Dee Fenner

Summary

Affiliation: University of Michigan
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Training of a gynecologic surgeon
    Dee E Fenner
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Women s Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 105:193-6. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Anal incontinence: relationship to pregnancy, vaginal delivery, and cesarean section
    Dee Fenner
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, L4000 Women s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Semin Perinatol 30:261-6. 2006
  3. ncbi request reprint Fecal and urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery with anal sphincter disruption in an obstetrics unit in the United States
    Dee E Fenner
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:1543-9; discussion 1549-50. 2003
  4. pmc Pelvic floor consequences of cesarean delivery on maternal request in women with a single birth: a cost-effectiveness analysis
    Xiao Xu
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 19:147-60. 2010
  5. pmc Outcomes following vaginal prolapse repair and mid urethral sling (OPUS) trial--design and methods
    John Wei
    Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Clin Trials 6:162-71. 2009
  6. pmc Distribution of pelvic organ support measures in a population-based sample of middle-aged, community-dwelling African American and white women in southeastern Michigan
    Elisa R Trowbridge
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:548.e1-6. 2008
  7. pmc The association of Incontinence Symptom Index scores with urethral function and support
    Christina Lewicky-Gaupp
    Pelvic Floor Research Group, Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 199:680.e1-5. 2008
  8. doi request reprint How well are we training residents in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery?
    Kimberly Kenton
    Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:567.e1-4. 2008
  9. pmc Retropubic versus transobturator midurethral slings for stress incontinence
    Holly E Richter
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1700 6th Ave South, Suite 10382, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:2066-76. 2010
  10. ncbi request reprint Complications requiring reoperation following vaginal mesh kit procedures for prolapse
    Rebecca U Margulies
    Pelvic Floor Research Group and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 199:678.e1-4. 2008

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. ncbi request reprint Training of a gynecologic surgeon
    Dee E Fenner
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Women s Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 105:193-6. 2005
  2. ncbi request reprint Anal incontinence: relationship to pregnancy, vaginal delivery, and cesarean section
    Dee Fenner
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Dr, L4000 Women s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Semin Perinatol 30:261-6. 2006
    ..To review the current literature concerning anal incontinence (AI), pregnancy, and route of delivery...
  3. ncbi request reprint Fecal and urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery with anal sphincter disruption in an obstetrics unit in the United States
    Dee E Fenner
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:1543-9; discussion 1549-50. 2003
    ....
  4. pmc Pelvic floor consequences of cesarean delivery on maternal request in women with a single birth: a cost-effectiveness analysis
    Xiao Xu
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    J Womens Health (Larchmt) 19:147-60. 2010
    ....
  5. pmc Outcomes following vaginal prolapse repair and mid urethral sling (OPUS) trial--design and methods
    John Wei
    Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Clin Trials 6:162-71. 2009
    ....
  6. pmc Distribution of pelvic organ support measures in a population-based sample of middle-aged, community-dwelling African American and white women in southeastern Michigan
    Elisa R Trowbridge
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:548.e1-6. 2008
    ....
  7. pmc The association of Incontinence Symptom Index scores with urethral function and support
    Christina Lewicky-Gaupp
    Pelvic Floor Research Group, Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 199:680.e1-5. 2008
    ..The objective of this study was to establish categories of symptom severity based on Incontinence Symptom Index (ISI) scores and to show how these categories are associated with urethral function and support...
  8. doi request reprint How well are we training residents in female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery?
    Kimberly Kenton
    Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 198:567.e1-4. 2008
    ....
  9. pmc Retropubic versus transobturator midurethral slings for stress incontinence
    Holly E Richter
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1700 6th Ave South, Suite 10382, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA
    N Engl J Med 362:2066-76. 2010
    ..Midurethral slings are increasingly used for the treatment of stress incontinence, but there are limited data comparing types of slings and associated complications...
  10. ncbi request reprint Complications requiring reoperation following vaginal mesh kit procedures for prolapse
    Rebecca U Margulies
    Pelvic Floor Research Group and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 199:678.e1-4. 2008
    ..The objective of the study was to the characterize the symptoms and management of vaginal mesh-related complications requiring operative intervention...
  11. pmc Anal sphincter structure and function relationships in aging and fecal incontinence
    Christina Lewicky-Gaupp
    Pelvic Floor Research Group, Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 200:559.e1-5. 2009
    ..The objective of the study was to determine the effect of aging and continence status on the structure and function of the external (EAS) and internal (IAS) anal sphincters..
  12. ncbi request reprint Are persistent or recurrent symptoms of urinary incontinence after surgery associated with adverse effects on sexual activity or function?
    Daniel M Morgan
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women s Hospital L4000, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 19:509-15. 2008
    ..42, p < 0.001). The severity of postoperative recurrent or persistent UI is associated with a lower probability of being sexually active and an adverse effect on sexual function...
  13. ncbi request reprint Practicalities and pitfalls of pessaries in older women
    Elisa Rodriguez Trowbridge
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0276, USA
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 50:709-19. 2007
    ..Although there are some downsides in using pessaries in clinical practice, many of these pitfalls can be appropriately addressed with education and training of clinician and patients...
  14. pmc Stress urinary incontinence: relative importance of urethral support and urethral closure pressure
    John O L Delancey
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pelvic Floor Research Group, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    J Urol 179:2286-90; discussion 2290. 2008
    ..To our knowledge the relative importance of these 2 factors has not been assessed in properly controlled studies...
  15. pmc Symptoms of anal incontinence and difficult defecation among women with prolapse and a matched control cohort
    Daniel M Morgan
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0276, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 197:509.e1-6. 2007
    ....
  16. doi request reprint The accuracy of predicting parity as a prerequisite for cesarean delivery on maternal request
    Kristie Keeton
    Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 112:285-9. 2008
    ..We sought to estimate the accuracy with which women were able to predict their final parity...
  17. pmc Differences in continence system between community-dwelling black and white women with and without urinary incontinence in the EPI study
    John O L Delancey
    Pelvic Floor Research Group, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 202:584.e1-584.e12. 2010
    ..We sought to compare continence system function of black and white women in a population-based sample...
  18. ncbi request reprint Multiple perineal abscesses and sinus tracts as a complication of vaginal mesh
    Christina Lewicky-Gaupp
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology, Pelvic Floor Research Group, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 20:1137-9. 2009
    ..The posterior mesh was completely excised, the tracts were opened, and the wound was packed and allowed to heal by secondary intention...
  19. pmc Self-perceived natural history of pelvic organ prolapse described by women presenting for treatment
    Christina Lewicky-Gaupp
    Pelvic Floor Research Group, Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 20:927-31. 2009
    ..This study aimed to describe the self-perceived natural history of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in women seeking care...
  20. pmc Fecal incontinence in pregnancy and post partum
    Cynthia Brincat
    Pelvic Floor Research Group, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Int J Gynaecol Obstet 106:236-8. 2009
    ..To assess the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) during pregnancy and post partum, and to determine any associations with demographic and birth variables...
  21. pmc Levator ani defect status and lower urinary tract symptoms in women with pelvic organ prolapse
    Daniel M Morgan
    Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Int Urogynecol J 21:47-52. 2010
    ..Among women with pelvic organ prolapse, compare rates of lower urinary tract symptoms by levator ani defect (LAD) status...
  22. doi request reprint Anterior vaginal wall prolapse: assessment and treatment
    Cynthia A Brincat
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 53:51-8. 2010
    ..We also review outcomes of various surgical approaches and discuss why the anterior vaginal wall presents such a challenge...
  23. ncbi request reprint Predictors of physician career satisfaction, work-life balance, and burnout
    Kristie Keeton
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, and Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Center for Practice Management and Outcomes Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System 48109 0264, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 109:949-55. 2007
    ..To explore factors associated with physician career satisfaction, work-life balance, and burnout focusing on differences across age, gender, and specialty...
  24. pmc Comparison of the main body of the external anal sphincter muscle cross-sectional area between women with and without prolapse
    Yvonne Hsu
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, L4100 Women s Hospital 1500 E Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0276, USA
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 18:1303-8. 2007
    ..However, women with both prolapse and a major levator ani defect had larger external anal sphincter CSAs compared to prolapse patients without levator ani defects...
  25. ncbi request reprint Avoiding pitfalls: lessons in surgical teaching
    Dee E Fenner
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Hospital, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, L4000 Women s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0999, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 33:333-42, x. 2006
    ..While in the operating room, the attending physician must constantly direct, critique, and actively teach...
  26. ncbi request reprint Does vaginal closure force differ in the supine and standing positions?
    Daniel M Morgan
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pelvic Floor Research Group, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 192:1722-8. 2005
    ....
  27. pmc Self-report of difficult defecation is associated with overactive bladder symptoms
    Anne Cameron
    Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 5330, USA
    Neurourol Urodyn 29:1290-4. 2010
    ..It was our objective to assess lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in women who report difficult defecation (DD)...
  28. ncbi request reprint Conservative management of pelvic organ prolapse
    Elisa Rodriguez Trowbridge
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Clin Obstet Gynecol 48:668-81. 2005
  29. ncbi request reprint Posterior vaginal wall defects and their relation to measures of pelvic floor neuromuscular function and posterior compartment symptoms
    Michael F Fialkow
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 187:1443-8; discussion 1448-9. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to describe the pelvic floor neuromuscular function and posterior compartment symptoms in patients with posterior vaginal wall prolapse...
  30. ncbi request reprint Comparison of levator ani muscle defects and function in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse
    John O L Delancey
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Institute of Gerontology, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 109:295-302. 2007
    ..To compare levator ani defects and pelvic floor function among women with prolapse and controls...
  31. doi request reprint Successful physical therapy for constipation related to puborectalis dyssynergia improves symptom severity and quality of life
    Christina Lewicky-Gaupp
    Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0276, USA
    Dis Colon Rectum 51:1686-91. 2008
    ..This study evaluated symptom severity and quality of life in patients with puborectalis dyssynergia before and after physical therapy...
  32. ncbi request reprint Effects of aging on lower urinary tract and pelvic floor function in nulliparous women
    Elisa Rodriguez Trowbridge
    Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 109:715-20. 2007
    ..To evaluate the effects of aging, independent of parity, on pelvic organ and urethral support, urethral function, and levator function in a sample of nulliparous women...
  33. pmc Magnetic resonance imaging and 3-dimensional analysis of external anal sphincter anatomy
    Yvonne Hsu
    Pelvic Floor Research Group, Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0276, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 106:1259-65. 2005
    ....
  34. pmc Perineal body anatomy in living women: 3-dimensional analysis using thin-slice magnetic resonance imaging
    Kindra A Larson
    Pelvic Floor Research Group and Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 203:494.e15-21. 2010
    ..The objective of the study was to describe a framework for visualizing the perineal body's complex anatomy using thin-slice magnetic resonance (MR) imaging...
  35. pmc Racial differences in bother for women with urinary incontinence in the Establishing the Prevalence of Incontinence (EPI) study
    Christina Lewicky-Gaupp
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 201:510.e1-6. 2009
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare differences in degree of bother in black and white women with urinary incontinence (UI)...
  36. ncbi request reprint The impact of medical legal risk on obstetrician-gynecologist supply
    Pamela Robinson
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 105:1296-302. 2005
    ..To evaluate the effects of medical legal risk on practice location of obstetrician-gynecologists...
  37. pmc Prevalence of symptomatic pelvic floor disorders in US women
    Ingrid Nygaard
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Utah School of Medicine, 30 N 1900 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 2209, USA
    JAMA 300:1311-6. 2008
    ..No national prevalence estimates derived from the same population-based sample exists for multiple pelvic floor disorders in women in the United States...
  38. pmc Mixed incontinence: comparing definitions in women having stress incontinence surgery
    Linda Brubaker
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois 60153, USA
    Neurourol Urodyn 28:268-73. 2009
    ..To develop an empirically derived definition of mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) for use in incontinence outcomes research...
  39. ncbi request reprint Surgical skills assessment: a blinded examination of obstetrics and gynecology residents
    Barbara A Goff
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, 98195 6460, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 186:613-7. 2002
    ..Our goal was to establish the feasibility, reliability, and validity of our surgical skills assessment instrument when administered in a blinded fashion...
  40. pmc Age effects on internal anal sphincter thickness and diameter in nulliparous females
    Markus Huebner
    Pelvic Floor Research Group, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0276, USA
    Dis Colon Rectum 50:1405-11. 2007
    ..This study compares the effect of aging on the internal anal sphincter thickness and diameter in younger and older nulliparous females without symptoms of fecal incontinence undisturbed by an endoanal probe...
  41. pmc Structural position of the posterior vagina and pelvic floor in women with and without posterior vaginal prolapse
    Christina Lewicky-Gaupp
    Pelvic Floor Research Group, Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 202:497.e1-6. 2010
    ..The objective of the study was to compare pelvic structure location on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during maximal Valsalva among women with posterior prolapse and those with normal support...
  42. pmc Establishing the prevalence of incontinence study: racial differences in women's patterns of urinary incontinence
    Dee E Fenner
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    J Urol 179:1455-60. 2008
    ..We examine racial differences in urinary incontinence prevalence, frequency, quantity, type, and risk factors in a population based sample of community dwelling black and white women...
  43. ncbi request reprint Sexual function, quality of life, and severity of anal incontinence after anal sphincteroplasty
    Elisa R Trowbridge
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:1753-7. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the severity of anal incontinence and its impact on quality of life and sexual function in women after anal sphincteroplasty...
  44. ncbi request reprint Comparative analysis of urinary incontinence severity after autologous fascia pubovaginal sling, pubovaginal sling and tension-free vaginal tape
    Daniel M Morgan
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 0759, USA
    J Urol 177:604-8; discussion 608-9. 2007
    ..We explored the relative effectiveness of the autologous fascia pubovaginal sling, Pelvicol pubovaginal sling and Gynecare TVT on self-reported postoperative urinary incontinence...
  45. ncbi request reprint Fecal incontinence in US women: a population-based study
    Jennifer L Melville
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 193:2071-6. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) and associated risk factors in a broad age range of community-dwelling women...
  46. ncbi request reprint Evaluation and treatment of women with rectocele: focus on associated defecatory and sexual dysfunction
    Geoffrey W Cundiff
    Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland and University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 104:1403-21. 2004
    ..The success, rationale, and complications of each approach, including anatomic cure, impact on defecation, and sexual function, are presented...
  47. ncbi request reprint Postpartum depression, urge urinary incontinence, and overactive bladder syndrome: is there an association?
    Kathie L Hullfish
    University of Virginia Health System, 1215 Lee Street, Charlottesville, VA 22908, and Women s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 0276, USA
    Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 18:1121-6. 2007
    ..Because birth is a predictable event, further studies evaluating the causal relationships and physiologic changes linking depression and incontinence can be studied using this model...
  48. ncbi request reprint The obstetrics and gynecology clerkship: building a better model from past experience
    William M Burke
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Health Center, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 191:1772-6. 2004
    ..The study was undertaken to identify factors contributing to the poor student perception of the obstetrics and gynecology clerkship...
  49. ncbi request reprint Prevalence of comorbid psychiatric illness and its impact on symptom perception, quality of life, and functional status in women with urinary incontinence
    Jennifer L Melville
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington Medical Center, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, 98195 6460, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 187:80-7. 2002
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and impact of major depression and panic disorder in women with urinary incontinence...
  50. pmc Fecal incontinence in older women: are levator ani defects a factor?
    Christina Lewicky-Gaupp
    Division of Gynecology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pelvic Floor Research Group, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 202:491.e1-6. 2010
    ..We sought to compare pelvic floor structure and function between older women with and without fecal incontinence (FI) and young continent (YC) women...
  51. ncbi request reprint Relationship between patient report and physician assessment of urinary incontinence severity
    Jennifer L Melville
    Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington Medical Center, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington 98195 6460, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:76-80. 2003
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between patient report and physician assessment of urinary incontinence severity and to compare these assessments to a validated severity instrument...
  52. ncbi request reprint Three-dimensional reconstruction of magnetic resonance images of the anal sphincter and correlation between sphincter volume and pressure
    Jeffrey L Cornella
    Mayo Graduate School of Medicine, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 189:130-5. 2003
    ..The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between internal and external anal sphincter volumes and manometric anal pressures...
  53. ncbi request reprint Current diagnosis and treatment algorithms for anal incontinence
    Rebecca G Rogers
    Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA
    BJU Int 98:97-106; discussion 107-9. 2006