M A Pfaller

Summary

Affiliation: University of Iowa
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Role of sentinel surveillance of candidemia: trends in species distribution and antifungal susceptibility
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3551-7. 2002
  2. pmc Evaluation of the discriminatory powers of the Dienes test and ribotyping as typing methods for Proteus mirabilis
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:1077-80. 2000
  3. pmc Geographic and temporal trends in isolation and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis: a global assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001 to 2005
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:842-9. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Genetic relatedness of multidrug-resistant, methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates from SENTRY Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Centers worldwide, 1998
    D J Diekema
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52246, USA
    Microb Drug Resist 6:213-21. 2000
  5. ncbi request reprint Two-year assessment of the pathogen frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns among organisms isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in Latin American hospitals: results from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program, 1997-98. SENTRY Stud
    A C Gales
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 4:75-84. 2000
  6. ncbi request reprint Activity and spectrum of 22 antimicrobial agents tested against urinary tract infection pathogens in hospitalized patients in Latin America: report from the second year of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1998)
    A C Gales
    Medical Microbiology Division, 251 MRC, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 45:295-303. 2000
  7. ncbi request reprint Survey of bloodstream infections due to gram-negative bacilli: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, and Latin America for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997
    D J Diekema
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 29:595-607. 1999
  8. ncbi request reprint In vitro activity of selected cephalosporins and erythromycin against staphylococci and pneumococci isolated at 38 North American medical centers participating in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1998
    R N Jones
    University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 37:93-8. 2000
  9. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of noncandidal yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:117-23. 2009
  10. pmc In vitro activities of BMS-207147 against over 600 contemporary clinical bloodstream isolates of Candida species from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in North America and Latin America
    D J Diekema
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:2236-9. 1999

Detail Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Role of sentinel surveillance of candidemia: trends in species distribution and antifungal susceptibility
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:3551-7. 2002
  2. pmc Evaluation of the discriminatory powers of the Dienes test and ribotyping as typing methods for Proteus mirabilis
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:1077-80. 2000
    ..mirabilis. The Dienes test is simple, inexpensive, and easy to perform. It can be performed in virtually any laboratory and should be used in the initial epidemiologic characterization of P. mirabilis isolates...
  3. pmc Geographic and temporal trends in isolation and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis: a global assessment from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001 to 2005
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:842-9. 2008
    ..parapsilosis to fluconazole and voriconazole may vary by geographic region and clinical service...
  4. ncbi request reprint Genetic relatedness of multidrug-resistant, methicillin (oxacillin)-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates from SENTRY Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Centers worldwide, 1998
    D J Diekema
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52246, USA
    Microb Drug Resist 6:213-21. 2000
    ..aureus bloodstream isolates worldwide. Although many MDR-MRSA strains group geographically, a few closely related epidemic strains have wide regional and even global range...
  5. ncbi request reprint Two-year assessment of the pathogen frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns among organisms isolated from skin and soft tissue infections in Latin American hospitals: results from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program, 1997-98. SENTRY Stud
    A C Gales
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Int J Infect Dis 4:75-84. 2000
    ..The dissemination of multidrug-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDR-MRSA) among the Latin American countries also was studied...
  6. ncbi request reprint Activity and spectrum of 22 antimicrobial agents tested against urinary tract infection pathogens in hospitalized patients in Latin America: report from the second year of the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (1998)
    A C Gales
    Medical Microbiology Division, 251 MRC, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 45:295-303. 2000
    ..The results presented in this report confirm that bacterial resistance continues to be a great problem in Latin American medical institutions...
  7. ncbi request reprint Survey of bloodstream infections due to gram-negative bacilli: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in the United States, Canada, and Latin America for the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997
    D J Diekema
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 29:595-607. 1999
    ..coli and Klebsiella species from Latin America. Further investigation of the reasons for regional differences in resistance patterns is needed, as is ongoing surveillance to detect resistance trends and to guide antimicrobial use...
  8. ncbi request reprint In vitro activity of selected cephalosporins and erythromycin against staphylococci and pneumococci isolated at 38 North American medical centers participating in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1998
    R N Jones
    University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 37:93-8. 2000
    ....
  9. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of noncandidal yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:117-23. 2009
    ..These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and emphasize the importance of prompt and accurate species identification...
  10. pmc In vitro activities of BMS-207147 against over 600 contemporary clinical bloodstream isolates of Candida species from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program in North America and Latin America
    D J Diekema
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:2236-9. 1999
    ..that were dose-dependently fluconazole susceptible and against those that were fluconazole resistant...
  11. pmc International surveillance of bloodstream infections due to Candida species: frequency of occurrence and in vitro susceptibilities to fluconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole of isolates collected from 1997 through 1999 in the SENTRY antimicrobial surv
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:3254-9. 2001
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint In vitro susceptibilities of rare Candida bloodstream isolates to ravuconazole and three comparative antifungal agents
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 48:101-5. 2004
    ..Ravuconazole is clearly an "extended-spectrum" triazole with potent in vitro activity against these rare and potentially "emerging" opportunistic pathogens...
  13. pmc Activities of caspofungin, itraconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B against 448 recent clinical isolates of filamentous fungi
    D J Diekema
    Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:3623-6. 2003
    ..5 microg/ml. The new triazoles and caspofungin have excellent in vitro activity against a very large collection of recent clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp., and some in vitro activity against selected other filamentous fungi...
  14. pmc International surveillance of bloodstream infections due to Candida species: frequency of occurrence and antifungal susceptibilities of isolates collected in 1997 in the United States, Canada, and South America for the SENTRY Program. The SENTRY Participa
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 36:1886-9. 1998
    ..9% of C. glabrata isolates (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml) and 66.6% of C. krusei isolates were resistant to itraconazole. Within each species there were no geographic differences in susceptibility to fluconazole or itraconazole...
  15. pmc Clinical evaluation of the ASTY colorimetric microdilution panel for antifungal susceptibility testing
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 36:2609-12. 1998
    ..The ASTY colorimetric microdilution panel method appears to be comparable to the NCCLS reference method for testing the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to a variety of antifungal agents...
  16. ncbi request reprint Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with bloodstream infections in the USA, Canada and Latin America. SENTRY Participants Group
    D J Diekema
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 13:257-71. 2000
    ..Ongoing surveillance remains essential, and will enhance efforts to limit the scope of this worldwide problem...
  17. ncbi request reprint Occurrence of single-point gyrA mutations among ciprofloxacin-susceptible Escherichia coli isolates causing urinary tract infections in Latin America
    A C Gales
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 36:61-4. 2000
    ....
  18. pmc In vitro activities of caspofungin compared with those of fluconazole and itraconazole against 3,959 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 157 fluconazole-resistant isolates
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:1068-71. 2003
    ..These results provide further evidence for the spectrum and potency of caspofungin activity against a large and geographically diverse collection of clinically important isolates of Candida spp...
  19. pmc Bloodstream infections due to Candida species: SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program in North America and Latin America, 1997-1998
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:747-51. 2000
    ..4 to 100% susceptible). Isolates from Canada and Latin America were generally more susceptible to both triazoles than U.S. isolates were. Continued surveillance appears necessary to detect these important changes...
  20. pmc Evaluation of the Etest and disk diffusion methods for determining susceptibilities of 235 bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole and voriconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology Medicine, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1875-80. 2003
    ..The agar-based methods performed well in identifying isolates with resistance to fluconazole and decreased susceptibility to voriconazole...
  21. ncbi request reprint In vitro activities of voriconazole, posaconazole, and fluconazole against 4,169 clinical isolates of Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans collected during 2001 and 2002 in the ARTEMIS global antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 48:201-5. 2004
    ..and C. neoformans. These results provide further evidence for the increased spectrum and potency of the new triazoles against a large and geographically diverse collection of opportunistic fungal pathogens...
  22. pmc Evaluation of the etest method using Mueller-Hinton agar with glucose and methylene blue for determining amphotericin B MICs for 4,936 clinical isolates of Candida species
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4977-9. 2004
    ..albicans, 95.1%; C. glabrata, 94.3%; C. krusei, 91.6%; C. parapsilosis, 86.6%; and C. tropicalis, 86.4%. The Etest method using MH-GMB appears to be a useful method for determining amphotericin B susceptibilities of Candida species...
  23. pmc Comparison of results of voriconazole disk diffusion testing for Candida species with results from a central reference laboratory in the ARTEMIS global antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5208-13. 2005
    ....
  24. pmc Use of fluconazole as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to voriconazole among 13,338 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Tested by clinical and laboratory standards institute-recommended broth microdilution methods
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:70-5. 2007
    ..Clinical laboratories performing antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole against Candida spp. can reliably use these results as surrogate markers until commercial FDA-approved voriconazole susceptibility tests become available...
  25. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance study, 1997 to 2005: an 8.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida species and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion testing
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1735-45. 2007
    ..These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and emphasize the importance of prompt and accurate species identification...
  26. pmc Comparison of the broth microdilution (BMD) method of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with the 24-hour CLSI BMD method for testing susceptibility of Candida species to fluconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole by use of ep
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:845-50. 2011
    ..These results provide additional data in favor of the harmonization of these two methods...
  27. doi request reprint Comparison of the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric antifungal panel with CLSI microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of the echinocandins against Candida spp., using new clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values
    M A Pfaller
    University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 73:365-8. 2012
    ..to the echinocandins when using the new (lower) CBPs and ECVs. Further study using defined fks mutant strains of Candida is warranted...
  28. pmc Candida rugosa, an emerging fungal pathogen with resistance to azoles: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3578-82. 2006
    ..C. rugosa should be considered, along with the established pathogens Candida krusei and Candida glabrata, as a species of Candida with reduced susceptibility to the azole antifungal agents...
  29. pmc Cross-resistance between fluconazole and ravuconazole and the use of fluconazole as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to ravuconazole among 12,796 clinical isolates of Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3137-41. 2004
    ..Fluconazole may serve as a surrogate marker to predict the susceptibility of Candida spp. to ravuconazole...
  30. pmc Candida krusei, a multidrug-resistant opportunistic fungal pathogen: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK Antifungal Surveillance Program, 2001 to 2005
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:515-21. 2008
    ..25 microg/ml). C. krusei is an uncommon but multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen. Among the systemically active antifungal agents, the echinocandins appear to be the most active against this important pathogen...
  31. pmc Wild-type MIC distribution and epidemiological cutoff values for Aspergillus fumigatus and three triazoles as determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution methods
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3142-6. 2009
    ..The establishment of the WT MIC distribution and ECVs for the azoles and A. fumigatus will be useful in resistance surveillance and is an important step toward the development of clinical breakpoints...
  32. pmc Activities of fluconazole and voriconazole against 1,586 recent clinical isolates of Candida species determined by Broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest methods: report from the ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Susceptibility Program, 2001
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine and College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1440-6. 2003
    ..Continued surveillance and refinement of broth- and agar-based test methods will help to identify susceptibility trends and improve the laboratory capability for antifungal susceptibility testing...
  33. pmc Variation in susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole according to patient age and geographic location in the United States in 2001 to 2007
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 47:3185-90. 2009
    ..The oldest age group (> or = 80 years) had the highest proportion of BSI isolates that were C. glabrata (32%) and the lowest rate of fluconazole resistance (5%)...
  34. pmc In vitro activities of anidulafungin against more than 2,500 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 315 isolates resistant to fluconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5425-7. 2005
    ..These results provide further evidence for the spectrum and potency of anidulafungin activity against a large and geographically diverse collection of clinically important isolates of Candida spp...
  35. ncbi request reprint Respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients hospitalized with suspected pneumonia: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (United States and Canada, 1997)
    R N Jones
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, C606 GH, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 37:115-25. 2000
    ....
  36. pmc Evaluation of the Etest method for determining voriconazole susceptibilities of 312 clinical isolates of Candida species by using three different agar media
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 38:3715-7. 2000
    ..lusitaniae. With AM3, agreement ranged from 58% for C. glabrata to 100% for C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii. The Etest method using RPG appears to be a useful method for determining voriconazole susceptibilities of Candida species...
  37. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of Candida bloodstream isolates to the new triazole antifungal agents BMS-207147, Sch 56592, and voriconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:3242-4. 1998
    ..These results suggest that BMS-207147, Sch 56592, and voriconazole all possess promising antifungal activity and that further in vitro and in vivo investigations are warranted to establish the clinical value of this improved potency...
  38. pmc Comparison of the Vitek Gram-Positive Susceptibility 106 card and the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test for determining oxacillin resistance in clinical bloodstream isolates of Staphylococcus aureus
    T Yamazumi
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 39:53-6. 2001
    ..Both methods were sensitive and specific for detecting staphylococcal oxacillin resistance in the clinical microbiology laboratory...
  39. pmc Quality control limits for voriconazole disk susceptibility tests on Mueller-Hinton agar with glucose and methylene blue
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1716-8. 2004
    ..Candida tropicalis ATCC 750 was not useful for this purpose...
  40. pmc Further standardization of broth microdilution methodology for in vitro susceptibility testing of caspofungin against Candida species by use of an international collection of more than 3,000 clinical isolates
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3117-9. 2004
    ..The MICs for >99% of isolates were </=1 microg/ml, and thus these isolates were differentiated from strains with reduced in vitro and in vivo susceptibilities to caspofungin...
  41. pmc Activities of micafungin against 315 invasive clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant Candida spp
    S A Messer
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:324-6. 2006
    ..Micafungin may prove useful in the treatment of infections due to azole-resistant Candida...
  42. pmc Multicenter comparison of the VITEK 2 antifungal susceptibility test with the CLSI broth microdilution reference method for testing amphotericin B, flucytosine, and voriconazole against Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:3522-8. 2007
    ..9 to 97.4% at the 48-h BMD time point. The VITEK 2 system reliably detected flucytosine and voriconazole resistance among Candida spp. and demonstrated excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the reference BMD method...
  43. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of clinical isolates of Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus species to itraconazole: global survey of 9,359 isolates tested by clinical and laboratory standards institute broth microdilution methods
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3807-10. 2005
    ..In light of the new intravenous formulation of itraconazole these data suggest that this agent remains a viable systemically active antifungal agent...
  44. ncbi request reprint Activity of BMS284756 against 2,681 recent clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis: Report from The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2000) in Europe, Canada and the United States
    D J Biedenbach
    University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 39:245-50. 2001
    ..This novel desfluoro compound possesses promising activity against fastidious Gram-negative respiratory tract pathogens and further clinical development is underway...
  45. ncbi request reprint Antimicrobial resistance in viridans group streptococci among patients with and without the diagnosis of cancer in the USA, Canada and Latin America
    D J Diekema
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Clin Microbiol Infect 7:152-7. 2001
    ..To investigate antimicrobial resistance in viridans group streptococci (VGS) among patients with and without the diagnosis of cancer in the USA, Canada and Latin America...
  46. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study: a 6.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida and other yeast species to fluconazole and voriconazole by standardized disk diffusion testing
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:5848-59. 2005
    ....
  47. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. to caspofungin: four years of global surveillance
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology, Epidemiology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine and College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:760-3. 2006
    ..Our prospective sentinel surveillance reveals no evidence of emerging caspofungin resistance among invasive clinical isolates of Candida...
  48. pmc Correlation of MIC with outcome for Candida species tested against voriconazole: analysis and proposal for interpretive breakpoints
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:819-26. 2006
    ..The corresponding disk test breakpoints are as follows: S, > or = 17 mm; SDD, 14 to 16 mm; and R, < or = 13 mm...
  49. pmc In vitro survey of triazole cross-resistance among more than 700 clinical isolates of Aspergillus species
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2568-72. 2008
    ..fumigatus and A. flavus) were strongest between VOR and RAV MICs and ITR and POS MICs. However, Aspergillus species for which MICs of VOR or POS were >2 microg/ml remain extremely rare (<1% of isolates)...
  50. pmc Epidemiology of candidemia: 3-year results from the emerging infections and the epidemiology of Iowa organisms study
    D J Diekema
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1298-302. 2002
    ..However, C. glabrata has emerged as an important and potentially antifungal resistant cause of candidemia, particularly among the elderly...
  51. pmc Evaluation of Etest method for determining fluconazole and voriconazole MICs for 279 clinical isolates of Candida species infrequently isolated from blood
    M J Maxwell
    Departments of Pathology Medicine Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1087-90. 2003
    ..The Etest method using RPMI agar appears to be a useful method for determining fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities of uncommon species of Candida...
  52. pmc Selection of a surrogate agent (fluconazole or voriconazole) for initial susceptibility testing of posaconazole against Candida spp.: results from a global antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:551-9. 2008
    ..0% M) when results for Candida krusei (not indicated for fluconazole testing) were omitted. Either fluconazole or voriconazole MIC results may serve as surrogate markers to predict the susceptibility of Candida spp. to posaconazole...
  53. pmc Bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with bloodstream infection: frequencies of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns from the SENTRY antimicrobial surveillance program (United States and Canada, 1997)
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42:1762-70. 1998
    ..Antimicrobial resistance continues to increase, and ongoing surveillance of microbial pathogens and resistance profiles is essential on national and international scales...
  54. pmc Stability of Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with glucose and methylene blue for disk diffusion testing of fluconazole and voriconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:1288-9. 2004
    ..Prepared MH-GMB agar plates provide acceptable performance for disk diffusion testing for at least 30 days when stored at 5 degrees C...
  55. pmc Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for posaconazole and voriconazole and Candida spp. as determined by 24-hour CLSI broth microdilution
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242 1009, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 49:630-7. 2011
    ..The CBP is inadequate in detecting the emergence of voriconazole resistance among most Candida species encountered clinically. The CBPs for voriconazole should be reassessed, with consideration for development of species-specific CBPs...
  56. pmc Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: a 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida Species to fluconazole and voriconazole as determined by CLSI standardized disk diffusion
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:1366-77. 2010
    ..These organisms may pose a future threat to optimal antifungal therapy and underscore the importance of prompt and accurate species identification and antifungal susceptibility testing...
  57. pmc Wild-type MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for the echinocandins and Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 48:52-6. 2010
    ..9%) for C. guilliermondii. These WT MIC distributions and ECVs will be useful in surveillance for emerging reduced echinocandin susceptibility among Candida spp. and for determining the importance of various FKS1 or other mutations...
  58. pmc Correlation of MIC with outcome for Candida species tested against caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin: analysis and proposal for interpretive MIC breakpoints
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, 200 Hawkins Drive, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 1009, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2620-9. 2008
    ..Subsequently, the isolates should be submitted to a reference laboratory that will confirm the results by using a CLSI reference dilution method...
  59. pmc Identification of Candida dubliniensis based on temperature and utilization of xylose and alpha-methyl-D-glucoside as determined with the API 20C AUX and vitek YBC systems
    A C Gales
    Departments of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 37:3804-8. 1999
    ..dubliniensis. A negative MDG test result with either system would also be helpful but may misclassify C. albicans as C. dubliniensis, especially when the API 20C AUX system is used...
  60. pmc Variation in susceptibility of bloodstream isolates of Candida glabrata to fluconazole according to patient age and geographic location
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Medicine, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:2176-9. 2003
    ..S. Bureau of the Census). Isolates from pediatric patients were virtually all susceptible to fluconazole, whereas the highest frequency of resistance was observed in isolates from patients 16 to 64 years of age...
  61. pmc Effectiveness of anidulafungin in eradicating Candida species in invasive candidiasis
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, Roy J and A Carver College of Medicine, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:4795-7. 2005
    ..The anidulafungin MIC distribution showed that Candida albicans and C. glabrata were the most susceptible species and C. parapsilosis was the least susceptible species...
  62. pmc Postantifungal effects of echinocandin, azole, and polyene antifungal agents against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans
    E J Ernst
    College of Pharmacy, The University of Iowa, Department of Pathology, The University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:1108-11. 2000
    ..when tested at concentrations above the MIC for the organism and 0 to 2 h when tested at concentrations below the MIC for the organism...
  63. pmc Comparison of results of fluconazole disk diffusion testing for Candida species with results from a central reference laboratory in the ARTEMIS global antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicin and College of Public Health, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3607-12. 2004
    ....
  64. pmc In vitro activities of 5-fluorocytosine against 8,803 clinical isolates of Candida spp.: global assessment of primary resistance using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards susceptibility testing methods
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology Epidemiology Medicine, University of Iowa College of Medicine, and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3518-21. 2002
    ..5 to 4 h) and concentration-independent activity (optimized at 4x MIC), suggest that 5FC could be used in lower doses to reduce host toxicity while maintaining antifungal efficacy...
  65. pmc In vitro activities of ravuconazole and voriconazole compared with those of four approved systemic antifungal agents against 6,970 clinical isolates of Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1723-7. 2002
    ..krusei. These results provide further evidence for the spectrum and potency of ravuconazole and voriconazole against a large and geographically diverse collection of Candida spp...
  66. ncbi request reprint In vitro susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi: comparison of Etest and reference M38-A microdilution methods for determining posaconazole MICs
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 45:241-4. 2003
    ..The Etest method using RPMI agar appears to be a useful method for determining posaconazole susceptibilities of filamentous fungi...
  67. pmc In vitro susceptibility of invasive isolates of Candida spp. to anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin: six years of global surveillance
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:150-6. 2008
    ..Our prospective sentinel surveillance reveals no evidence of emerging echinocandin resistance among invasive clinical isolates of Candida spp...
  68. pmc Quality control and reference guidelines for CLSI broth microdilution method (M38-A document) for susceptibility testing of anidulafungin against molds
    A Espinel-Ingroff
    VCU Medical Center, 1101 E Marshall Street, Sanger Hall, Room 7 049, P O Box 980049, Richmond, VA 23298 0049, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2180-2. 2007
    ..apiospermum and 96.7 to 97.5% at 48 h (MICs, >or=32 microg/ml) for both Fusarium isolates. Introduction of these identified optimum testing conditions for anidulafungin into future versions of the M38 document is warranted...
  69. pmc Multicenter comparison of the VITEK 2 yeast susceptibility test with the CLSI broth microdilution reference method for testing fluconazole against Candida spp
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:796-802. 2007
    ..The VITEK 2 system reliably detected fluconazole resistance among Candida spp. and demonstrated excellent quantitative and qualitative agreement with the reference BMD method...
  70. pmc Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 20:133-63. 2007
    ..Further research to improve diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic strategies is necessary to reduce the considerable morbidity and mortality associated with IC...
  71. pmc In vivo pharmacodynamic characterization of anidulafungin in a neutropenic murine candidiasis model
    D Andes
    Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin Madison, WI 53792, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:539-50. 2008
    ..015 to 2.0 microg/ml) to determine if similar C(max)/MIC and AUC(0-24)/MIC ratios for these isolates were associated with efficacy. The anidulafungin exposures associated with efficacy were similar among Candida species...
  72. pmc Minimizing the workup of blood culture contaminants: implementation and evaluation of a laboratory-based algorithm
    S S Richter
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:2437-44. 2002
    ..6% of 71 isolates. The laboratory-based algorithm provided an acceptably accurate means for assessing the clinical significance of potential contaminants recovered from blood cultures...
  73. pmc Multicenter evaluation of a new disk agar diffusion method for susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi with voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin
    A Espinel-Ingroff
    Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23298 0049, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 45:1811-20. 2007
    ....
  74. pmc In vitro activities of voriconazole, posaconazole, and four licensed systemic antifungal agents against Candida species infrequently isolated from blood
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:78-83. 2003
    ..Continued surveillance will be necessary to detect the emergence of these species as more prevalent, resistant pathogens. The new triazoles appear to offer acceptable coverage of uncommon Candida sp. bloodstream infections...
  75. pmc Clinical evaluation of the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric antifungal panel for antifungal susceptibility testing of the echinocandins anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Medical Microbiology Division, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 46:2155-9. 2008
    ..The YeastOne colorimetric method appears to be comparable to the CLSI reference method for testing the susceptibility of Candida spp. to the echinocandins anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin...
  76. pmc Does one voriconazole breakpoint suit all Candida species?
    Maiken Cavling Arendrup
    J Clin Microbiol 45:2093; author reply 2094. 2007
  77. pmc In vitro susceptibilities of Candida dubliniensis isolates tested against the new triazole and echinocandin antifungal agents
    M A Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 37:870-2. 1999
    ..The increased potencies of the new triazole and echinocandin antifungal agents may provide effective therapeutic options for the treatment of infections due to C. dubliniensis...
  78. ncbi request reprint Antibacterial activity of 41 antimicrobials tested against over 2773 bacterial isolates from hospitalized patients with pneumonia: I--results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (North America, 1998)
    D Mathai
    University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 39:105-16. 2001
    ....
  79. pmc Determination of fungicidal activities against yeasts and molds: lessons learned from bactericidal testing and the need for standardization
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology and Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 17:268-80. 2004
    ..Proposed methods for fungal time-kill determinations and minimal fungicidal concentration determinations are also discussed...
  80. ncbi request reprint Comparison of Etest, chequerboard dilution and time-kill studies for the detection of synergy or antagonism between antifungal agents tested against Candida species
    R E Lewis
    Department of Clinical Sciences and Administration, University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Texas Medical Center, 1441 Moursund Street 423, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    J Antimicrob Chemother 49:345-51. 2002
    ..Of the three methods, Etest was the simplest to use and yielded reproducible results for testing antifungal combinations...
  81. pmc Antifungal activities of posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole compared to those of itraconazole and amphotericin B against 239 clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi: report from SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1032-7. 2002
    ..Surveillance efforts should be expanded in order to monitor the spectrum of filamentous fungal pathogens and their in vitro susceptibility as these new antifungal agents are introduced into clinical use...
  82. pmc Clinical evaluation of a frozen commercially prepared microdilution panel for antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents, including the new triazoles posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 40:1694-7. 2002
    ..The overall agreement for each antifungal agent ranged from 96% for ravuconazole to 100% for amphotericin B. The Trek microdilution panel appears to be a viable alternative to frozen microdilution panels prepared in-house...
  83. ncbi request reprint Emerging elevated mupirocin resistance rates among staphylococcal isolates in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2000): correlations of results from disk diffusion, Etest and reference dilution methods
    L M Deshpande
    The JONES Group JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 42:283-90. 2002
    ..Where more precise data are needed, the Etest is a very accurate method for distinguishing mupirocin low-level from high-level resistance patterns...
  84. pmc In vitro susceptibility testing of Aspergillus spp.: comparison of Etest and reference microdilution methods for determining voriconazole and itraconazole MICs
    J B Pfaller
    Departments of Pathology Medicine Epidemiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:1126-9. 2003
    ..The Etest method using RPMI agar appears to be a useful method for determining the voriconazole and itraconazole susceptibilities of Aspergillus spp...
  85. pmc Precision and accuracy of fluconazole susceptibility testing by broth microdilution, Etest, and disk diffusion methods
    A L Barry
    The Clinical Microbiology Institute, Wilsonville, Oregon 97070, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:1781-4. 2002
    ..With all procedures, determination of test results was particularly challenging with some strains, and new methods are needed in order to improve endpoint definition...
  86. pmc Characterization of heteroresistance to fluconazole among clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans
    T Yamazumi
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:267-72. 2003
    ..neoformans exists in a significant proportion of clinical isolates and that fluconazole resistance can be developed by selection from heteroresistant clones and induction by exposure to fluconazole...
  87. pmc Evaluation of Etest method for determining voriconazole and amphotericin B MICs for 162 clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans
    M J Maxwell
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 41:97-9. 2003
    ..The Etest method using RPG agar appears to be a useful method for determining the susceptibility of C. neoformans to voriconazole and amphotericin B...
  88. ncbi request reprint Age-related trends in pathogen frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of bloodstream isolates in North America: SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-2000
    D J Diekema
    Department of Pathology, Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, University of Iowa College of Medicine, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 20:412-8. 2002
    ..This information should be helpful for clinicians as they consider empirical antimicrobial therapy for patients with suspected BSI across the age continuum...
  89. ncbi request reprint The molecular epidemiology of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 1994-2000
    S S Richter
    Medical Microbiology Division, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:330-9. 2002
    ....
  90. pmc Geographic variation in the susceptibilities of invasive isolates of Candida glabrata to seven systemically active antifungal agents: a global assessment from the ARTEMIS Antifungal Surveillance Program conducted in 2001 and 2002
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Roy J and Lucille A Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:3142-6. 2004
    ..06 microg/ml) and flucytosine (MIC(90), 0.12 microg/ml) and exhibited variable cross-resistance to posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole...
  91. pmc Candida guilliermondii, an opportunistic fungal pathogen with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole: geographic and temporal trends from the ARTEMIS DISK antifungal surveillance program
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 44:3551-6. 2006
    ..5/1.0 microg/ml). C. guilliermondii, a species that exhibits reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, is the sixth most frequently isolated Candida species from this large survey and may be an emerging pathogen in Latin America...
  92. pmc Interpretive breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida revisited: a blueprint for the future of antifungal susceptibility testing
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, 52242, USA
    Clin Microbiol Rev 19:435-47. 2006
    ..S, MIC <or= 8 microg/ml; susceptible-dose dependent (SDD), MIC = 16 to 32 microg/ml; R, MIC >or= 64 microg/ml. The corresponding disk test breakpoints are as follows: S, >or=19 mm; SDD, 15 to 18 mm; R, <or=14 mm...
  93. ncbi request reprint Antifungal susceptibility testing methods
    M A Pfaller
    Molecular Epidemiology and Fungus Testing Laboratory, Section of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Carver College of Medicine, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IW 52242, USA
    Curr Drug Targets 6:929-43. 2005
    ..The ongoing efforts and international collaborations designed to address these issues will provide important information that will improve the management of serious fungal infections...
  94. pmc Clinical evaluation of the Sensititre YeastOne colorimetric antifungal plate for antifungal susceptibility testing of the new triazoles voriconazole, posaconazole, and ravuconazole
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine and College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4577-80. 2004
    ..0% with fluconazole. The YeastOne colorimetric method appears to be comparable to the NCCLS reference method for testing the susceptibility of Candida spp to the new triazoles voriconazole, posaconazole, and ravuconazole...
  95. pmc Comparison of visual 24-hour and spectrophotometric 48-hour MICs to CLSI reference microdilution MICs of fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole for Candida spp.: a collaborative study
    A Espinel-Ingroff
    VCU Medical Center, Richmond, VA 23298 0049, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:4535-40. 2005
    ....
  96. pmc International and multicenter comparison of EUCAST and CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution methods for testing susceptibilities of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole
    A Espinel-Ingroff
    VCU Medical Center, Medical Mycology Research Laboratory, 1101 E Marshall St, Sanger Hall Room 7049, P O Box 980049, Richmond, VA 23298 0049, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:3884-9. 2005
    ..008 to 1 microg/ml versus 1 to > or =8 microg/ml) for some of these isolates. Therefore, the CLSI breakpoints should not be used to interpret EUCAST MIC data...
  97. pmc Global trends in the antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans (1990 to 2004)
    M A Pfaller
    Medical Microbiology Division, C606 GH, Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:2163-7. 2005
    ..We conclude that in vitro resistance to antifungal agents used in the treatment of cryptococcosis remains uncommon among isolates of C. neoformans from five broad geographic regions and has not increased over a 15-year period...
  98. pmc Activities of available and investigational antifungal agents against rhodotorula species
    D J Diekema
    Department of Internal Medicine, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 43:476-8. 2005
    ..12 microg/ml) are both active in vitro, and the new and investigational triazoles all have some in vitro activity, with ravuconazole being the most active (MIC(50), 0.25 microg/ml)...
  99. ncbi request reprint In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing
    H L Hoffman
    College of Pharmacy, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242, USA
    Pharmacotherapy 21:111S-123S. 2001
    ..Modifications to the methods and alternative approaches have been proposed to make these tests more convenient and efficient, applicable to a greater number of species, and appropriate for performing in the clinical laboratory...
  100. pmc Rare and emerging opportunistic fungal pathogens: concern for resistance beyond Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus
    M A Pfaller
    Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 42:4419-31. 2004
  101. ncbi request reprint Antifungal susceptibility of South African oral yeast isolates from HIV/AIDS patients and healthy individuals
    E Blignaut
    Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 44:169-74. 2002
    ..This study provides important baseline data as the isolates were collected prior to fluconazole being made freely available to HIV/AIDS patients attending government health clinics...