVELEY; Fiscal Year: 2009
    ....