Rafael S Andrade

Summary

Affiliation: University of Minnesota
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Endobronchial ultrasonography versus mediastinoscopy: a single-institution cost analysis and waste comparison
    Rafael S Andrade
    Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota Electronic address
    Ann Thorac Surg 98:1003-7. 2014
  2. doi request reprint Evaluation of isolated rib lesions with radionuclide-guided biopsy
    Rafael S Andrade
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 86:1111-4. 2008
  3. doi request reprint Thoracoscopic lobectomy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer
    Rafael S Andrade
    Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 22:14-21. 2010
  4. doi request reprint Relevance of endobronchial ultrasonography to thoracic surgeons
    Rafael S Andrade
    Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 22:150-4. 2010
  5. doi request reprint Evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes with endobronchial ultrasound: the thoracic surgeon's perspective
    Rafael S Andrade
    Department of Surgery, Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, MMC 207, 420 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 139:578-82; discussion 582-3. 2010
  6. doi request reprint Surgical treatment of lung cancer: predicting postoperative morbidity in the elderly population
    Natasha M Rueth
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 143:1314-23. 2012
  7. doi request reprint Thoracoscopic versus thoracotomy approaches to lobectomy: differential impairment of cellular immunity
    Bryan A Whitson
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 86:1735-44. 2008
  8. doi request reprint Invasive adenocarcinoma with bronchoalveolar features: a population-based evaluation of the extent of resection in bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma
    Bryan A Whitson
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 143:591-600.e1. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes: a single institution's early learning curve
    Shawn S Groth
    Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 86:1104-9; discussion 1109-10. 2008
  10. doi request reprint T1/T2 non-small-cell lung cancer treated by lobectomy: does tumor anatomic location matter?
    Bryan A Whitson
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    J Surg Res 177:185-90. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications45

  1. doi request reprint Endobronchial ultrasonography versus mediastinoscopy: a single-institution cost analysis and waste comparison
    Rafael S Andrade
    Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota Electronic address
    Ann Thorac Surg 98:1003-7. 2014
    ..We performed a cost and waste comparison of MED versus EBUS-TBNA for MLNS to raise awareness of the financial and environmental implications of our practices...
  2. doi request reprint Evaluation of isolated rib lesions with radionuclide-guided biopsy
    Rafael S Andrade
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 86:1111-4. 2008
    ..The purpose of our study was to assess the diagnostic value of radionuclide-guided rib biopsy with an intraoperative gamma probe...
  3. doi request reprint Thoracoscopic lobectomy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer
    Rafael S Andrade
    Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 22:14-21. 2010
    ..Furthermore, all data to date strongly suggest oncological equivalence between VATS and open lobectomy for patients with early-stage NSCLC...
  4. doi request reprint Relevance of endobronchial ultrasonography to thoracic surgeons
    Rafael S Andrade
    Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 22:150-4. 2010
    ..EBUS is an excellent diagnostic tool available to thoracic surgeons to optimize patient care and an example of a skill that may enhance our survival as a surgical specialty...
  5. doi request reprint Evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes with endobronchial ultrasound: the thoracic surgeon's perspective
    Rafael S Andrade
    Department of Surgery, Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, MMC 207, 420 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 139:578-82; discussion 582-3. 2010
    ....
  6. doi request reprint Surgical treatment of lung cancer: predicting postoperative morbidity in the elderly population
    Natasha M Rueth
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 143:1314-23. 2012
    ..With population data, we analyzed postoperative complications and morbidity predictors for older patients undergoing lobectomy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer...
  7. doi request reprint Thoracoscopic versus thoracotomy approaches to lobectomy: differential impairment of cellular immunity
    Bryan A Whitson
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 86:1735-44. 2008
    ..Specifically, we assessed the cytotoxic capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients undergoing lobectomy for non-small-cell lung cancer by either VATS or thoracotomy...
  8. doi request reprint Invasive adenocarcinoma with bronchoalveolar features: a population-based evaluation of the extent of resection in bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma
    Bryan A Whitson
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 143:591-600.e1. 2012
    ..We used a population-based data set to assess the association between the extent of pulmonary resection for bronchoalveolar carcinoma and survival. The reports thus far have been limited to small, institutional series...
  9. doi request reprint Endobronchial ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes: a single institution's early learning curve
    Shawn S Groth
    Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 86:1104-9; discussion 1109-10. 2008
    ..We report our initial experience with this procedure...
  10. doi request reprint T1/T2 non-small-cell lung cancer treated by lobectomy: does tumor anatomic location matter?
    Bryan A Whitson
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    J Surg Res 177:185-90. 2012
    ..Current data are limited to a retrospective single-institution series. We sought to determine if tumor anatomic location (i.e., the particular lobe that was involved) confers a survival advantage based on population-based data...
  11. doi request reprint Primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and thoracoscopic sympathectomy: a new objective assessment method
    Hassan A Tetteh
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 87:267-74; discussion 274-5. 2009
    ..This study was conducted to establish an objective approach to evaluate symptoms and sweat production in patients with primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis (PPH) and assess their response to bilateral thoracoscopic sympathectomy (BTS)...
  12. doi request reprint Laparoscopic diaphragmatic plication for diaphragmatic paralysis and eventration: an objective evaluation of short-term and midterm results
    Shawn S Groth
    Department of Surgery, Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 139:1452-6. 2010
    ..We sought to objectively assess our outcomes after laparoscopic diaphragmatic plication for symptomatic hemidiaphragmatic paralysis or eventration using a respiratory quality-of-life questionnaire and pulmonary function tests...
  13. doi request reprint Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for mediastinal lymph node staging in non-small cell lung cancer
    Shawn S Groth
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 20:274-8. 2008
    ..e., mediastinoscopy or thoracoscopy) is required to confirm negative cytology findings, especially after induction therapy. Additionally, an experienced cytopathologist is critical to establishing an effective EBUS-TBNA program...
  14. doi request reprint Survival after lobectomy versus segmentectomy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer: a population-based analysis
    Bryan A Whitson
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 92:1943-50. 2011
    ..We sought to determine if lobectomy offers a survival advantage over segmentectomy for stage I NSCLC based on population-based data...
  15. doi request reprint Extension of survival by resection of asynchronous renal cell carcinoma metastases to mediastinal lymph nodes
    Bryan A Whitson
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 135:1022-8. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether or not resection of isolated mediastinal lymph node renal cell carcinoma metastases confers a survival advantage, as compared with patients with stage IV disease...
  16. doi request reprint The long-term impact of surgical complications after resection of stage I nonsmall cell lung cancer: a population-based survival analysis
    Natasha M Rueth
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Ann Surg 254:368-74. 2011
    ..Because resection of early stage nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is primary therapy, we sought to determine the survival impact of surgical complications for elderly patients undergoing resection of stage I NSCLC...
  17. doi request reprint Conditional cancer-specific versus cardiovascular-specific survival after lobectomy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer
    Shawn S Groth
    Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 90:375-82. 2010
    ..There may be a point during follow-up when patients who undergo lobectomy for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are as likely to die of cardiovascular disease as of cancer...
  18. doi request reprint Esophageal stenting and radiotherapy: a multimodal approach for the palliation of symptomatic malignant dysphagia
    Natasha M Rueth
    Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Ann Surg Oncol 19:4223-8. 2012
    ..Esophageal stents provide immediate palliation of malignant dysphagia; however, radiotherapy (RT) is a superior long-term option. We review the outcomes of combined esophageal stenting and RT for patients with malignant dysphagia...
  19. doi request reprint Giant paraesophageal hernia repair: technical pearls
    Mara B Antonoff
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 144:S67-70. 2012
    ..We believe that diligence paid toward these key steps permits laparoscopic giant paraesophageal hiatal hernia repair to be performed with similar outcomes as the open approach while avoiding the morbidity of thoracotomy or laparotomy...
  20. ncbi request reprint Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is more favorable than thoracotomy for resection of clinical stage I non-small cell lung cancer
    Bryan A Whitson
    Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 83:1965-70. 2007
    ..We compared the operative characteristics and postoperative course for patients with clinical stage I NSCLC who underwent lobectomy by VATS or thoracotomy...
  21. pmc Intrabronchial Valve Treatment for Prolonged Air Leak: Can We Justify the Cost?
    Eitan Podgaetz
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, MMC 207, 420 Delaware Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Can Respir J 2016:2867547. 2016
    ..Conclusion. In our limited experience, the use of IBV to treat prolonged air leaks is safe and appears cost-effective. In pure financial terms, the cost seems justified for any air leak predicted to last greater than 8 days. ..
  22. doi request reprint Esophageal stents for anastomotic leaks and perforations
    Jonathan D'Cunha
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 142:39-46.e1. 2011
    ..Our objective was to report our experience with esophageal stent placement for anastomotic leaks and perforations and to provide a treatment algorithm...
  23. doi request reprint Is VATS lobectomy better: perioperatively, biologically and oncologically?
    Natasha M Rueth
    Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 89:S2107-11. 2010
    ..Because a large, prospective, randomized, multiinstitutional trial of open versus VATS lobectomy will likely never take place, we are dependent on the summarized information to draw practical conclusions...
  24. doi request reprint Endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration: a must for thoracic surgeons
    Shawn S Groth
    Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 89:S2079-83. 2010
    ..Therefore, we recommend that nonmalignant EBUS or EUS cytologic findings should be confirmed with a surgical MLN biopsy (ie, mediastinoscopy or thoracoscopy) if the pretest probability of malignancy is high...
  25. doi request reprint Pharyngostomy tubes for gastric conduit decompression
    Natasha M Rueth
    Department of Surgery, Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 140:373-6. 2010
    ..This article illustrates our operative technique for pharyngostomy tube placement and describes our clinical experience with pharyngostomy use for gastric conduit decompression after esophagectomy...
  26. doi request reprint Diaphragmatic hernias after sequential left ventricular assist device explantation and orthotopic heart transplant: early results of laparoscopic repair with polytetrafluoroethylene
    Shawn S Groth
    University of Minnesota Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Minneapolis, Minn 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 135:38-43. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of these hernias and to evaluate the morbidity and short-term efficacy of laparoscopic repair...
  27. doi request reprint Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration: the University of Minnesota experience, with emphasis on usefulness, adequacy assessment, and diagnostic difficulties
    Mariam Alsharif
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Am J Clin Pathol 130:434-43. 2008
    ..For pathologists, this was a relatively time-consuming procedure. Recognizing bronchial contamination, especially with metaplastic or dysplastic cells, is important for avoiding diagnostic pitfalls...
  28. doi request reprint Serratus anterior transposition muscle flaps for bronchial coverage: technique and functional outcomes
    Shawn S Groth
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 88:2044-6. 2009
    ..Our surgical technique is described, and our outcomes are discussed. Serratus anterior transposition muscle flaps can be performed with minimal morbidity and minimal impairment of upper extremity function...
  29. doi request reprint Use of linear EBUS in work-up of a pulmonary nodule
    H Erhan Dincer
    Divisions of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 20:278-80. 2013
    ..Linear EBUS was chosen as a diagnostic approach and the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer was made without any complications. This case highlights the potential use of linear EBUS in centrally located pulmonary nodules or masses. ..
  30. pmc Thoracoscopic thymectomy: technical pearls to a 21st century approach
    Bryan A Whitson
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, USA
    J Thorac Dis 5:129-34. 2013
    ..Indications for the thoracoscopic approach are evolving. We reviewed our experience in the transition from sternotomy to thoracoscopy and have gleaned technical points to aid in performing thymectomy...
  31. ncbi request reprint Thoracoscopic lingulectomy for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
    Bryan A Whitson
    Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Am Surg 73:279-80. 2007
    ..Video-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy can be safely performed for localized IPA...
  32. doi request reprint Diaphragmatic eventration
    Shawn S Groth
    Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, MMC 207, 420 Delaware Street, SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Thorac Surg Clin 19:511-9. 2009
    ..Patients who are asymptomatic require no treatment; patients who are symptomatic benefit significantly from diaphragm plication. The choice of plication approach is dependent upon the expertise of the surgeon...
  33. ncbi request reprint Evolution of clipping for thoracoscopic sympathectomy in symptomatic hyperhidrosis
    Bryan A Whitson
    Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Department of Surgery and Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 17:287-90. 2007
    ..Severe hyperhidrosis is treated by thoracic sympathetic chain interrupting through chain transection or clipping. Our study compared the efficacy of these 2 methods...
  34. ncbi request reprint Initial experience with a dual-anchor stent for anastomotic strictures after oesophagectomy
    Eitan Podgaetz
    Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg . 2016
    ..Traditional management includes serial dilations. We report our initial experience with the use of a dual-anchor, lumen-apposing endoluminal stent for the management of recurrent anastomotic strictures after oesophagectomy...
  35. doi request reprint Endobronchial Treatment of Bronchopleural Fistulas by Using Intrabronchial Valve System: A Case Series
    Eitan Podgaetz
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota Electronic address
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 27:218-22. 2015
    ..In conclusion, the use of IBVs for prolonged air leaks in various etiologies is effective and safe. ..
  36. doi request reprint Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: Part II. Treatment
    H Erhan Dincer
    Divisions of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN
    J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 22:351-6. 2015
    ..In this part, we aim to discuss the treatment options in pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors except for small-cell lung cancer. ..
  37. doi request reprint Cryotechnology in diagnosing and treating lung diseases
    Rade Tomic
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN
    J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 22:76-84. 2015
    ..Cryoprobes can also be used to extract foreign bodies from the airways by causing cryoadhesion. We aim to summarize the therapeutic and diagnostic application of cryotechnology in pulmonary diseases. ..
  38. doi request reprint Giant hiatal hernia
    Mohi O Mitiek
    Department of Surgery, Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 89:S2168-73. 2010
    ..Recurrence rates for open giant HH repairs in expert hands range between 2% and 12%; large series have demonstrated that meticulous laparoscopic surgical technique can emulate the results of open giant HH repair...
  39. ncbi request reprint Short- and long-term outcomes after large pulmonary resection for germ cell tumors after bleomycin-combination chemotherapy
    Rafael S Andrade
    Department of Surgery, Thoracic Division, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 78:1224-8; discussion 1228-9. 2004
    ..We undertook an institutional review to determine the outcome of large pulmonary resections after bleomycin-combination chemotherapy...
  40. doi request reprint Best Approach and Benefit of Plication for Paralyzed Diaphragm
    Eitan Podgaetz
    Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street Southeast, MMC 207, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA Electronic address
    Thorac Surg Clin 26:333-46. 2016
    ..We prefer the laparoscopic approach, due to its easy access to the diaphragm and to avoid pain associated with intercostal incisions and instrument use. Short-term and long-term results are excellent with this technique. ..
  41. ncbi request reprint Laparoscopic transdiaphragmatic thymectomy without chest incisions
    Nkem Aziken
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg . 2016
    ..No intraoperative complications, parathyroid hormone essay normalized and the patient was discharged home on the second day. Laparoscopic transdiaphragmatic thymectomy seems feasible and safe. Further studies are needed...
  42. doi request reprint Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors: Part I. Spectrum and Characteristics of Tumors
    Huseyin Erhan Dincer
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN
    J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol 22:267-73. 2015
    ..In this article, we aim to describe the spectrum of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung, except for small cell lung cancer, and their clinical, pathologic, and imaging findings, with a focus on treatment options. ..
  43. doi request reprint Ewing sarcoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the esophagus: report of a case and review of literature
    Andrew D Johnson
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
    Int J Surg Pathol 18:388-93. 2010
    ..Genetic analysis is crucial to establish the diagnosis and can be successfully performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material and hematopoietic tissue...
  44. ncbi request reprint Wedge gastroplasty and reinforced crural repair: important components of laparoscopic giant or recurrent hiatal hernia repair
    Bryan A Whitson
    Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn 55455, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 132:1196-1202.e3. 2006
    ....
  45. doi request reprint Diaphragm plication for eventration or paralysis: a review of the literature
    Shawn S Groth
    Department of Surgery, Division of General Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 89:S2146-50. 2010
    ..This review focuses on the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of diaphragmatic eventration or paralysis in adults...