Gary Williams

Summary

Affiliation: New York Medical College
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Lack of DNA binding in the rat nasal mucosa and other tissues of the nasal toxicants roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, and a metabolite, 4-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine, in contrast to the nasal carcinogen 2,6-dimethylaniline
    Alan M Jeffrey
    New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Drug Chem Toxicol 25:93-107. 2002
  2. doi request reprint GRAS determination scientific procedures and possible alternatives
    Gary M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, 40Sunshine Cottage Road, BSB 413, Valhalla, NY, 10595, USA Electronic address
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 79:S105-11. 2016
  3. doi request reprint Sex differences in DNA damage produced by the carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene in cultured human hepatocytes compared to rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes
    Gary M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 10595, USA
    Arch Toxicol 90:427-32. 2016
  4. pmc Chicken fetal liver DNA damage and adduct formation by activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and related compounds of several structural classes
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Chemical Safety Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Valhalla, New York 10595
    Toxicol Sci 141:18-28. 2014
  5. doi request reprint Relationship of cellular topoisomerase IIα inhibition to cytotoxicity and published genotoxicity of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in V79 cells
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 203:386-90. 2013
  6. doi request reprint Methyleugenol hepatocellular cancer initiating effects in rat liver
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 53:187-96. 2013
  7. ncbi request reprint Mechanistic basis for nonlinearities and thresholds in rat liver carcinogenesis by the DNA-reactive carcinogens 2-acetylaminofluorene and diethylnitrosamine
    G M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla 10595, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 28:388-95. 2000
  8. doi request reprint Antitumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy and potential cancer inhibition
    Gary M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Eur J Cancer Prev 17:169-77. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint Inhibition by acetaminophen of neoplastic initiation elicited in rat liver by the DNA-reactive hepatocarcinogen N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene
    Gary M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA
    Eur J Cancer Prev 16:528-34. 2007
  10. ncbi request reprint Protective effect of acetaminophen against colon cancer initiation effects of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl in rats
    G M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical University, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Eur J Cancer Prev 11:39-48. 2002

Research Grants

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications53

  1. ncbi request reprint Lack of DNA binding in the rat nasal mucosa and other tissues of the nasal toxicants roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, and a metabolite, 4-amino-3,5-dichloropyridine, in contrast to the nasal carcinogen 2,6-dimethylaniline
    Alan M Jeffrey
    New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Drug Chem Toxicol 25:93-107. 2002
    ..In the absence of a pattern of compound-related spots, we conclude that RF does not form DNA adducts having the potential to initiate neoplasia in these three tissues...
  2. doi request reprint GRAS determination scientific procedures and possible alternatives
    Gary M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, 40Sunshine Cottage Road, BSB 413, Valhalla, NY, 10595, USA Electronic address
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 79:S105-11. 2016
    ..Several alternative procedures can be used as the replacement for standard scientific procedures in order to improve the GRAS process. ..
  3. doi request reprint Sex differences in DNA damage produced by the carcinogen 2-acetylaminofluorene in cultured human hepatocytes compared to rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes
    Gary M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, 10595, USA
    Arch Toxicol 90:427-32. 2016
    ..Moreover, the data from human hepatocytes suggest that human liver could be less susceptible than male rat liver to the carcinogenic effects of aromatic amine carcinogens of the AAF type. ..
  4. pmc Chicken fetal liver DNA damage and adduct formation by activation-dependent DNA-reactive carcinogens and related compounds of several structural classes
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Chemical Safety Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Valhalla, New York 10595
    Toxicol Sci 141:18-28. 2014
    ..Thus, the CEGA, using comet and NPL, is capable of detection of the genotoxicity of diverse DNA-reactive carcinogens, while not yielding false positives for non-carcinogens. ..
  5. doi request reprint Relationship of cellular topoisomerase IIα inhibition to cytotoxicity and published genotoxicity of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in V79 cells
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Chem Biol Interact 203:386-90. 2013
    ..Thus, the two FQ, inhibited TOPO IIα in intact V79 cells, differed in their potencies and exhibited no-observed-adverse-effect levels. These findings are in concordance with published genotoxicity data and observed cytotoxicity...
  6. doi request reprint Methyleugenol hepatocellular cancer initiating effects in rat liver
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 53:187-96. 2013
    ..Hepatocellular adenomas occurred in the mid and high dose groups, attaining higher multiplicity and size with PB. Thus, MEG had rapid initiating activity, reflecting the formation of DNA adducts and possibly cell proliferation...
  7. ncbi request reprint Mechanistic basis for nonlinearities and thresholds in rat liver carcinogenesis by the DNA-reactive carcinogens 2-acetylaminofluorene and diethylnitrosamine
    G M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla 10595, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 28:388-95. 2000
    ..The finding of no-effect levels provides a basis for understanding why low-level environmental exposures of humans to even DNA-reactive carcinogens may convey no cancer risk...
  8. doi request reprint Antitumor necrosis factor-alpha therapy and potential cancer inhibition
    Gary M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Eur J Cancer Prev 17:169-77. 2008
    ..Further investigation of this important topic is clearly warranted...
  9. ncbi request reprint Inhibition by acetaminophen of neoplastic initiation elicited in rat liver by the DNA-reactive hepatocarcinogen N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene
    Gary M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA
    Eur J Cancer Prev 16:528-34. 2007
    ..Thus, acetaminophen effectively protected hepatocytes from the initiating effects of N-acetyl-2-aminofluorene, possibly through a cytoprotective effect resulting from slowing the rate of induced cell turnover...
  10. ncbi request reprint Protective effect of acetaminophen against colon cancer initiation effects of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl in rats
    G M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical University, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Eur J Cancer Prev 11:39-48. 2002
    ..APAP reduced this by 94-fold. Thus, APAP produced a marked protective effect in colonic enterocytes against several parameters of neoplastic development by the carcinogen...
  11. ncbi request reprint Inhibition by dietary hydroquinone of acetylaminofluorene induction of initiation of rat liver carcinogenesis
    Gary M Williams
    Department of Pathology, Basic Science Building, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 45:1620-5. 2007
    ..Thus, under the conditions of this experiment, HQ at both 0.05% and 0.2% in the diet diminished AAF-induced cancer initiating effects in rat liver...
  12. ncbi request reprint Thresholds for the effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene in rat liver
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 32:85-91. 2004
    ..Thus, mechanisms of carcinogenesis can differ between low and high doses...
  13. doi request reprint Application of mode-of-action considerations in human cancer risk assessment
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Pathology Department, BSB Room no 413, Valhalla, NY, USA
    Toxicol Lett 180:75-80. 2008
    ..A bioindicator-based risk assessment strategy is described. This approach involves the use of mechanistic data to establish a "toxicologically insignificant daily intake"...
  14. doi request reprint Evaluation of potential human carcinogenicity of the synthetic monomer ethyl acrylate
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Chemical Safety Laboratory, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 53:6-15. 2009
    ..Thus, the weight of evidence indicates that the tumors produced in the rodent carcinogenicity studies arise from conditions that are irrelevant for human risk assessment...
  15. doi request reprint Multicenter study to assess potential hazards from exposure to lipid peroxidation products in soya bean oil from Trilucent breast implants
    G M Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 53:107-20. 2009
    ....
  16. doi request reprint DNA damage in fetal liver cells of turkey and chicken eggs dosed with aflatoxin B1
    J G Williams
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Arch Toxicol 85:1167-72. 2011
    ..Turkey embryos appeared to be slightly more susceptible to AFB damage, although no difference in the survival between chicken and turkey fetuses was observed...
  17. doi request reprint Production of liver preneoplasia and gallbladder agenesis in turkey fetuses administered diethylnitrosamine
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Arch Toxicol 85:681-7. 2011
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Diethylnitrosamine exposure-responses for DNA ethylation, hepatocellular proliferation, and initiation of carcinogenesis in rat liver display non-linearities and thresholds
    G M Williams
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Arch Toxicol 73:394-402. 1999
    ..These findings provide a conceptual basis for understanding why low-level exposures to DNA-reactive carcinogens may convey no cancer risk...
  19. ncbi request reprint Nonlinearities in 2-acetylaminofluorene exposure responses for genotoxic and epigenetic effects leading to initiation of carcinogenesis in rat liver
    G M Williams
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Toxicol Sci 45:152-61. 1998
    ..126 mmol/kg, in spite of the formation of DNA adducts. We conclude that the effects of this DNA-reactive hepatocarcinogen leading to initiation exhibit nonlinearities and possible thresholds...
  20. ncbi request reprint Abnormalities in liver iron accumulation during N-2-fluorenylacetamide hepatocarcinogenesis that are dependent or independent of continued carcinogen action
    K Furuya
    Naylor Dana Institute for Disease Prevention, American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 12:136-42. 1984
    ..Altered foci appear to represent two populations: one is characterized by reversible iron-exclusion whereas the other, like neoplasms, possesses permanent iron-exclusion...
  21. ncbi request reprint Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food
    A M Jeffrey
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 207:628-35. 2005
    ..A discussion of approaches to estimating possible threshold effects for DNA-reactive carcinogens is made...
  22. ncbi request reprint Bioassay of mannitol and caprolactam and assessment of response to diethylnitrosamine in heterozygous p53-deficient (+/-) and wild type (+/+) mice
    M J Iatropoulos
    New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Basic Sciences Building, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Arch Toxicol 75:52-8. 2001
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Mechanistic studies on genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of salicylazosulfapyridine an anti-inflammatory medicine
    M J Iatropoulos
    American Health Foundation, New York, USA
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 49:15-28. 1997
    ..SASP does not induce neoplasia directly in either livers, urinary bladders or other organs. Accordingly, SASP is judged to pose no carcinogenic risk to humans...
  24. doi request reprint Application of the margin of exposure (MoE) approach to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic: example: (CAS No. 96-23-1) 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (DCP)
    Gary Williams
    New York Medical College, USA
    Food Chem Toxicol 48:S57-62. 2010
    ..62 mg/kg-body weight (bw)/day. The exposure of humans was estimated at an average of 0.00009 mg/kg-bw/day and a high exposure of 0.000136 mg/kg-bw/day. The MOEs for these exposures were 100,000 and 70,000, respectively...
  25. ncbi request reprint Effects of the peroxisome proliferator di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on enzymes in rat liver and on carcinogen-induced liver altered foci in comparison to the promoter phenobarbital
    H Maruyama
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595
    Toxicol Pathol 18:257-67. 1990
    ..PB enhanced the expression of all 8 phenotypic abnormalities in foci such that either more profiles were detected or the area of foci was increased...
  26. ncbi request reprint Genotoxicity studies with the antiestrogen toremifene
    G M Williams
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Drug Chem Toxicol 21:449-76. 1998
    ..Toremifene lacked genotoxicity or myelotoxicity detectable by any of the above assays. These findings, together with the reported absence of DNA binding in rat liver, provide evidence that toremifene is not genotoxic...
  27. ncbi request reprint Relationship of hydroquinone-associated rat renal tumors with spontaneous chronic progressive nephropathy
    G C Hard
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 25:132-43. 1997
    ..In summary, this histopathological review suggest a mechanism for hydroquinone-related adenoma formation that includes enhancement of the severity of CPN coupled with stimulation of tubule proliferation...
  28. ncbi request reprint The significance of chemically-induced hepatocellular altered foci in rat liver and application to carcinogen detection
    G M Williams
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595
    Toxicol Pathol 17:663-72; discussion 673-4. 1989
    ..The measurement of induction of foci can be used for carcinogen detection and the measurement of the modulation of foci by chemicals other than the inducing agent identifies enhancers or inhibitors of liver carcinogenesis...
  29. ncbi request reprint Anticarcinogenicity of monocyclic phenolic compounds
    G M Williams
    New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Basic Science Building, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Eur J Cancer Prev 11:S101-7. 2002
    ..Accordingly, they have promise as cancer prophylactics, including in combination with agents operating through other mechanisms...
  30. ncbi request reprint Induction of hepatic peroxisome proliferation in mice by lactofen, a diphenyl ether herbicide
    E G Butler
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 93:72-80. 1988
    ..Thus, pure and technical grade lactofen appear to induce murine liver tumors through a mechanism similar to epigenetic hepatocarcinogens of the peroxisome proliferating type...
  31. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and application to human cancer risk assessment
    G M Williams
    Department of Pathology, Basic Sciences Building, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Toxicology 166:3-10. 2001
    ..The distinction between DNA-reactive and epigenetic carcinogens and their roles in oncogenesis is reviewed. An approach to cancer hazard assessment based upon mechanisms is described...
  32. ncbi request reprint Genetic differences in enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation and hydrogen peroxide metabolism in inbred mouse strains
    E G Butler
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, NY 10595
    Carcinogenesis 9:1459-63. 1988
    ..Acyl-CoA oxidase is central to the hypothetical H2O2 mechanism of peroxisome proliferator-induced hepatocarcinogenesis and, therefore, the genetic difference documented here may lead to a useful approach in testing this hypothesis...
  33. ncbi request reprint Distinguishing between adverse and non-adverse effects. Session summary
    E Karbe
    NYMC, Dept Pathology, Valhalla, USA
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 54:51-5. 2002
  34. ncbi request reprint Safety assessment of pharmaceuticals: examples of inadequate assessments and a mechanistic approach to assuring adequate assessment
    G M Williams
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 25:32-8. 1997
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Assessment of chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity in an accelerated cancer bioassay in rats of moxifloxacin, a quinolone antibiotic
    M J Iatropoulos
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla 10595, USA
    Exp Toxicol Pathol 53:345-57. 2001
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint DNA content of hyperplastic and neoplastic acinar cell lesions in rat and human pancreas
    T Tanaka
    Division of Pathology and Toxicology, Naylor Dana Institute for Disease Prevention, American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595
    J Exp Pathol 1:315-26. 1984
    ..These findings demonstrate that acinar cell hyperplastic lesions in rats and humans have an altered genetic complement and suggest that they probably are precursor lesions for acinar cell neoplasms...
  37. ncbi request reprint Effect of peroxisome proliferating hypolipidemic agents on serum activity levels of arylesterase and cholinesterase in rats and mice
    E G Butler
    American Health Foundation, Valhalla, New York 10595
    Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 60:125-8. 1988
    ..The exposures significantly increased serum cholinesterase activity levels and decreased serum arylesterase activity levels in all groups of both species...
  38. ncbi request reprint Reduction by dietary matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor BAY 12-9566N of neoplastic development induced by diethylnitrosamine, N-nitrosodimethylamine, or 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rats
    Michael J Iatropoulos
    New York Medical College, Basic Science Building, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Drug Chem Toxicol 31:305-16. 2008
    ..This inhibition may be due to inhibition of MMP, leading to reduced neoplastic growth and development...
  39. ncbi request reprint Pentachlorophenol (but not phenobarbital) promotes intrahepatic biliary cysts induced by diethylnitrosamine to cholangio cystic neoplasms in B6C3F1 mice possibly due to oxidative stress
    Takashi Umemura
    Division of Pathology, Biological Safety Research Center, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1 18 1 Kamiyoga, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo 158 8501, Japan
    Toxicol Pathol 31:10-3. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that oxidative stress due to PCP might exert a promoting action on the biliary cystic lesions produced by DEN...
  40. ncbi request reprint Embryonic turkey liver: activities of biotransformation enzymes and activation of DNA-reactive carcinogens
    Carmen E Perrone
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Arch Toxicol 78:589-98. 2004
    ..Thus, turkey embryos could be utilized to investigate potential chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity...
  41. ncbi request reprint In ovo carcinogenicity assay (IOCA): evaluation of mannitol, caprolactam and nitrosoproline
    Klaus D Brunnemann
    Section of Analytical Toxicology, American Health Foundation, 1 Dana Road, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Arch Toxicol 76:606-12. 2002
    ..It is concluded that CAP, MAN and NPRO do not induce histological changes in embryonic liver of the type produced by the carcinogen DEN, correlating with findings for these compounds in rodent studies...
  42. ncbi request reprint DNA-reactive carcinogens: mode of action and human cancer hazard
    R Julian Preston
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:673-83. 2005
    ..In contrast, the HRF predicted that the human carcinogenic potential of dichloromethane was at best less likely than in rodents; this conclusion was supported by the available epidemiological data...
  43. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of human topoisomerase IIalpha by fluoroquinolones and ultraviolet A irradiation
    Carmen E Perrone
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595 Department of Biology, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts 01075, USA
    Toxicol Sci 69:16-22. 2002
    ..These observations demonstrate that some but not all photochemically genotoxic FQs inhibit human topoisomerase IIalpha, possibly by UV-induced affinity of FQs to DNA:topoisomerase complexes...
  44. ncbi request reprint Concordance of thresholds for carcinogenicity of N-nitrosodiethylamine
    William J Waddell
    Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292, USA
    Arch Toxicol 80:305-9. 2006
    ..These results further support the observations of the authors that thresholds for carcinogenicity of this genotoxic carcinogen exist and that adducts and altered foci appear at lower doses than the threshold for carcinogenicity...
  45. ncbi request reprint Proceedings of a workshop on DNA adducts: biological significance and applications to risk assessment Washington, DC, April 13-14, 2004
    Miriam Sander
    Page One Editorial Services, Durham, NC 27707, USA
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 208:1-20. 2005
    ....
  46. pmc Assessment of DNA double-strand breaks and gammaH2AX induced by the topoisomerase II poisons etoposide and mitoxantrone
    Daniel J Smart
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Mutat Res 641:43-7. 2008
    ..ETOP data are consistent with the threshold concept for TOPO II poison-induced genotoxicity and this should be considered in the safety assessment of chemicals displaying an affinity for TOPO II and genotoxic/clastogenic effects...
  47. ncbi request reprint Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 1000 and 4000 ppm in the diet protected turkeys against aflatoxicosis
    Gary M Williams
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 189:151; author reply 152. 2003
  48. ncbi request reprint A review of the safety of DHA45-oil
    Robert Kroes
    Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, PO Box 80176, NL 3508 TD Utrecht, Yalelaan 2, The Netherlands
    Food Chem Toxicol 41:1433-46. 2003
    ..The results of these studies, as well as those of various published metabolic, toxicological, and clinical studies with DHA-containing oils, support the safety of DHA45-oil as a potential dietary source of DHA...
  49. ncbi request reprint Overview: Using mode of action and life stage information to evaluate the human relevance of animal toxicity data
    Jennifer Seed
    US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA
    Crit Rev Toxicol 35:664-72. 2005
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Nasal cytotoxic and carcinogenic activities of systemically distributed organic chemicals
    Alan M Jeffrey
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 34:827-52. 2006
    ..Thus, findings in only the rodent nasal mucosa do not necessarily predict either a toxic or carcinogenic hazard to that tissue in humans...
  51. pmc Ciprofloxacin-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis in TK6 lymphoblastoid cells is not dependent on DNA double-strand break formation
    Daniel J Smart
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Cancer Biol Ther 7:113-9. 2008
    ..The subsequent induction of apoptosis appears to be facilitated by functional p53. CPFX may therefore have a potential use as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of lymphoblast-derived cancer...
  52. ncbi request reprint Alteration of liver cell function and proliferation: differentiation between adaptation and toxicity
    Gary M Williams
    New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla, New York 10595, USA
    Toxicol Pathol 30:41-53. 2002
    ..Thus, identification and monitoring of both types of effect are integral in the safety assessment of chemical exposures...
  53. doi request reprint Assessment of the medicines lidocaine, prilocaine, and their metabolites, 2,6-dimethylaniline and 2-methylaniline, for DNA adduct formation in rat tissues
    Jian Dong Duan
    Department of Pathology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
    Drug Metab Dispos 36:1470-5. 2008
    ..Thus, lido and prilo can generate DNA adducts in rats via their aromatic amine metabolites, although at lower levels than equal molar quantities of their amine metabolites...

Research Grants2

  1. Colon and liver anticarcinogenicity by acetaminophen
    Gary Williams; Fiscal Year: 2004
    ..In addition, these experiments will provide support for the epidemiological observations of reduced cancer risk associated with the use of APAP. ..