Katherine P Liao

Summary

Affiliation: Massachusetts General Hospital
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi request reprint A 20-year-old man with right leg pain following orofacial surgery
    Katherine P Liao
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 59:1527-32. 2008
  2. pmc Cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    Katherine P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis St, PBB B3, Boston, MA 02115 Electronic address
    Trends Cardiovasc Med 27:136-140. 2017
  3. pmc Associations of autoantibodies, autoimmune risk alleles, and clinical diagnoses from the electronic medical records in rheumatoid arthritis cases and non-rheumatoid arthritis controls
    Katherine P Liao
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, PBB B3, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 65:571-81. 2013
  4. pmc Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation and cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis
    Katherine P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, PBB B3, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 52:45-52. 2013
  5. pmc Specific association of type 1 diabetes mellitus with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive rheumatoid arthritis
    Katherine P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 60:653-60. 2009
  6. pmc Clinical predictors of erosion-free status in rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective cohort study
    Katherine P Liao
    Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 50:1473-9. 2011
  7. pmc Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis
    K P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Ann Rheum Dis 67:1557-61. 2008
  8. pmc Normalization of plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D is associated with reduced risk of surgery in Crohn's disease
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 19:1921-7. 2013
  9. pmc Identification of Nonresponse to Treatment Using Narrative Data in an Electronic Health Record Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Research IS and Computing, Partners HealthCare, Charlestown, Massachusetts Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Children s Hospital Informatics Program, Boston Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts i2b2 National Center for Biomedical Computing, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts and Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 22:151-8. 2016
  10. pmc Comparative Effectiveness of Infliximab and Adalimumab in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Research IS and Computing, Partners HealthCare, Charlestown, Massachusetts Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Children s Hospital Informatics Program, Boston Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts and Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 22:880-5. 2016

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications37

  1. doi request reprint A 20-year-old man with right leg pain following orofacial surgery
    Katherine P Liao
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 59:1527-32. 2008
  2. pmc Cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
    Katherine P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis St, PBB B3, Boston, MA 02115 Electronic address
    Trends Cardiovasc Med 27:136-140. 2017
    ..Lessons learned from RA studies can also inform CV risk prevention in the general population, where inflammation also has an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
  3. pmc Associations of autoantibodies, autoimmune risk alleles, and clinical diagnoses from the electronic medical records in rheumatoid arthritis cases and non-rheumatoid arthritis controls
    Katherine P Liao
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, PBB B3, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 65:571-81. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to assess associations of autoantibodies with autoimmune risk alleles and with clinical diagnoses from the electronic medical records (EMRs) among RA cases and non-RA controls...
  4. pmc Traditional cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation and cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis
    Katherine P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, PBB B3, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 52:45-52. 2013
    ..More studies are needed to develop methods for accurate CV risk estimation in RA...
  5. pmc Specific association of type 1 diabetes mellitus with anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide-positive rheumatoid arthritis
    Katherine P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Arthritis Rheum 60:653-60. 2009
    ..In this study, the strength and nature of this association were investigated at the population level in a Swedish case-control cohort...
  6. pmc Clinical predictors of erosion-free status in rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective cohort study
    Katherine P Liao
    Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 50:1473-9. 2011
    ..Our objective was to characterize the group of RA patients without erosions and identify its clinical predictors...
  7. pmc Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis
    K P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Ann Rheum Dis 67:1557-61. 2008
    ..We developed and tested the performance characteristics of new criteria for RA classification, incorporating anti-CCP...
  8. pmc Normalization of plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D is associated with reduced risk of surgery in Crohn's disease
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 19:1921-7. 2013
    ..Vitamin D may have an immunologic role in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Retrospective studies suggested a weak association between vitamin D status and disease activity but have significant limitations...
  9. pmc Identification of Nonresponse to Treatment Using Narrative Data in an Electronic Health Record Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Research IS and Computing, Partners HealthCare, Charlestown, Massachusetts Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Children s Hospital Informatics Program, Boston Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts i2b2 National Center for Biomedical Computing, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts and Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 22:151-8. 2016
    ..Electronic health records, increasingly a part of healthcare, provide a wealth of untapped narrative free text data that have the potential to accurately inform clinical outcomes...
  10. pmc Comparative Effectiveness of Infliximab and Adalimumab in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Research IS and Computing, Partners HealthCare, Charlestown, Massachusetts Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Children s Hospital Informatics Program, Boston Children s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts and Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 22:880-5. 2016
    ..However, limited data exist regarding comparative effectiveness of these agents to inform clinical practice...
  11. pmc Improving case definition of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in electronic medical records using natural language processing: a novel informatics approach
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 19:1411-20. 2013
    ....
  12. pmc Statin Use Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Electronic address
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 14:973-9. 2016
    ..Chemopreventive strategies have produced weak or inconsistent results. Statins have been associated inversely with sporadic CRC. We examined their role as chemopreventive agents in patients with IBD...
  13. pmc Common Genetic Variants Influence Circulating Vitamin D Levels in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Research IS and Computing, Partners HealthCare, Charlestown, Massachusetts Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts i2b2 National Center for Biomedical Computing, Boston, Massachusetts Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Children s Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
    Inflamm Bowel Dis 21:2507-14. 2015
    ..Low circulating vitamin D levels are associated with severe outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, the genetic basis for vitamin D insufficiency in this population has not been examined previously...
  14. pmc Mortality and extraintestinal cancers in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and inflammatory bowel disease
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States Electronic address
    J Crohns Colitis 8:956-63. 2014
    ..PSC is associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, whether PSC is associated with increased risk of extraintestinal cancers or affects mortality in an IBD cohort has not been examined previously...
  15. pmc Colonoscopy is associated with a reduced risk for colon cancer and mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Electronic address
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 13:322-329.e1. 2015
    ..However, there have been no reports of whether colonoscopy examination reduces the risk for CRC in patients with IBD...
  16. pmc Serum inflammatory markers and risk of colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Electronic address
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 12:1342-8.e1. 2014
    ..No prior studies have examined association between C-reactive protein (CRP) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) elevation and risk of CRC in an IBD cohort...
  17. pmc Association between low density lipoprotein and rheumatoid arthritis genetic factors with low density lipoprotein levels in rheumatoid arthritis and non-rheumatoid arthritis controls
    Katherine P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Ann Rheum Dis 73:1170-5. 2014
    ..Our objective was to determine the association of established LDL and RA genetic alleles with LDL levels in RA cases compared with non-RA controls...
  18. pmc Association between reduced plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D and increased risk of cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Electronic address
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 12:821-7. 2014
    ..The effects of low plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25[OH]D) on outcomes other than bone health are understudied in patients with IBD. We examined the association between plasma level of 25(OH)D and risk of cancers in patients with IBD...
  19. pmc Lipid and lipoprotein levels and trend in rheumatoid arthritis compared to the general population
    Katherine P Liao
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
    Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 65:2046-50. 2013
    ..Determining these differences is important in understanding the role of lipids in CV risk in RA...
  20. pmc Mode of childbirth and long-term outcomes in women with inflammatory bowel diseases
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Crohn s and Colitis Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 165 Cambridge Street, 9th Floor, Boston, MA, 02114, USA
    Dig Dis Sci 60:471-7. 2015
    ..Inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD; Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis] often affect women in their reproductive years. Few studies have analyzed the impact of mode of childbirth on long-term IBD outcomes...
  21. pmc Thromboprophylaxis is associated with reduced post-hospitalization venous thromboembolic events in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Electronic address
    Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 12:1905-10. 2014
    ..We analyzed the frequency of VTE after IBD-related hospitalization, risk factors for post-hospitalization VTE, and the efficacy of prophylaxis in preventing post-hospitalization VTE...
  22. pmc Improving the power of genetic association tests with imperfect phenotype derived from electronic medical records
    Jennifer A Sinnott
    Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA
    Hum Genet 133:1369-82. 2014
    ..Our work provides an easily implemented solution to a major practical challenge that arises in the use of EMR data, which can facilitate the use of EMR infrastructure for more powerful, cost-effective, and diverse genetic studies. ..
  23. pmc Methods to Develop an Electronic Medical Record Phenotype Algorithm to Compare the Risk of Coronary Artery Disease across 3 Chronic Disease Cohorts
    Katherine P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, United States of America Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 10:e0136651. 2015
    ..Additionally, we demonstrate how to implement CAD algorithm to compare risk across 3 chronic diseases in a preliminary study...
  24. pmc Electronic medical records for discovery research in rheumatoid arthritis
    Katherine P Liao
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 62:1120-7. 2010
    ..We assessed whether a classification algorithm incorporating narrative EMR data (typed physician notes) more accurately classifies subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with an algorithm using codified EMR data alone...
  25. pmc Genetic risk score predicting risk of rheumatoid arthritis phenotypes and age of symptom onset
    Lori B Chibnik
    Program in Translational NeuroPsychiatric Genomics, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e24380. 2011
    ..Cumulative genetic profiles can help identify individuals at high-risk for developing RA. We examined the impact of 39 validated genetic risk alleles on the risk of RA phenotypes characterized by serologic and erosive status...
  26. pmc Toward high-throughput phenotyping: unbiased automated feature extraction and selection from knowledge sources
    Sheng Yu
    Partners HealthCare Personalized Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
    J Am Med Inform Assoc 22:993-1000. 2015
    ..This paper introduces a method to develop phenotyping algorithms in an unbiased manner by automatically extracting and selecting informative features, which can be comparable to expert-curated ones in classification accuracy...
  27. pmc Modeling disease severity in multiple sclerosis using electronic health records
    Zongqi Xia
    Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 8:e78927. 2013
    ....
  28. pmc Environmental influences on risk for rheumatoid arthritis
    Katherine P Liao
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02141, USA
    Curr Opin Rheumatol 21:279-83. 2009
    ..This review is timely given the expanding information on treatment, pathogenesis and genetic risk factors for RA...
  29. doi request reprint Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitor Use and the Risk of Incident Hypertension in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis
    Rishi J Desai
    From the aDivision of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA bDivision of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA and cDepartment of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA
    Epidemiology 27:414-22. 2016
    ....
  30. pmc Phenome-wide association study of autoantibodies to citrullinated and non-citrullinated epitopes in rheumatoid arthritis
    Katherine P Liao
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
    Arthritis Rheumatol . 2016
    ..Using the phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) approach, we examined the association between autoantibodies and clinical subphenotypes of RA...
  31. pmc TYK2 protein-coding variants protect against rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmunity, with no evidence of major pleiotropic effects on non-autoimmune complex traits
    Dorothée Diogo
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America Program in Medical and Population Genetics, Broad Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America Partners HealthCare Center for Personalized Genetic Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 10:e0122271. 2015
    ..Together, our results demonstrate the role of TYK2 in the pathogenesis of RA, SLE and IBD, and provide supporting evidence for TYK2 as a promising drug target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases...
  32. pmc Rare, low-frequency, and common variants in the protein-coding sequence of biological candidate genes from GWASs contribute to risk of rheumatoid arthritis
    Dorothée Diogo
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology, and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
    Am J Hum Genet 92:15-27. 2013
    ..Further, we have demonstrated that very large sample sizes will be required for comprehensively identifying the independent alleles contributing to the missing heritability of RA...
  33. pmc Association between lipid levels and major adverse cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis compared to non-rheumatoid arthritis patients
    Katherine P Liao
    Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts
    Arthritis Rheumatol 67:2004-10. 2015
    ..This study was undertaken to determine whether the complex relationship between levels of LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and CV risk is different in RA patients as compared to non-RA controls...
  34. pmc Clinical characteristics of RA patients with secondary SS and association with joint damage
    Lindsay E Brown
    Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA
    Rheumatology (Oxford) 54:816-20. 2015
    ..There are conflicting data regarding the association of sSS with worse joint damage. This study aims to characterize sSS patients in an RA cohort and study the association between sSS and joint damage...
  35. pmc Similar risk of depression and anxiety following surgery or hospitalization for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
    Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
    Crohn s and Colitis Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    Am J Gastroenterol 108:594-601. 2013
    ..The objective of this study is to examine whether there is a difference in the risk of psychiatric comorbidity following surgery in CD and UC...
  36. ncbi request reprint Cardiovascular Outcomes Associated with Lowering Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Matched Nonrheumatoid Arthritis
    Jaejin An
    From the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Administration, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, California Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, California Division of Rheumatology, Brigham and Women s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Drug Information Services, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Downey, California, USA
    J Rheumatol 43:1989-1996. 2016
    ..To examine the associations between lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and patients without it...
  37. pmc Sparse kernel machine regression for ordinal outcomes
    Yuanyuan Shen
    Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, U S A
    Biometrics 71:63-70. 2015
    ..We apply our procedures to develop a prediction model for levels of anti-CCP among rheumatoid arthritis patients and demonstrate the advantage of our method over other commonly used methods. ..