David B Olsen

Summary

Affiliation: Merck Research Laboratories
Country: USA

Publications

  1. pmc Robust antiviral efficacy upon administration of a nucleoside analog to hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzees
    Steven S Carroll
    Antiviral Research Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:926-34. 2009
  2. ncbi request reprint A combinatorial library of indinavir analogues and its in vitro and in vivo studies
    Yuan Cheng
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:529-32. 2002
  3. pmc A 7-deaza-adenosine analog is a potent and selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication with excellent pharmacokinetic properties
    David B Olsen
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3944-53. 2004
  4. ncbi request reprint Structure-activity relationship of heterobase-modified 2'-C-methyl ribonucleosides as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus RNA replication
    Anne B Eldrup
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Isis Pharmaceuticals, 2280 Faraday Avenue, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA
    J Med Chem 47:5284-97. 2004
  5. pmc Inhibitory effect of 2'-substituted nucleosides on hepatitis C virus replication correlates with metabolic properties in replicon cells
    Joanne E Tomassini
    Department of Research, Merck and Co, WP26 265, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:2050-8. 2005
  6. pmc Sustained viral response in a hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzee via a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents
    David B Olsen
    Antiviral Research Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:937-9. 2011
  7. pmc MK-7009, a potent and selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease
    Nigel J Liverton
    Merck Research Laboratories, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, WP42A 40, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:305-11. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Development of macrocyclic inhibitors of HCV NS3/4A protease with cyclic constrained P2-P4 linkers
    Michael T Rudd
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 22:7207-13. 2012
  9. ncbi request reprint Novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors active against multiple PI-resistant viral strains: coadministration with indinavir
    Nancy J Kevin
    Department of Basic Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13:4027-30. 2003
  10. doi request reprint Discovery of vaniprevir (MK-7009), a macrocyclic hepatitis C virus NS3/4a protease inhibitor
    John A McCauley
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    J Med Chem 53:2443-63. 2010

Detail Information

Publications50

  1. pmc Robust antiviral efficacy upon administration of a nucleoside analog to hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzees
    Steven S Carroll
    Antiviral Research Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:926-34. 2009
    ..Importantly, viral load remained below the LOQ throughout the duration of dosing and for at least 12 days after dosing ended. The results demonstrate a robust antiviral effect on the administration of MK-0608 to HCV-infected chimpanzees...
  2. ncbi request reprint A combinatorial library of indinavir analogues and its in vitro and in vivo studies
    Yuan Cheng
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:529-32. 2002
    ..The pharmacokinetics of the library was evaluated by dosing in dogs. Compounds that are notably more potent than indinavir and have favorable pharmacokinetic properties were identified...
  3. pmc A 7-deaza-adenosine analog is a potent and selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication with excellent pharmacokinetic properties
    David B Olsen
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3944-53. 2004
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that 7-deaza-2'-C-methyl-adenosine is an attractive candidate for further investigation as a potential treatment for HCV infection...
  4. ncbi request reprint Structure-activity relationship of heterobase-modified 2'-C-methyl ribonucleosides as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus RNA replication
    Anne B Eldrup
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Isis Pharmaceuticals, 2280 Faraday Avenue, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA
    J Med Chem 47:5284-97. 2004
    ....
  5. pmc Inhibitory effect of 2'-substituted nucleosides on hepatitis C virus replication correlates with metabolic properties in replicon cells
    Joanne E Tomassini
    Department of Research, Merck and Co, WP26 265, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:2050-8. 2005
    ....
  6. pmc Sustained viral response in a hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzee via a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents
    David B Olsen
    Antiviral Research Department, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:937-9. 2011
    ....
  7. pmc MK-7009, a potent and selective inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease
    Nigel J Liverton
    Merck Research Laboratories, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, WP42A 40, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:305-11. 2010
    ..On the basis of this favorable profile, MK-7009 was selected for clinical development and is currently being evaluated in controlled clinical trials with both healthy volunteers and HCV-infected patients...
  8. doi request reprint Development of macrocyclic inhibitors of HCV NS3/4A protease with cyclic constrained P2-P4 linkers
    Michael T Rudd
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 22:7207-13. 2012
    ..The effect of the constraint is most dramatic against gt 1b A156 mutants where ~20-fold improvements in potency are achieved by introduction of a variety of ring systems into the P2-P4 linker...
  9. ncbi request reprint Novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors active against multiple PI-resistant viral strains: coadministration with indinavir
    Nancy J Kevin
    Department of Basic Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13:4027-30. 2003
    ..The rapid in vitro clearance of these compounds in human liver microsomes prompted oral coadministration with indinavir to hinder their metabolism by the cyctochrome P450 3A4 isozyme and allow for in vivo PK assessment...
  10. doi request reprint Discovery of vaniprevir (MK-7009), a macrocyclic hepatitis C virus NS3/4a protease inhibitor
    John A McCauley
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    J Med Chem 53:2443-63. 2010
    ....
  11. doi request reprint Development of potent macrocyclic inhibitors of genotype 3a HCV NS3/4A protease
    Michael T Rudd
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 22:7201-6. 2012
    ..Cyclization of the 2-substituted quinoline substituent led to a series of tricyclic P2 compounds which also display superb gt3a potency...
  12. ncbi request reprint The design, synthesis and evaluation of novel HIV-1 protease inhibitors with high potency against PI-resistant viral strains
    Fengqi Zhang
    Department of Basic Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13:2573-6. 2003
    ..Compound 10 also demonstrated favorable in vivo pharmacokinetics in animal models...
  13. ncbi request reprint Orally bioavailable highly potent HIV protease inhibitors against PI-resistant virus
    Zhijian Lu
    Department of Basic Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 15:5311-4. 2005
    ..Chemistry and biology are described...
  14. ncbi request reprint Synthesis of novel HIV protease inhibitors (PI) with activity against PI-resistant virus
    Subharekha Raghavan
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 17:5432-6. 2007
    ..These compounds exhibit excellent antiviral activity against both the wild type enzyme and PI-resistant clinical viral isolates. The synthesis and biological activity of the compounds are described...
  15. pmc Antiviral efficacy upon administration of a HepDirect prodrug of 2'-C-methylcytidine to hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzees
    Steven S Carroll
    Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3854-60. 2011
    ..The viral loads rebounded after the end of dosing to predose levels. The results indicate that a robust antiviral response can be achieved upon administration of the prodrug...
  16. pmc Replication fitness and NS5B drug sensitivity of diverse hepatitis C virus isolates characterized by using a transient replication assay
    Steven W Ludmerer
    Department of Antiviral Research, Merck Research Laboratories, P O Box 4, Sumneytown Pike, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:2059-69. 2005
    ....
  17. ncbi request reprint HIV-1 protease inhibitors with picomolar potency against PI-resistant HIV-1 by modification of the P1' substituent
    Joseph L Duffy
    Department of Basic Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13:3323-6. 2003
    ..The poor to modest bioavailability of these compounds may correlate in part to their aqueous solubility...
  18. ncbi request reprint A genotype 2b NS5B polymerase with novel substitutions supports replication of a chimeric HCV 1b:2b replicon containing a genotype 1b NS3-5A background
    Donald J Graham
    Department of Antiviral Research, Merck Research Laboratories, P O Box 4, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    Antiviral Res 69:24-30. 2006
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and HCV inhibitory properties of 9-deaza- and 7,9-dideaza-7-oxa-2'-C-methyladenosine
    Gabor Butora
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 15:5219-29. 2007
    ..Position 7 of the nucleobase proved to be an effective handle for modulating ADA-mediated degradation, with the rate of degradation correlating with the hydrogen-bonding properties at this position...
  20. doi request reprint P2-Quinazolinones and Bis-Macrocycles as New Templates for Next-Generation Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4a Protease Inhibitors: Discovery of MK-2748 and MK-6325
    Michael T Rudd
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA USA
    ChemMedChem 10:727-35. 2015
    ..Both compounds display the broad genotype and mutant potency necessary for clinical development as next-generation HCV NS3/4a protease inhibitors. ..
  21. ncbi request reprint P1' oxadiazole protease inhibitors with excellent activity against native and protease inhibitor-resistant HIV-1
    Ronald M Kim
    Department of Basic Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 14:4651-4. 2004
    ..The compounds are picomolar inhibitors of native HIV-1 protease, with most of the compounds maintaining excellent antiviral activity against a panel of PI-resistant strains...
  22. doi request reprint A transient cell-based phenotype assay for hepatitis C NS3/4A protease: application to potency determinations of a novel macrocyclic inhibitor against diverse protease sequences isolated from plasma infected with HCV
    Steven W Ludmerer
    Department of Antiviral Research, Merck Research Laboratories, P O Box 4, West Point, PA 19486, United States
    J Virol Methods 151:301-7. 2008
    ..The assay will be useful for monitoring changes in susceptibility due to emergence of resistant virus during clinical studies of protease inhibitors...
  23. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of hepatitis C virus RNA replication by 2'-modified nucleoside analogs
    Steven S Carroll
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:11979-84. 2003
    ..Thus, the 2'-modifications of natural substrate nucleosides transform these molecules into potent inhibitors of HCV replication...
  24. ncbi request reprint HIV protease inhibitors with picomolar potency against PI-Resistant HIV-1 by extension of the P3 substituent
    Joseph L Duffy
    Department of Basic Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13:2569-72. 2003
    ..Inhibition of multiple P450 isoforms is dependent on the regiochemistry of the pyridyl nitrogen in these compounds...
  25. ncbi request reprint Hinnuliquinone, a C2-symmetric dimeric non-peptide fungal metabolite inhibitor of HIV-1 protease
    Sheo B Singh
    Merck Research Laboratories, P O Box 2000, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 324:108-13. 2004
    ..Details of the isolation, biological activity, and crystallographic analysis of the inhibitor-bound protease are herein described...
  26. ncbi request reprint Gene expression profiling of rat liver reveals a mechanistic basis for ritonavir-induced hyperlipidemia
    Pek Yee Lum
    Rosetta Inpharmatics LLC, 401 Terry Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Genomics 90:464-73. 2007
    ....
  27. doi request reprint Phosphoramidate prodrugs of 2'-C-methylcytidine for therapy of hepatitis C virus infection
    Cristina Gardelli
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Istituto di Ricerche di Biologia Molecolare, P Angeletti SpA IRBM MRL Rome, Pomezia, Italy
    J Med Chem 52:5394-407. 2009
    ..Our SAR studies ultimately led to compounds that gave high levels of NTP in hamster and rat liver after subcutaneous dosing and that were devoid of the toxic phenol moiety usually found in ProTides...
  28. doi request reprint Identification and biological evaluation of a series of 1H-benzo[de]isoquinoline-1,3(2H)-diones as hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase inhibitors
    Jesus M Ontoria
    Istituto di Ricerche di Biologia Molecolare, P Angeletti, S p A IRBM MRL Rome, Via Pontina Km 30, 600, I 00040 Pomezia, Italy
    J Med Chem 52:5217-27. 2009
    ..SAR in this new series reveals inhibitors, such as 20, with low micromolar activity in the HCV replicon and with good activity/toxicity window in cells...
  29. ncbi request reprint Indinavir analogues with blocked metabolism sites as HIV protease inhibitors with improved pharmacological profiles and high potency against PI-resistant viral strains
    Yuan Cheng
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:2419-22. 2002
    ..The cis-aminochromanol substituted analogues exhibited excellent potency against both the wild-type (NL4-3) virus and protease inhibitor-resistant HIV strains...
  30. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and activity of novel HIV protease inhibitors with improved potency against multiple PI-resistant viral strains
    Joseph L Duffy
    Department of Basic Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:2423-6. 2002
    ..The trifluoroethyl substituent also affords a slower clearance rate in vivo (dogs); however, this may be due to more potent inhibition of at least two P450 isoforms...
  31. ncbi request reprint Combinatorial library of indinavir analogues: replacement for the aminoindanol at P2'
    Subharekha Raghavan
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 12:2855-8. 2002
    ..2,6-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy phenol was discovered to be a good replacement for aminoindanol...
  32. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of HIV-1 ribonuclease H by a novel diketo acid, 4-[5-(benzoylamino)thien-2-yl]-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid
    Cathryn A Shaw-Reid
    Department of Biological Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486 0004, USA
    J Biol Chem 278:2777-80. 2003
    ....
  33. ncbi request reprint PD-1 blockade in rhesus macaques: impact on chronic infection and prophylactic vaccination
    Adam C Finnefrock
    Vaccine Basic Research, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA 19486, USA
    J Immunol 182:980-7. 2009
    ..05) increase in the peak percentage of T cells specific for the CM9 Gag epitope. These new results on PD-1 blockade in nonhuman primates point to a broader role for PD-1 immunomodulation and to potential applications in humans...
  34. ncbi request reprint Design and synthesis of highly potent HIV protease inhibitors with activity against resistant virus
    Zhijian Lu
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13:1821-4. 2003
    ..These compounds are active against various clinical viral isolates as well as wild-type virus. The synthesis and biological activity of these HIV protease inhibitors are discussed...
  35. doi request reprint Molecular modeling based approach to potent P2-P4 macrocyclic inhibitors of hepatitis C NS3/4A protease
    Nigel J Liverton
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, USA
    J Am Chem Soc 130:4607-9. 2008
    ..The in vitro activity and selectivity as well as the rat pharmacokinetic profile of 25a compare favorably with the data for other NS3/4A protease inhibitors currently in clinical development for the treatment of HCV...
  36. ncbi request reprint Liver-targeted prodrugs of 2'-C-methyladenosine for therapy of hepatitis C virus infection
    Scott J Hecker
    Departments of Biochemistry and Medicinal Chemistry, Metabasis Therapeutics, Inc, 11119 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
    J Med Chem 50:3891-6. 2007
    ..Addition of a 2',3'-carbonate prodrug moiety proved to be a successful strategy, and the 1-(4-pyridyl)-1,3-propanyl prodrug containing a 2',3'-carbonate moiety displayed oral bioavailability of 39%...
  37. ncbi request reprint Structure-activity relationship of purine ribonucleosides for inhibition of hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
    Anne B Eldrup
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Isis Pharmaceuticals, 2280 Faraday Avenue, Carlsbad, California 92008, USA
    J Med Chem 47:2283-95. 2004
    ....
  38. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and evaluation of S-acyl-2-thioethyl esters of modified nucleoside 5'-monophosphates as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus RNA replication
    Thazha P Prakash
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Isis Pharmaceuticals, 2292 Faraday Avenue, Carlsbad, California 92008, USA
    J Med Chem 48:1199-210. 2005
    ..Additionally, chromosomal aberration studies with the SATE prodrug in cells showed no statistically relevant increase in aberrations compared to the concurrent controls...
  39. pmc Characterization of the inhibition of hepatitis C virus RNA replication by nonnucleosides
    Licia Tomei
    Department of Biochemistry, Istituto di Ricerche di Biologia Molecolare P Angeletti IRBM, Pomezia, Italy
    J Virol 78:938-46. 2004
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of monopyrrolinone-based HIV-1 protease inhibitors
    Amos B Smith
    Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 South 34th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA
    J Med Chem 46:1831-44. 2003
    ..The binding orientation of the pyrrolinone-based inhibitors may explain their sustained efficacy against mutant strains of the HIV-1 protease enzyme as compared to Indinavir...
  41. ncbi request reprint Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of monopyrrolinone-based HIV-1 protease inhibitors possessing augmented P2' side chains
    Amos B Smith
    Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 16:859-63. 2006
    ..X-ray structures of these inhibitors bound in the wild-type enzyme reveal important insights into the observed biological activity...
  42. ncbi request reprint X-ray crystallographic and site-directed mutagenesis analysis of the mechanism of Schiff-base formation in phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase catalysis
    Marc C Morais
    Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118 2394, USA
    J Biol Chem 279:9353-61. 2004
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Characterization of resistance to non-obligate chain-terminating ribonucleoside analogs that inhibit hepatitis C virus replication in vitro
    Giovanni Migliaccio
    Department of Biochemistry, Istituto di Ricerche di Biologia Molecolare P Angeletti IRBM, 00040 Pomezia, Italy
    J Biol Chem 278:49164-70. 2003
    ....
  44. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and evaluation of optically pure dioxolanes as inhibitors of hepatitis C virus RNA replication
    Sanjib Bera
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Isis Pharmaceuticals, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 13:4455-8. 2003
    ..The ability to inhibit HCV RNA replication was assessed in a cell based subgenomic replicon assay. None of the described compounds displayed significant anti-HCV activity...
  45. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and biological evaluation of 5R- and 5S-methyl substituted D- and L-configuration 1,3-dioxolane nucleoside analogs
    Sanjib Bera
    Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Isis Pharmaceuticals, Carlsbad, CA 92008, USA
    Bioorg Med Chem 12:6237-47. 2004
    ..In addition, activity against vaccinia and HIV was evaluated in cell-based assays. The 2-hydroxymethyl-5-methyl-1,3-dioxolanes were found to be inactive...
  46. ncbi request reprint Muscle phenotype and mutation load in 51 persons with the 3243A>G mitochondrial DNA mutation
    Tina D Jeppesen
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Center, Department of Neurology and Neuromuscular Research Unit, DK 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
    Arch Neurol 63:1701-6. 2006
    ..Mitochondrial disorders are generally not associated with a clear phenotype-genotype relationship, which complicates the understanding of the disease and genetic counseling...
  47. ncbi request reprint Erythrocyte and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of circulating ATP
    Jose Gonzalez-Alonso
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
    Circ Res 91:1046-55. 2002
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Exercise tolerance in carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency with IV and oral glucose
    Mette C Ørngreen
    Copenhagen Muscle Research Center and Department of Neurology, National University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Neurology 59:1046-51. 2002
    ..Patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency often experience muscle pain and myoglobinuria during prolonged exercise because of impaired oxidation of long-chain fatty acids...
  49. ncbi request reprint Metallothionein-mediated antioxidant defense system and its response to exercise training are impaired in human type 2 diabetes
    Celena Scheede-Bergdahl
    The Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, The Panum Institute, Department of Medical Physiology, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark
    Diabetes 54:3089-94. 2005
    ..This study presents a novel candidate in the pathogenesis of complications related to oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes...
  50. ncbi request reprint Muscle structural changes in mitochondrial myopathy relate to genotype
    David B Olsen
    Dept of Neurology and The Copenhagen Muscle Research Center, National University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
    J Neurol 250:1328-34. 2003
    ..These findings provide evidence that morphological changes in muscle of MM patients are common and may resemble those of muscular dystrophies, but that development of dystrophic-like changes in muscle relate to genotype...