Timothy Salthouse

Summary

Affiliation: University of Virginia
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Short-term variability in cognitive performance and the calibration of longitudinal change
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia Charlottesville, USA
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 61:P144-51. 2006
  2. pmc Cognitive correlates of cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes in trail making performance
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 33:242-8. 2011
  3. pmc Contributions of the Individual Differences Approach to Cognitive Aging
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci . 2016
  4. pmc Continuity of cognitive change across adulthood
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 4400, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 23:932-9. 2016
  5. doi request reprint Reply to Schooler: Consistent Is Not Conclusive
    Timothy A Salthouse
    University of Virginia
    Perspect Psychol Sci 2:30-2. 2007
  6. doi request reprint Mental Exercise and Mental Aging: Evaluating the Validity of the "Use It or Lose It" Hypothesis
    Timothy A Salthouse
    University of Virginia
    Perspect Psychol Sci 1:68-87. 2006
  7. pmc Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400
    Intelligence 46:122-130. 2014
  8. pmc Breadth and age-dependency of relations between cortical thickness and cognition
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Electronic address
    Neurobiol Aging 36:3020-8. 2015
  9. pmc Aging Cognition Unconfounded by Prior Test Experience
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 71:49-58. 2016
  10. pmc Evaluating the correspondence of different cognitive batteries
    Timothy A Salthouse
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
    Assessment 21:131-42. 2014

Research Grants

  1. Effects of Aging on Executive Processes
    Timothy Salthouse; Fiscal Year: 2006

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. pmc Short-term variability in cognitive performance and the calibration of longitudinal change
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia Charlottesville, USA
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 61:P144-51. 2006
    ..Correlations among the measures of within-person variability were very low, even after we adjusted for reliability, and there was little evidence that increased age was associated with a larger amount of within-person variability...
  2. pmc Cognitive correlates of cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes in trail making performance
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 33:242-8. 2011
    ....
  3. pmc Contributions of the Individual Differences Approach to Cognitive Aging
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci . 2016
    ..To review selected research in cognitive aging incorporating an individual differences approach...
  4. pmc Continuity of cognitive change across adulthood
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 4400, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 23:932-9. 2016
    ..Despite substantial power to detect small effects, the absence of significant age differences in these properties suggests that cognitive change represents a qualitatively similar phenomenon across a large range of adulthood. ..
  5. doi request reprint Reply to Schooler: Consistent Is Not Conclusive
    Timothy A Salthouse
    University of Virginia
    Perspect Psychol Sci 2:30-2. 2007
    ....
  6. doi request reprint Mental Exercise and Mental Aging: Evaluating the Validity of the "Use It or Lose It" Hypothesis
    Timothy A Salthouse
    University of Virginia
    Perspect Psychol Sci 1:68-87. 2006
    ..Despite the current lack of empirical evidence for the idea that the rate of mental aging is moderated by amount of mental activity, there may be personal benefits to assuming that the mental-exercise hypothesis is true. ..
  7. pmc Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology University of Virginia Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400
    Intelligence 46:122-130. 2014
    ..The discovery of quantitative decreases in amount of knowledge occurring at about the same age as qualitative shifts in the structure of knowledge raises the possibility that the two types of changes may be causally linked...
  8. pmc Breadth and age-dependency of relations between cortical thickness and cognition
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Electronic address
    Neurobiol Aging 36:3020-8. 2015
    ....
  9. pmc Aging Cognition Unconfounded by Prior Test Experience
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 71:49-58. 2016
    ..Investigate time-related age differences in cognitive functioning without influences of prior test experience...
  10. pmc Evaluating the correspondence of different cognitive batteries
    Timothy A Salthouse
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA
    Assessment 21:131-42. 2014
    ..e., r > .84). Furthermore, with only a few exceptions, the primary influences on the subtest scores in one battery were from the theoretically relevant ability factor in the other battery...
  11. pmc Selectivity of attrition in longitudinal studies of cognitive functioning
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 69:567-74. 2014
    ....
  12. pmc Within-cohort age-related differences in cognitive functioning
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22904, USA
    Psychol Sci 24:123-30. 2013
    ..These results lead to questions about the practice of relying on birth cohort to represent influences on cognitive functioning associated with temporal shifts in characteristics of the environment...
  13. pmc Psychometric properties of within-person across-session variability in accuracy of cognitive performance
    Timothy A Salthouse
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Assessment 19:494-501. 2012
    ....
  14. pmc How general are the effects of trait anxiety and depressive symptoms on cognitive functioning?
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Emotion 12:1075-84. 2012
    ....
  15. pmc Robust cognitive change
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 4400, USA
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 18:749-56. 2012
    ....
  16. pmc Are individual differences in rates of aging greater at older ages?
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 33:2373-81. 2012
    ..The results indicate that between-person differences in short-term cognitive changes are not inevitably greater among healthy older adults than among young adults...
  17. pmc Does the level at which cognitive change occurs change with age?
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Psychol Sci 23:18-23. 2012
    ..Although the pattern of influences varied across different cognitive abilities, the results revealed little or no age differences in the relative contributions to change from different levels in the hierarchy...
  18. pmc Implications of short-term retest effects for the interpretation of longitudinal change
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Neuropsychology 22:800-11. 2008
    ....
  19. pmc All data collection and analysis methods have limitations: reply to Rabbitt (2011) and Raz and Lindenberger (2011)
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Psychol Bull 137:796-9. 2011
    ..I agree that researchers need to be cautious in extrapolating from cross-sectional to longitudinal relations, but I also note that even longitudinal data are limited with respect to their ability to support causal inferences...
  20. pmc Consequences of age-related cognitive declines
    Timothy Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, 22904 4400, USA
    Annu Rev Psychol 63:201-26. 2012
    ..The final section discusses several possible explanations for why there are often little or no consequences of age-related cognitive declines in everyday functioning...
  21. pmc Effects of age on time-dependent cognitive change
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Psychol Sci 22:682-8. 2011
    ..The results suggest that the relations between age and cognitive change over intervals of less than 8 years are largely influenced by factors operating at or near the initial test occasion...
  22. pmc Neuroanatomical substrates of age-related cognitive decline
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Psychol Bull 137:753-84. 2011
    ..The final section contains several suggestions concerning measurement and methodology that may lead to stronger conclusions in the future...
  23. pmc Influence of age on practice effects in longitudinal neurocognitive change
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, 102 Gilmer Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Neuropsychology 24:563-72. 2010
    ..The current research investigated the role of practice effects in longitudinal comparisons on the discrepancy...
  24. pmc Dealing with short-term fluctuation in longitudinal research
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 65:698-705. 2010
    ..The current project investigated one possible solution to this problem in the form of a measurement-burst design in which research participants perform several versions of each test at each measurement occasion...
  25. pmc Selective review of cognitive aging
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 4400, USA
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 16:754-60. 2010
    ..Moreover, the existing information has implications for the design, analysis, and interpretation of cognitive and neuropsychological research concerned with aging...
  26. pmc Is flanker-based inhibition related to age? Identifying specific influences of individual differences on neurocognitive variables
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
    Brain Cogn 73:51-61. 2010
    ..The method is demonstrated in analyses of data from 10 cognitive tasks in two independent studies, including two flanker tasks which are often used to assess aspects of inhibition...
  27. pmc Does the meaning of neurocognitive change change with age?
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Neuropsychology 24:273-8. 2010
    ....
  28. pmc The paradox of cognitive change
    Timothy A Salthouse
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 32:622-9. 2010
    ....
  29. pmc Decomposing age correlations on neuropsychological and cognitive variables
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903, USA
    J Int Neuropsychol Soc 15:650-61. 2009
    ..This analytical procedure is illustrated in analyses of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV standardization data, and of data from the Virginia Cognitive Aging Project...
  30. pmc When does age-related cognitive decline begin?
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 30:507-14. 2009
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Attempted decomposition of age-related influences on two tests of reasoning
    T A Salthouse
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
    Psychol Aging 16:251-63. 2001
    ..Implications of these findings for the interpretation of age-related influences on measures of cognitive functioning are discussed...
  32. ncbi request reprint Interpreting reaction time measures in between-group comparisons
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22904 4400, VA, USA
    J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 24:858-72. 2002
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint Memory aging from 18 to 80
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, xharlottesville, Virginia 22901, USA
    Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 17:162-7. 2003
    ..These findings imply that it is important to consider factors occurring early in life when attempting to understand the causes of memory and cognitive impairments apparent late in life...
  34. ncbi request reprint What needs to be explained to account for age-related effects on multiple cognitive variables?
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22904 4400, USA
    Psychol Aging 18:91-110. 2003
    ..These results suggest that at least 3 statistically distinct types of age-related influences are operating on a wide variety of cognitive variables and presumably require separate explanatory mechanisms...
  35. ncbi request reprint Executive functioning as a potential mediator of age-related cognitive decline in normal adults
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Dept of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    J Exp Psychol Gen 132:566-94. 2003
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint The role of cognitive stimulation on the relations between age and cognitive functioning
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22904 4400, USA
    Psychol Aging 17:548-57. 2002
    ..Only the 1st condition received empirical support, and, thus, the results of this study provide little evidence for the hypothesis that cognitive stimulation preserves or enhances cognitive functioning that would otherwise decline...
  37. ncbi request reprint Estimating retest effects in longitudinal assessments of cognitive functioning in adults between 18 and 60 years of age
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Dev Psychol 40:813-22. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Correlates of within-person (across-occasion) variability in reaction time
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Neuropsychology 19:77-87. 2005
    ....
  39. ncbi request reprint Aging and measures of processing speed
    T A Salthouse
    School of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0170, USA
    Biol Psychol 54:35-54. 2000
    ..Although these theoretical ideas and analytical procedures are fairly new, they may be relevant to a variety of psychophysiological or neurobiological variables...
  40. ncbi request reprint Construct validity and age sensitivity of prospective memory
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Mem Cognit 32:1133-48. 2004
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Relations between cognitive abilities and measures of executive functioning
    Timothy A Salthouse
    University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Neuropsychology 19:532-45. 2005
    ..These results raise questions about the extent to which neuropsychological tests of executive functioning measure a distinct dimension of variation in normal adults...
  42. ncbi request reprint Aging and time-sharing aspects of executive control
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22904 4400, USA
    Mem Cognit 30:572-82. 2002
    ..Although this pattern is what one would expect if executive processes contribute to age differences in cognitive functioning, the effects were smaller than those associated with a perceptual speed construct...
  43. pmc An individual difference analysis of false recognition
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22904 4400, USA
    Am J Psychol 120:429-58. 2007
    ....
  44. pmc Comment on Greenwood (2007): functional plasticity in cognitive aging
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Neuropsychology 21:678-9; discussion 680-3. 2007
    ....
  45. pmc Why is working memory related to fluid intelligence?
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 4400, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 15:364-71. 2008
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint An examination of the Hofer and Sliwinski evaluation
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Gerontology 48:18-21; discussion 22-9. 2002
    ....
  47. pmc Multivariate modeling of age and retest in longitudinal studies of cognitive abilities
    Emilio Ferrer
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 8686, USA
    Psychol Aging 20:412-22. 2005
    ..The authors suggest that although the changes in memory and processing speed may be correlated over time, age alone does not capture such a covariation...
  48. pmc Implications of within-person variability in cognitive and neuropsychological functioning for the interpretation of change
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Neuropsychology 21:401-11. 2007
    ..Because there were large individual differences in the magnitude of this variability, it is proposed that change might be most meaningfully expressed in units of each individual's own across-session variability...
  49. pmc Vocabulary test format and differential relations to age
    Ryan P Bowles
    Department of Psychology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 1116, USA
    Psychol Aging 23:366-76. 2008
    ..No theory of the aging of vocabulary knowledge fully explains these findings. These results suggest that using a single indicator of vocabulary may yield incomplete and somewhat misleading results about the aging of vocabulary knowledge...
  50. ncbi request reprint Modeling age and retest processes in longitudinal studies of cognitive abilities
    Emilio Ferrer
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA
    Psychol Aging 19:243-59. 2004
    ..It is suggested that both age and retest should be modeled simultaneously when analyzing longitudinal data because part of the change across occasions may be attributable to practice or reactive effects...
  51. ncbi request reprint A psychometric approach to intuitive physics
    Cedar Riener
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, P O Box 400400, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Psychon Bull Rev 12:740-5. 2005
    ..00). The findings are discussed in the context of research on intuitive physics, as well as research on cognitive aging...
  52. ncbi request reprint Is there anything special about the aging of source memory?
    Karen L Siedlecki
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Psychol Aging 20:19-32. 2005
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Assessing the age-related effects of proactive interference on working memory tasks using the Rasch model
    Ryan P Bowles
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22904 4400, USA
    Psychol Aging 18:608-15. 2003
    ..These results suggest that differential susceptibility to PI may account for a substantial portion, although not all, of the age-related decline in WM span...
  54. ncbi request reprint Methodological and theoretical implications of intraindividual variability in perceptual-motor performance
    John R Nesselroade
    Psychology Department, The University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 59:P49-55. 2004
    ..Age is related to the magnitude of intraindividual variability, which in turn is negatively related to performance on other cognitive tasks. Various implications of the findings are discussed...
  55. pmc Adult age trends in the relations among cognitive abilities
    Elliot M Tucker-Drob
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 4400, USA
    Psychol Aging 23:453-60. 2008
    ..Contrary to the dedifferentiation hypothesis, there was no evidence for systematic increases in the magnitudes of relations among cognitive abilities. Conventional analytic procedures replicated these findings...
  56. pmc Efficiency of route selection as a function of adult age
    Timothy A Salthouse
    Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
    Brain Cogn 63:279-86. 2007
    ....
  57. pmc Executive dysfunctions across adulthood: measurement properties and correlates of the DEX self-report questionnaire
    Denis Gerstorf
    Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16802, USA
    Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 15:424-45. 2008
    ..We discuss implications for the validity of the instrument as well as directions for future research on executive functioning difficulties in everyday life...

Research Grants1

  1. Effects of Aging on Executive Processes
    Timothy Salthouse; Fiscal Year: 2006
    ..e., specific to individual variables or common to many variables) at which age-related influences operate on executive process variables. ..