Laura M Rowland

Summary

Affiliation: University of Maryland
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Subanesthetic ketamine: how it alters physiology and behavior in humans
    Laura M Rowland
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 76:C52-8. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Effects of ketamine on anterior cingulate glutamate metabolism in healthy humans: a 4-T proton MRS study
    Laura M Rowland
    Department of Psychiatry, MIND Imaging Center, University of New Mexico, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:394-6. 2005
  3. pmc Neural changes associated with relational learning in schizophrenia
    Laura M Rowland
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Bull 36:496-503. 2010
  4. pmc In vivo measurements of glutamate, GABA, and NAAG in schizophrenia
    Laura M Rowland
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Schizophr Bull 39:1096-104. 2013
  5. pmc GABA predicts inhibition of frequency-specific oscillations in schizophrenia
    Laura M Rowland
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 25:83-7. 2013
  6. ncbi request reprint Oculomotor responses during partial and total sleep deprivation
    Laura M Rowland
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 76:C104-13. 2005
  7. pmc White matter alterations in deficit schizophrenia
    Laura M Rowland
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1514-22. 2009
  8. ncbi request reprint Selective cognitive impairments associated with NMDA receptor blockade in humans
    Laura M Rowland
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:633-9. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy during initial treatment with antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia
    Juan R Bustillo
    Department of Psychiatry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:2456-66. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampus and occipital white matter in PTSD: preliminary results
    Gerardo Villarreal
    PTSD Clinic, Veterans Administration Hospital, Departments of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
    Can J Psychiatry 47:666-70. 2002

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications46

  1. ncbi request reprint Subanesthetic ketamine: how it alters physiology and behavior in humans
    Laura M Rowland
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 76:C52-8. 2005
    ..This review describes the clinical applications, potential adverse events, neurobiological, and behavioral effects of ketamine used at subanesthetic doses in humans...
  2. ncbi request reprint Effects of ketamine on anterior cingulate glutamate metabolism in healthy humans: a 4-T proton MRS study
    Laura M Rowland
    Department of Psychiatry, MIND Imaging Center, University of New Mexico, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 162:394-6. 2005
    ..The authors' goal was to test in humans the hypothesis that N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism results in increased cortical glutamate activity, as proposed by the NMDAR hypofunction model of schizophrenia...
  3. pmc Neural changes associated with relational learning in schizophrenia
    Laura M Rowland
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Schizophr Bull 36:496-503. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that the parietal lobe may be receptive to cognitive training interventions and that successful relational learning may be achieved in schizophrenia through the use of alternative extrahippocampal brain regions...
  4. pmc In vivo measurements of glutamate, GABA, and NAAG in schizophrenia
    Laura M Rowland
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Schizophr Bull 39:1096-104. 2013
    ..The study also highlights the importance of studies that combine MRS measurements of NAAG, GABA, and Glu for a more comprehensive neurochemical characterization of schizophrenia. ..
  5. pmc GABA predicts inhibition of frequency-specific oscillations in schizophrenia
    Laura M Rowland
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 25:83-7. 2013
    ..Results revealed a strong association between GABA levels and gating of the theta-alpha and beta activities in schizophrenia...
  6. ncbi request reprint Oculomotor responses during partial and total sleep deprivation
    Laura M Rowland
    Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA
    Aviat Space Environ Med 76:C104-13. 2005
    ..Oculomotor responses related to the pupil light reflex (PLR) and saccadic velocity may be sensitive to the effects of sleepiness and therefore could be used to evaluate an individual's fitness for duty...
  7. pmc White matter alterations in deficit schizophrenia
    Laura M Rowland
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 34:1514-22. 2009
    ..These findings provide further support for altered frontal-parietal network in deficit schizophrenia...
  8. ncbi request reprint Selective cognitive impairments associated with NMDA receptor blockade in humans
    Laura M Rowland
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 30:633-9. 2005
    ..Impaired cognition is a core feature of schizophrenia. A better understanding of NMDA antagonism, its physiological and cognitive consequences, may provide improved models of psychosis and cognitive therapeutics...
  9. ncbi request reprint Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy during initial treatment with antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia
    Juan R Bustillo
    Department of Psychiatry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 0001, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 33:2456-66. 2008
    ..Early in the illness, schizophrenia patients already demonstrate subtle reductions in NAA. Treatment with typical or atypical antipsychotic medications for several months does not result in NAA changes...
  10. ncbi request reprint Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the hippocampus and occipital white matter in PTSD: preliminary results
    Gerardo Villarreal
    PTSD Clinic, Veterans Administration Hospital, Departments of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
    Can J Psychiatry 47:666-70. 2002
    ..However, other areas of the brain need to be explored. The objective of this study was to investigate the specificity of hippocampal NAA concentration changes in PTSD by also examining a control region, the occipital white matter (OWM)...
  11. ncbi request reprint Longitudinal follow-up of neurochemical changes during the first year of antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia patients with minimal previous medication exposure
    Juan R Bustillo
    Department of Psychiatry, Research Division, University of New Mexico, 2400 Tucker NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Schizophr Res 58:313-21. 2002
    ..The well-described reduced frontal NAA in schizophrenia may not be a trait of the illness but may represent medication effect or progression of the disease...
  12. pmc Disrupted glucocorticoid--Immune interactions during stress response in schizophrenia
    Joshua Chiappelli
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States Electronic address
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 63:86-93. 2016
    ..This finding may partially underlie abnormalities in inflammatory and stress pathways previously found in the illness, implicating dysregulated stress response in the chronic inflammatory state in schizophrenia. ..
  13. pmc Spatial memory deficits in a virtual reality eight-arm radial maze in schizophrenia
    Elena A Spieker
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, United States
    Schizophr Res 135:84-9. 2012
    ..Results provide further support for compromised prefrontal and hippocampal function underlying WM and RM deficits in SZ. The virtual RAM task could help bridge preclinical and clinical research for testing novel drug treatments of SZ...
  14. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in N-acetylaspartate correlates of general intelligence: an 1H-MRS study of normal human brain
    Rex E Jung
    Department of Neurology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87151, USA
    Neuroimage 26:965-72. 2005
    ..84, P < .001; adjusted r2 = .82]. Our results highlight a biochemical substrate of normal intellectual performance, mediated by sex, within white matter association fibers linking posterior to frontal brain regions...
  15. pmc Sequential neural changes during motor learning in schizophrenia
    Laura M Rowland
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center and Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Psychiatry Res 163:1-12. 2008
    ..The visual system, however, appears to be highly compensated in schizophrenia and the inability to rapidly modulate the motor cortex may be substantially corrected by the schizophrenic group's visuomotor adaptations...
  16. pmc Altered Glutamate and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Levels in Schizophrenia: A 1H-MRS and pCASL study
    S Andrea Wijtenburg
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 42:562-571. 2017
    ..Contrary to expectation, these results do not show evidence of accelerated Glu aging in the anterior cingulate region in SZ compared with healthy controls...
  17. pmc Perfusion shift from white to gray matter may account for processing speed deficits in schizophrenia
    Susan N Wright
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
    Hum Brain Mapp 36:3793-804. 2015
    ..Whether the disproportionately low WM integrity in schizophrenia is due to illness or secondary due to this disorder deserves further examination...
  18. pmc Frontal Glutamate and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Levels and Their Associations With Mismatch Negativity and Digit Sequencing Task Performance in Schizophrenia
    Laura M Rowland
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore2Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland3Department of Psyc
    JAMA Psychiatry 73:166-74. 2016
    ..However, the association of glutamate level with MMN has not been directly examined in patients with schizophrenia, to our knowledge...
  19. pmc Multimodal white matter imaging to investigate reduced fractional anisotropy and its age-related decline in schizophrenia
    Peter Kochunov
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA Electronic address
    Psychiatry Res 223:148-56. 2014
    ..Post hoc testing showed a similar trend for PDI of gray mater. Our study demonstrated that reduced FA and its accelerated decline with age in schizophrenia were explained by pathophysiology indexed by PDI, rather than HWM volume. ..
  20. pmc Tryptophan Metabolism and White Matter Integrity in Schizophrenia
    Joshua Chiappelli
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 41:2587-95. 2016
    ..391 and -0.350 respectively, p=0.024 and 0.036). These results provide initial evidence implicating abnormal tryptophan/kynurenine pathway activity in changes to white matter integrity and white matter glutamate in schizophrenia. ..
  21. pmc N100 as a generic cortical electrophysiological marker based on decomposition of TMS-evoked potentials across five anatomic locations
    Xiaoming DU
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD, 21228, USA
    Exp Brain Res 235:69-81. 2017
    ..Our findings suggest that anatomy- and modality-specific interpretation of N100 should be carefully evaluated, and N100 by TMS may be used as a biomarker for evaluating local versus general cortical properties across the brain...
  22. pmc Cortisol Reactivity to Stress and Its Association With White Matter Integrity in Adults With Schizophrenia
    Katie L Nugent
    From the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry Nugent, Chiappelli, Sampath, Rowland, Thangavelu, Davis, DU, Muellerklein, Kochunov, Hong, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland and Department of Psychology Daughters, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    Psychosom Med 77:733-42. 2015
    ..We hypothesized that an abnormally prolonged cortisol response to stress may be linked to abnormal white matter integrity in patients with schizophrenia...
  23. pmc Evaluation of Myo-Inositol as a Potential Biomarker for Depression in Schizophrenia
    Joshua Chiappelli
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neuropsychopharmacology 40:2157-64. 2015
    ..If confirmed, this finding may aid investigation of the pathophysiology and therapeutics of depression common between depression, schizophrenia and other psychiatric diagnoses. ..
  24. pmc Reproducibility of brain spectroscopy at 7T using conventional localization and spectral editing techniques
    S Andrea Wijtenburg
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    J Magn Reson Imaging 38:460-7. 2013
    ..To evaluate the reproducibility of spectroscopic measurements from the anterior cingulate (AC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions at 7T using a 32-channel head coil...
  25. ncbi request reprint High choline concentrations in the caudate nucleus in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia
    Juan R Bustillo
    Department of Psychiatry, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, 87131, USA
    Am J Psychiatry 159:130-3. 2002
    ..Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) studies of medicated patients with schizophrenia suggest high choline levels in the caudate nucleus. However, assessments of antipsychotic-naive patients are needed...
  26. pmc Distress intolerance and clinical functioning in persons with schizophrenia
    Katie L Nugent
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA Electronic address
    Psychiatry Res 220:31-6. 2014
    ..Our results suggest that distress intolerance is a promising domain for treatment research, and functional capacity may be improved by targeting treatments towards SZ patient׳s ability to tolerate distress. ..
  27. pmc Reproducibility of phase rotation stimulated echo acquisition mode at 3T in schizophrenia: Emphasis on glutamine
    Juan R Bustillo
    Department of Psychiatry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
    Magn Reson Med 75:498-502. 2016
    ..To determine the reproducibility and reliability of glutamine (Gln), measured with a very short echo time phase rotation stimulated echo acquisition mode (VTE-PR STEAM) sequence at 3T, in subjects with schizophrenia...
  28. pmc Allostatic load and reduced cortical thickness in schizophrenia
    Joshua Chiappelli
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States Electronic address
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 77:105-111. 2016
    ..Among the allostatic indices, the inflammatory mechanism appears particularly relevant to cortical thickness in both schizophrenia patients and normal controls...
  29. pmc Effectiveness of fast mapping to promote learning in schizophrenia
    Stephanie A Korenic
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine
    Schizophr Res Cogn 4:24-31. 2016
    ..Whether FM may benefit a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia remains a focus of further investigation...
  30. pmc Diffusion-weighted imaging uncovers likely sources of processing-speed deficits in schizophrenia
    Peter Kochunov
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:13504-13509. 2016
    ..These non-Gaussian diffusion white matter metrics are promising surrogate imaging markers for modeling cognitive deficits and perhaps, guiding treatment development in schizophrenia...
  31. pmc Reproducibility of phase rotation STEAM at 3T: focus on glutathione
    S Andrea Wijtenburg
    Neuroimaging Research Program, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Magn Reson Med 72:603-9. 2014
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of a very short echo time (TE) phase rotation stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence at 3T with a focus on the detection of glutathione...
  32. pmc Accelerated white matter aging in schizophrenia: role of white matter blood perfusion
    Susan N Wright
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neurobiol Aging 35:2411-8. 2014
    ..The results suggest that factors other than reduced perfusion account for the accelerated age-related decline in white matter integrity in schizophrenia...
  33. pmc Anterior cingulate GABA levels predict whole-brain cerebral blood flow
    Benjamin W Krause
    Neuroimaging Research Program, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Neurosci Lett 561:188-91. 2014
    ..We hypothesize that GABA-mediated inhibition of AC activation of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine pathway may influence global CBF. ..
  34. doi request reprint Increased anterior brain activation to correct responses on high-conflict Stroop task in obsessive-compulsive disorder
    Kristina T Ciesielski
    Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA
    Clin Neurophysiol 122:107-13. 2011
    ....
  35. pmc The interactive effects of ketamine and nicotine on human cerebral blood flow
    Laura M Rowland
    Department of Psychiatry, Functional Neuroimaging Laboratory, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 55 Wade Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21228 0247, USA
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 208:575-84. 2010
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine if acute nicotine attenuated ketamine-induced regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF)...
  36. ncbi request reprint Reduced hippocampal volume and total white matter volume in posttraumatic stress disorder
    Gerardo Villarreal
    Department of Psychiatry, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 52:119-25. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess hippocampal and whole-brain volume in civilian PTSD...
  37. pmc Comparison of single voxel brain MRS AT 3T and 7T using 32-channel head coils
    Subechhya Pradhan
    Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Electronic address
    Magn Reson Imaging 33:1013-8. 2015
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of three different regions of the human brain between 3 and 7 Tesla, using the same subjects and closely matched methodology at both field strengths...
  38. pmc Cumulative stress pathophysiology in schizophrenia as indexed by allostatic load
    Katie L Nugent
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA Electronic address
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 60:120-9. 2015
    ..We hypothesized that the cumulative negative effects of stress, indexed by allostatic load (AL), would be elevated in schizophrenia, and that the AL paradigm would be relevant to our understanding of pathophysiology in schizophrenia...
  39. pmc Neural summation in human motor cortex by subthreshold transcranial magnetic stimulations
    Xiaoming DU
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, P O Box 21247, Baltimore, MD, 21228, USA
    Exp Brain Res 233:671-7. 2015
    ..Understanding the constraints for inducing summation of subthreshold stimulations to generate above-threshold response may have implications in modeling neural operations and potential clinical applications...
  40. pmc Lower neurocognitive function in U-2 pilots: Relationship to white matter hyperintensities
    Stephen A McGuire
    From the US Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine S A M, J W, K M, E S K, Aerospace Medicine Consultation Division, Wright Patterson AFB, OH Department of Neurology S A M, J R, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio Departments of Neuroradiology P M S and Neurology S A M, J H S, A M W, 59th Medical Wing, Lackland AFB Henry Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine D F T, San Antonio, TX and Maryland Psychiatric Research Center L M R, B P, S N W, E H, P V K, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore
    Neurology 83:638-45. 2014
    ....
  41. pmc Stress-induced increase in kynurenic acid as a potential biomarker for patients with schizophrenia and distress intolerance
    Joshua Chiappelli
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore
    JAMA Psychiatry 71:761-8. 2014
    ..The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is commonly associated with stress, and stress plays a key regulatory role in the first, rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway, which produces KYNA...
  42. pmc Testing the hypothesis of accelerated cerebral white matter aging in schizophrenia and major depression
    Peter Kochunov
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Biol Psychiatry 73:482-91. 2013
    ..We used diffusion tensor imaging derived fractional anisotropy (FA) as a biomarker of aging-related decline in white matter (WM) integrity to test the hypotheses of accelerated aging in SCZ and MDD...
  43. pmc Schizophrenia clinical symptom differences in women vs. men with and without a history of childhood physical abuse
    Deanna L Kelly
    Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Spring Grove Hospital Grounds, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228 USA
    Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 10:5. 2016
    ..Given the sex differences in onset and clinical course of schizophrenia, we hypothesized that childhood abuse may cause phenotypic differences in the disorder between men and women...
  44. pmc In vivo assessment of neurotransmitters and modulators with magnetic resonance spectroscopy: application to schizophrenia
    S Andrea Wijtenburg
    Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, PO Box 21247, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA Electronic address
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 51:276-95. 2015
    ..Overall, (1)H MRS holds great promise for producing biomarkers that can serve as treatment targets, prediction of disease onset, or illness exacerbation in schizophrenia and other brain diseases. ..
  45. ncbi request reprint How schizophrenia and depression disrupt reward circuitry
    Henry H Holcomb
    Henry H Holcomb, MD Department of Psychiatry, Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 55 Wade Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA
    Curr Treat Options Neurol 9:357-62. 2007
    ..Other neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression may provide models of disturbed reward biology that may prove useful when thinking about altered reward circuitry and behavior in PD and other neurological disorders...
  46. ncbi request reprint Regarding "Increased prefrontal and hippocampal glutamate concentration in schizophrenia: evidence from a magnetic resonance spectroscopy study"
    Jean Théberge
    Biol Psychiatry 61:1218-9; author reply 1219-20. 2007