alkA

Summary

Gene Symbol: alkA
Description: 3-methyl-adenine DNA glycosylase II
Alias: ECK2062, JW2053, aidA
Species: Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Top Publications

  1. ncbi Different efficiencies of the Tag and AlkA DNA glycosylases from Escherichia coli in the removal of 3-methyladenine from single-stranded DNA
    S Bjelland
    Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Division for Environmental Toxicology, Kjeller
    FEBS Lett 397:127-9. 1996
  2. ncbi Inhibition of DNA repair glycosylases by base analogs and tryptophan pyrolysate, Trp-P-1
    Elzbieta Speina
    Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland
    Acta Biochim Pol 52:167-78. 2005
  3. pmc Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, rat and human 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases repair 1,N6-ethenoadenine when present in DNA
    M Saparbaev
    Groupe Reparation des lesions Radio et Chimio Induites, URA 147 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 23:3750-5. 1995
  4. ncbi Structural bases for substrate recognition and repair system of base-excision DNA repair proteins
    S Fujii
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422 8526, Japan
    Nucleic Acids Symp Ser . 2000
  5. ncbi [Expression and functions of adaptive response genes in Escherichia coli treated with mono- and bifunctional alkylating agents. Interference with SOS response]
    S V Vasil'eva
    Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Genetika 35:444-9. 1999
  6. pmc Expression of the Escherichia coli ada regulon in stationary phase: evidence for rpoS-dependent negative regulation of alkA transcription
    P Landini
    Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology EAWAG, 8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland
    J Bacteriol 181:6836-9. 1999
  7. ncbi Enzymology of the repair of etheno adducts in mammalian cells and in Escherichia coli
    M Saparbaev
    Groupe Reparation des lesions Radio et Chimio Induites, UMR 1772 CNRS Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
    IARC Sci Publ . 1999
  8. pmc Interactions of the human, rat, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylases with DNA containing dIMP residues
    M Saparbaev
    Groupe Reparation des lesions Radio et Chimio Induites, UMR 8532 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif Cedex, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 28:1332-9. 2000
  9. ncbi AlkA protein is the third Escherichia coli DNA repair protein excising a ring fragmentation product of thymine
    C V Privezentzev
    Groupe Reparation des lesions Radio et Chimio Induites, UMR 8532 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif Cedex, France
    Biochemistry 39:14263-8. 2000
  10. pmc Recombinational repair is critical for survival of Escherichia coli exposed to nitric oxide
    E J Spek
    Division of Bioengineering and Environmental Health, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Bacteriol 183:131-8. 2001

Scientific Experts

  • Michael Teale
  • P Landini
  • S Bjelland
  • A Wójcik-Sikora
  • Didier Gasparutto
  • Dee R Denver
  • Brian R Bowman
  • Seongmin Lee
  • M Saparbaev
  • Shuyu Wang
  • Gregory L Verdine
  • J Laval
  • Jadwiga Nieminuszczy
  • Anetta Nowosielska
  • Elzbieta Speina
  • PATRICK J O'BRIEN
  • M G Marinus
  • Bevin P Engelward
  • Anton B Guliaev
  • B Tudek
  • S Fujii
  • Sridhar Varadarajan
  • Erik J Spek
  • Hiroaki Terato
  • Camilla Salmelin
  • E Grzesiuk
  • D Shah
  • E J Spek
  • Y Yamagata
  • T Hollis
  • C V Privezentzev
  • S V Vasil'eva
  • Yoshihito Ueno
  • Anna Sikora
  • Stephen A Smith
  • Elzbieta Grzesiuk
  • Celina Janion
  • Michał Wrzesiński
  • Maria Anna Graziewicz
  • Jarosław M Cieśla
  • Jacques Laval
  • Barbara Tudek
  • Zygmunt Kazimierczuk
  • Tom Ellenberger
  • Bo Hang
  • B Singer
  • Prasad Dande
  • Gilberto Fronza
  • Samuel Settles
  • Fa xian Chen
  • Barry Gold
  • Dharini Shah
  • Tetsuya Matsuguchi
  • Y Nakabeppu
  • Toshinori Suzuki
  • Laurel N Vuong
  • Akiko Honsho
  • Hiroshi Ide
  • Juhani Vilpo
  • Martin G Marinus
  • Keisuke Makino
  • Masaki Yamada
  • J Labahn
  • Kazuo Yamamoto
  • K P Bjornson
  • Yoshihiko Ohyama
  • Kenjiro Asagoshi
  • Aya Masaoka
  • G Fronza
  • S R Tannenbaum
  • N R Taghizadeh
  • M Sekiguchi
  • T L Wright
  • B Gold
  • L Marky
  • H Tran
  • G Ortiz
  • J Martinez
  • A Gozdek
  • A M Soto
  • Y Zhang
  • M S Stitt
  • J Kelly
  • P Dande
  • B P Engelward
  • A Sambandam
  • Y Ichikawa
  • J C Mani
  • T Ellenberger
  • M M Greenberg

Detail Information

Publications52

  1. ncbi Different efficiencies of the Tag and AlkA DNA glycosylases from Escherichia coli in the removal of 3-methyladenine from single-stranded DNA
    S Bjelland
    Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Division for Environmental Toxicology, Kjeller
    FEBS Lett 397:127-9. 1996
    Escherichia coli possesses two different DNA repair glycosylases, Tag and AlkA, which have similar ability to remove the alkylation product 3-methyladenine from double-stranded DNA...
  2. ncbi Inhibition of DNA repair glycosylases by base analogs and tryptophan pyrolysate, Trp-P-1
    Elzbieta Speina
    Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa, Poland
    Acta Biochim Pol 52:167-78. 2005
    ..repair enzymes: Escherichia coli and human DNA glycosylases of oxidized (Fpg, Nth) and alkylated bases (TagA, AlkA, and ANPG), and for bacterial AP endonuclease (Xth protein)...
  3. pmc Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, rat and human 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases repair 1,N6-ethenoadenine when present in DNA
    M Saparbaev
    Groupe Reparation des lesions Radio et Chimio Induites, URA 147 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 23:3750-5. 1995
    ..We show, at variance with the previous report, that pure E.coli 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase II (AlkA protein) as well as its yeast counterpart, the MAG protein, excise epsilon A from double stranded ..
  4. ncbi Structural bases for substrate recognition and repair system of base-excision DNA repair proteins
    S Fujii
    School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422 8526, Japan
    Nucleic Acids Symp Ser . 2000
    The model structure of Escherichia coli AlkA (3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase II) protein complexed with the double helical DNA is elucidated from X-ray structures of related DNA glycosylase enzymes and mutagenic studies...
  5. ncbi [Expression and functions of adaptive response genes in Escherichia coli treated with mono- and bifunctional alkylating agents. Interference with SOS response]
    S V Vasil'eva
    Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
    Genetika 35:444-9. 1999
    ..The functional specificity of the alkA, alkB, and aidB1 genes concerning both the structure and volume of DNA alkylation and the specificity of cell ..
  6. pmc Expression of the Escherichia coli ada regulon in stationary phase: evidence for rpoS-dependent negative regulation of alkA transcription
    P Landini
    Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science and Technology EAWAG, 8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland
    J Bacteriol 181:6836-9. 1999
    ..coli Ada protein activates sigma(70)-dependent transcription at three different promoters (ada, aidB, and alkA) in response to alkylation damage of DNA...
  7. ncbi Enzymology of the repair of etheno adducts in mammalian cells and in Escherichia coli
    M Saparbaev
    Groupe Reparation des lesions Radio et Chimio Induites, UMR 1772 CNRS Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
    IARC Sci Publ . 1999
    ....
  8. pmc Interactions of the human, rat, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylases with DNA containing dIMP residues
    M Saparbaev
    Groupe Reparation des lesions Radio et Chimio Induites, UMR 8532 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif Cedex, France
    Nucleic Acids Res 28:1332-9. 2000
    ..different efficiencies, by an activity of the 3-methyl-adenine (3-meAde)-DNA glycosylases from Escherichia coli (AlkA protein), human cells (ANPG protein), rat cells (APDG protein) and yeast (MAG protein)...
  9. ncbi AlkA protein is the third Escherichia coli DNA repair protein excising a ring fragmentation product of thymine
    C V Privezentzev
    Groupe Reparation des lesions Radio et Chimio Induites, UMR 8532 CNRS, Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif Cedex, France
    Biochemistry 39:14263-8. 2000
    ..Here we report that when present in DNA, alphaRT is, in addition, a substrate for the E. coli AlkA protein with an apparent K(m) value of congruent with170 nM...
  10. pmc Recombinational repair is critical for survival of Escherichia coli exposed to nitric oxide
    E J Spek
    Division of Bioengineering and Environmental Health, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Bacteriol 183:131-8. 2001
    ..E. coli strains lacking either NER or DNA glycosylases (including those that repair alkylation damage [alkA tag strain], oxidative damage [fpg nei nth strain], and deaminated cytosine [ung strain]) showed essentially wild-..
  11. ncbi Evidence in Escherichia coli that N3-methyladenine lesions induced by a minor groove binding methyl sulfonate ester can be processed by both base and nucleotide excision repair
    D Shah
    Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 6805, USA
    Biochemistry 40:1796-803. 2001
    ..coli and in mutant strains defective in base excision repair (tag and/or alkA glycosylases or apn endonuclease), nucleotide excision repair (uvrA), and both base and nucleotide excision repair (..
  12. ncbi Contribution of E. coli AlkA, TagA glycosylases and UvrABC-excinuclease in MMS mutagenesis
    E Grzesiuk
    Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul Pawinskiego 5a, 02 106 Warszawa, Poland
    Mutat Res 480:77-84. 2001
    ..However, in double tagA(-)alkA(-) mutant, the frequency of Arg(+) reversions increased over 10-fold during 60 min of aminoacid starvation after ..
  13. pmc Nitric oxide-induced homologous recombination in Escherichia coli is promoted by DNA glycosylases
    Erik J Spek
    Division of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA
    J Bacteriol 184:3501-7. 2002
    ..of the uracil (Ung) or formamidopyrimidine (Fpg) DNA glycosylases but not by inactivation of a 3-methyladenine (AlkA) DNA glycosylase...
  14. pmc Novel repair activities of AlkA (3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II) and endonuclease VIII for xanthine and oxanine, guanine lesions induced by nitric oxide and nitrous acid
    Hiroaki Terato
    Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima 739 8526, Japan
    Nucleic Acids Res 30:4975-84. 2002
    ..The nicking assay with the defined substrates containing Xan and Oxa revealed that AlkA [in combination with endonuclease (Endo) IV] and Endo VIII recognized Xan in the tested enzymes...
  15. ncbi An evolutionary analysis of the helix-hairpin-helix superfamily of DNA repair glycosylases
    Dee R Denver
    Department of Biology, Indiana University, USA
    Mol Biol Evol 20:1603-11. 2003
    ..Six HhH gene families (named AlkA: alkyladenine glycosylase; MpgII: N-methylpurine glycosylase II; MutY/Mig: A/G-specific adenine glycosylase/..
  16. pmc The Escherichia coli Ada protein can interact with two distinct determinants in the sigma70 subunit of RNA polymerase according to promoter architecture: identification of the target of Ada activation at the alkA promoter
    P Landini
    School of Biochemistry, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Bacteriol 181:1524-9. 1999
    The methylated form of the Ada protein (meAda) activates transcription from the Escherichia coli ada, aidB, and alkA promoters with different mechanisms...
  17. ncbi DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by minor groove binding methyl sulfonate esters
    Sridhar Varadarajan
    Eppley Institute for Research in Cancer, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986805 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska 68198 6805, USA
    Biochemistry 42:14318-27. 2003
    ..were tested in wild type Escherichia coli and in mutant strains defective in base excision repair (tag and/or alkA or apn)...
  18. ncbi The Escherichia coli 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase AlkA has a remarkably versatile active site
    PATRICK J O'BRIEN
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:26876-84. 2004
    3-Methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA) from Escherichia coli is induced in response to DNA alkylation, and it protects cells from alkylated nucleobases by catalyzing their excision...
  19. ncbi Chloroethylnitrosourea-derived ethano cytosine and adenine adducts are substrates for Escherichia coli glycosylases excising analogous etheno adducts
    Anton B Guliaev
    Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
    DNA Repair (Amst) 3:1311-21. 2004
    ..for the Escherichia coli mismatch-specific uracil-DNA glycosylase (Mug) and 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA), respectively...
  20. ncbi AlkB dioxygenase in preventing MMS-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli: effect of Pol V and AlkA proteins
    Jadwiga Nieminuszczy
    Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5A, 02 106 Warszawa, Poland
    DNA Repair (Amst) 5:181-8. 2006
    ..alkB-defective cells are predominantly AT-->TA transversions and GC-->AT transitions; (iv) overproduction of AlkA and the resultant decrease in 3meA residues in DNA dramatically reduce MMS-induced mutations...
  21. pmc Homologous recombination prevents methylation-induced toxicity in Escherichia coli
    Anetta Nowosielska
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
    Nucleic Acids Res 34:2258-68. 2006
    ..recG, are as sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of MMS and MNNG as the most base excision repair (BER)-deficient (alkA tag) isogenic mutant strain...
  22. pmc expression profiling of all protein-coding genes in wild-type and three DNA repair-deficient substrains of Escherichia coli K-12
    Camilla Salmelin
    Leukemia Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Tampere University Hospital, and Tampere University Medical School, Tampere, Finland
    Comp Funct Genomics 3:3-13. 2002
    ....
  23. pmc Structure of the E. coli DNA glycosylase AlkA bound to the ends of duplex DNA: a system for the structure determination of lesion-containing DNA
    Brian R Bowman
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
    Structure 16:1166-74. 2008
    ..Here, we present a crystallization system that uses a protein, the DNA glycosylase AlkA, as a scaffold to mediate the crystallization of lesion-containing duplex DNA...
  24. pmc Synthesis and structure of duplex DNA containing the genotoxic nucleobase lesion N7-methylguanine
    Seongmin Lee
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 130:11570-1. 2008
    ..M7dG is recognized and excised by lesion-specific DNA glycosylases, namely AlkA in E. coli and Aag in humans...
  25. doi Excision of the oxidatively formed 5-hydroxyhydantoin and 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantoin pyrimidine lesions by Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA N-glycosylases
    Didier Gasparutto
    Laboratoire des Lésions des Acides Nucléiques, Service de Chimie Inorganique et Biologique UMR E3 CEA UJF, INAC, DSM, CEA Grenoble, F 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France
    Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:16-24. 2009
    ..If not repaired, when present in cellular DNA, these base lesions may be processed by DNA polymerases that induce mutagenic and cell lethality processes...
  26. pmc Structure of Escherichia coli AlkA in complex with undamaged DNA
    Brian R Bowman
    Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA
    J Biol Chem 285:35783-91. 2010
    ..Here we report the crystal structures of the DNA glycosylase AlkA in complex with undamaged DNA...
  27. pmc Induction of specific Escherichia coli genes by sublethal treatments with alkylating agents
    M R Volkert
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81:4110-4. 1984
    ..One region (aidA) is near his and, based on phenotypic effects, appears to represent insertion into the alkA gene. The other region (aidB) is in the 92...
  28. pmc Release of N2,3-ethenoguanine from chloroacetaldehyde-treated DNA by Escherichia coli 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II
    Z Matijasevic
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01655
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:9331-4. 1992
    ..Similar enzymatic activity in eukaryotic cell might protect them from exposure to metabolites of vinyl chloride...
  29. pmc A region of the Ada DNA-repair protein required for the activation of ada transcription is not necessary for activation of alkA
    D E Shevell
    Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:9001-5. 1991
    ..response is controlled by the Ada protein, which not only functions as the transcriptional activator of the ada and alkA genes but also possesses two DNA methyltransferae activities...
  30. ncbi Expression of DNA damage-inducible genes of Escherichia coli upon treatment with methylating, ethylating and propylating agents
    M R Volkert
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01655
    Mutat Res 217:109-15. 1989
    ..We find that the Ada-regulated adaptive response genes (ada-alkB, alkA and aidB) are induced primarily in response to methylation treatment...
  31. ncbi Gene expression in E. coli after treatment with streptozotocin
    R J Fram
    Departments of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01605
    Mutat Res 198:45-51. 1988
    ..Induction of aidD, alkA, aidB, and sfiA expression occurs with all 3 agents although at markedly lower concentrations of MNNG and STZ ..
  32. ncbi The intracellular signal for induction of resistance to alkylating agents in E. coli
    I Teo
    Cell 45:315-24. 1986
    The E. coli ada gene positively controls its own expression and that of other genes (alkA, alkB, aidB) involved in repair of DNA alkylation damage...
  33. pmc Escherichia coli gene induction by alkylation treatment
    M R Volkert
    Genetics 112:11-26. 1986
    ..b>alkA, aidB and aidD are induced by both agents and appear to be regulated by ada...
  34. ncbi Adaptive response of Escherichia coli to alkylation damage
    M R Volkert
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester 01655
    Environ Mol Mutagen 11:241-55. 1988
    ..Four genes have been identified as components of this response, ada, alkA, alkB and aidB. The functions of two of these genes are known...
  35. pmc Regulatory mechanisms for induction of synthesis of repair enzymes in response to alkylating agents: ada protein acts as a transcriptional regulator
    Y Nakabeppu
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 83:6297-301. 1986
    Expression of the ada and alkA genes, both of which are involved in the adaptive response of Escherichia coli to alkylating agents, is positively controlled by Ada protein, the product of the ada gene...
  36. ncbi Structure and expression of the alkA gene of Escherichia coli involved in adaptive response to alkylating agents
    Y Nakabeppu
    J Biol Chem 259:13730-6. 1984
    Nucleotide sequence of a DNA fragment containing the alkA gene and its control region has been determined using a chemical method. Only one open reading frame responsible for 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II was found...
  37. ncbi Cloning of Escherichia coli genes encoding 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases I and II
    N D Clarke
    Mol Gen Genet 197:368-72. 1984
    ..One plasmid carries the tag+ gene encoding 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase I while the other carries alkA+ encoding 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II...
  38. ncbi DNA repair enzymes
    T Lindahl
    Annu Rev Biochem 51:61-87. 1982
  39. ncbi Cloning and characterization of the alkA gene of Escherichia coli that encodes 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II
    Y Nakabeppu
    J Biol Chem 259:13723-9. 1984
    ..Since the cloned DNA fragment was mapped at 44 to 45 min of the E. coli K12 genetic map, an area where the alkA gene is located, we conclude that the cloned DNA fragment contains the alkA gene itself but not other gene(s) that ..
  40. ncbi Adaptation to alkylation resistance involves the induction of a DNA glycosylase
    G Evensen
    Nature 296:773-5. 1982
  41. ncbi DNA glycosylase activities for thymine residues oxidized in the methyl group are functions of the AlkA enzyme in Escherichia coli
    S Bjelland
    Division for Environmental Toxicology, Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, Kjeller
    J Biol Chem 269:30489-95. 1994
    The alkA gene of Escherichia coli encodes a DNA glycosylase involved in base excision repair of DNA alkylation damage...
  42. pmc Excision of hypoxanthine from DNA containing dIMP residues by the Escherichia coli, yeast, rat, and human alkylpurine DNA glycosylases
    M Saparbaev
    URA 147 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:5873-7. 1994
    ..coli is associated with the 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II coded for by the alkA gene...
  43. ncbi Three-dimensional structure of a DNA repair enzyme, 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II, from Escherichia coli
    Y Yamagata
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Japan
    Cell 86:311-9. 1996
    ..The structure of the active site implies broad substrate specificity and simple N-glycosylase activity...
  44. ncbi Structural basis for the excision repair of alkylation-damaged DNA
    J Labahn
    Harvard Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Boston, Massachusetts02115, USA
    Cell 86:321-9. 1996
    ..The 1.8 A crystal structure of the monofunctional DNA glycosylase AlkA (E. coli 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase II) reveals a large hydrophobic cleft unusually rich in aromatic residues...
  45. ncbi ATP hydrolysis stimulates binding and release of single stranded DNA from alternating subunits of the dimeric E. coli Rep helicase: implications for ATP-driven helicase translocation
    K P Bjornson
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO 63110, USA
    J Mol Biol 263:411-22. 1996
    ..The fact that other oligomeric DNA helicases share many functional features with the dimeric Rep helicase suggests that similar mechanisms for translocation and DNA unwinding may apply to other dimeric as well as hexameric DNA helicases...
  46. ncbi The RNA polymerase alpha subunit carboxyl-terminal domain is required for both basal and activated transcription from the alkA promoter
    P Landini
    Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA
    J Biol Chem 272:15914-9. 1997
    Expression of the Escherichia coli adaptive response genes (ada, aidB, and alkA) is regulated by the transcriptional activator, Ada. However, the interactions of RNA polymerase and Ada with these promoters differ...
  47. ncbi Activity of Escherichia coli DNA-glycosylases on DNA damaged by methylating and ethylating agents and influence of 3-substituted adenine derivatives
    B Tudek
    Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw
    Mutat Res 407:169-76. 1998
    ..I (TagA protein), which excises 3-methyladenine and 3-methylguanine, 3-methyladenine-DNA-glycosylase II (AlkA protein), which has a broad substrate specificity including 3- and 7-alkylated purines and the formamidopyrimidine(..
  48. ncbi 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase II: the crystal structure of an AlkA-hypoxanthine complex suggests the possibility of product inhibition
    Michael Teale
    Laboratory for Structural Biology, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 35899, USA
    Bioconjug Chem 13:403-7. 2002
    Escherichia coli (E. coli) protein 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase II (AlkA) functions primarily by removing alkylation damage from duplex and single stranded DNA. A crystal structure of AlkA was refined to 2.0 A resolution...
  49. pmc DNA bending and a flip-out mechanism for base excision by the helix-hairpin-helix DNA glycosylase, Escherichia coli AlkA
    T Hollis
    Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    EMBO J 19:758-66. 2000
    The Escherichia coli AlkA protein is a base excision repair glycosylase that removes a variety of alkylated bases from DNA. The 2.5 A crystal structure of AlkA complexed to DNA shows a large distortion in the bound DNA...