- Emissions and energy efficiency assessment of baseload wind energy systemsPaul Denholm
University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Environ Sci Technol 39:1903-11. 2005..Life-cycle emission rates of NOx and SO2 are also significantly lower than fossil-based systems...
- Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operationPaul Denholm
University of Wisconsin Madison, WI 53706, USA
Environ Sci Technol 39:9016-22. 2005..This study suggests that improved emissions "accounting" might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation...
- Quantifying avoided fuel use and emissions from solar photovoltaic generation in the Western United StatesPaul Denholm
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Blvd, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA
Environ Sci Technol 43:226-32. 2009..In Colorado, PV offsets mostly gas at low penetration, with increasing coal displacement during nonsummer months and at higher penetration. Associated reductions in CO2, NOx, and SO2 emissions are also calculated...
- Effects of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on ozone concentrations in ColoradoGregory L Brinkman
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA
Environ Sci Technol 44:6256-62. 2010..Future research is needed to forecast when significant PHEV penetration may occur and to anticipate characteristics of the corresponding power plant and vehicle fleets...
- Emissions impacts and benefits of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and vehicle-to-grid servicesRamteen Sioshansi
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, MS301, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA
Environ Sci Technol 43:1199-204. 2009..By adding V2G services, such as spinning reserves and energy storage, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions can be reduced even further...