Marshall L Jacobs

Summary

Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Report of the 2005 STS Congenital Heart Surgery Practice and Manpower Survey
    Marshall L Jacobs
    St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19134, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 82:1152-8, 1159e1-5; discussion 1158-9. 2006
  2. doi request reprint The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database: 2016 Update on Research
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland Electronic address
    Ann Thorac Surg 102:688-95. 2016
  3. pmc An empirically based tool for analyzing morbidity associated with operations for congenital heart disease
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Department of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 145:1046-1057.e1. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Rationalising the nomenclature of common arterial trunk
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Department of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 19073, USA
    Cardiol Young 22:639-46. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Databases for assessing the outcomes of the treatment of patients with congenital and paediatric cardiac disease--the perspective of cardiac surgery
    Marshall Lewis Jacobs
    Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19073, USA
    Cardiol Young 18:101-15. 2008
  6. doi request reprint Stratification of complexity: the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 method and the Aristotle Complexity Score--past, present, and future
    Marshall Lewis Jacobs
    Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19073, USA
    Cardiol Young 18:163-8. 2008
  7. doi request reprint Anomalies of the coronary arteries: nomenclature and classification
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Center for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, United States of America
    Cardiol Young 20:15-9. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Report of the 2010 society of thoracic surgeons congenital heart surgery practice and manpower survey
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Department of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 92:762-8; discussion 768-9. 2011
  9. pmc Linking the congenital heart surgery databases of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society: part 2--lessons learned and implications
    Jeffrey P Jacobs
    Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiac Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 5:272-82. 2014
  10. doi request reprint The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database 2016 Annual Report
    Jeffrey P Jacobs
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins All Children s Heart Institute, Johns Hopkins All Children s Hospital and Florida Hospital for Children, Saint Petersburg, Tampa, and Orlando, Florida Electronic address
    Ann Thorac Surg 102:1790-1797. 2016

Detail Information

Publications47

  1. ncbi request reprint Report of the 2005 STS Congenital Heart Surgery Practice and Manpower Survey
    Marshall L Jacobs
    St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19134, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 82:1152-8, 1159e1-5; discussion 1158-9. 2006
    ..To obtain reliable data, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Workforce on Congenital Heart Surgery undertook a subspecialty focused survey...
  2. doi request reprint The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database: 2016 Update on Research
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland Electronic address
    Ann Thorac Surg 102:688-95. 2016
    ..This article reviews outcomes research and quality improvement articles published in 2015 based on STS CHSD data. ..
  3. pmc An empirically based tool for analyzing morbidity associated with operations for congenital heart disease
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Department of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 145:1046-1057.e1. 2013
    ..We created an objective, empirically based index that reflects statistically estimated risk of morbidity by procedure...
  4. doi request reprint Rationalising the nomenclature of common arterial trunk
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Department of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 19073, USA
    Cardiol Young 22:639-46. 2012
    ....
  5. doi request reprint Databases for assessing the outcomes of the treatment of patients with congenital and paediatric cardiac disease--the perspective of cardiac surgery
    Marshall Lewis Jacobs
    Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19073, USA
    Cardiol Young 18:101-15. 2008
    ..Potential means of approaching the ultimate goal of acquisition of long-term follow-up data, and input of this data over the life of the patient, are also considered...
  6. doi request reprint Stratification of complexity: the Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 method and the Aristotle Complexity Score--past, present, and future
    Marshall Lewis Jacobs
    Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19073, USA
    Cardiol Young 18:163-8. 2008
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Anomalies of the coronary arteries: nomenclature and classification
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Center for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, United States of America
    Cardiol Young 20:15-9. 2010
    ..This article will provide the nomenclature and definitions used by these databases for anomalies of the coronary arteries...
  8. doi request reprint Report of the 2010 society of thoracic surgeons congenital heart surgery practice and manpower survey
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Department of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 92:762-8; discussion 768-9. 2011
    ..The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Workforce on Congenital Heart Surgery undertook a second subspecialty Practice and Manpower Survey (2005, 2010) to obtain contemporary data...
  9. pmc Linking the congenital heart surgery databases of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society: part 2--lessons learned and implications
    Jeffrey P Jacobs
    Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiac Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 5:272-82. 2014
    ....
  10. doi request reprint The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database 2016 Annual Report
    Jeffrey P Jacobs
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins All Children s Heart Institute, Johns Hopkins All Children s Hospital and Florida Hospital for Children, Saint Petersburg, Tampa, and Orlando, Florida Electronic address
    Ann Thorac Surg 102:1790-1797. 2016
    ....
  11. doi request reprint Modified Model for End-Stage Liver Disease eXcluding INR (MELD-XI) Score Predicts Early Death After Pediatric Heart Transplantation
    Joshua C Grimm
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland
    Ann Thorac Surg 101:730-5. 2016
    ..We sought to determine the ability of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease eXcluding INR (MELD-XI) to predict short-term and long-term outcomes in pediatric patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplant...
  12. doi request reprint Mortality Trends in Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery: An Analysis of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database
    Jeffrey P Jacobs
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins All Children s Heart Institute, Johns Hopkins All Children s Hospital and Florida Hospital for Children, Saint Petersburg, Tampa, and Orlando, Florida Electronic address
    Ann Thorac Surg 102:1345-52. 2016
    ..The STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database (STS CHSD) was queried to assess multiinstitutional trends over time in discharge mortality and postoperative length of stay (PLOS)...
  13. doi request reprint Reoperative techniques for complications after arterial switch
    Constantine Mavroudis
    Department of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Children s Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 92:1747-54; discussion 1754-5. 2011
    ..The purpose of this study is to review our experience with late reoperations after the arterial switch operation (ASO) and to introduce reparative solutions adapted from previous techniques...
  14. doi request reprint Delayed Sternal Closure in Infant Heart Surgery-The Importance of Where and When: An Analysis of the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database
    Kristen Nelson-McMillan
    Departments of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, and Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Electronic address
    Ann Thorac Surg 102:1565-1572. 2016
    ..We hypothesized that duration of sternum left open (SLO) was associated with rate of infection complications, and that location of sternal closure may mitigate infection risk...
  15. ncbi request reprint Total cavopulmonary connection to one lung
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Sections of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Cardiology, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Philadelphia, PA 19134, USA
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 7:72-9. 2004
    ..It is clear, however, that the presence of only one pulmonary artery does not in and of itself preclude satisfactory outcome...
  16. doi request reprint Protocols associated with no mortality in 100 consecutive Fontan procedures
    Marshall L Jacobs
    The Heart Center for Children, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Drexel University College of Medicine, Erie Avenue at Front Street, Philadelphia, PA 19134, USA
    Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 33:626-32. 2008
    ..Our protocols of operative and intensive care unit management address these potential issues, and have been associated with zero mortality, even with many high-risk candidates...
  17. doi request reprint The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database: 2016 Update on Outcomes and Quality
    Jeffrey P Jacobs
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins All Children s Heart Institute, All Children s Hospital and Florida Hospital for Children, Saint Petersburg, Tampa, and Orlando, Florida Electronic address
    Ann Thorac Surg 101:850-62. 2016
    ..3% (0.0% to 6.7%); Glenn/hemiFontan, 2.1% (0.0% to 3.8%); Fontan operation, 1.4% (0.0% to 2.4%); truncus arteriosus repair, 9.6% (0.0 % to 11.8%); and Norwood procedure, 15.6% (10.0% to 21.4%). ..
  18. pmc Contemporary Fontan operation: association between early outcome and type of cavopulmonary connection
    Robert D Stewart
    Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 93:1254-60; discussion 1261. 2012
    ..The effect of the type of connection on early outcomes after Fontan operation remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of Fontan type on early outcome in a large clinical database...
  19. doi request reprint An overview of surgery options for congenital coronary artery anomalies
    Constantine Mavroudis
    Center for Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Diseases, Cleveland Clinic Children s Hospital, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
    Future Cardiol 6:627-45. 2010
    ..Surgical therapies for ischemic syndromes associated over the long term of these anomalies are presented herein...
  20. doi request reprint Association of nadir oxygen delivery on cardiopulmonary bypass with serum glial fibrillary acid protein levels in paediatric heart surgery patients
    J Trent Magruder
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 23:531-7. 2016
    ..Protecting the brain during cardiac surgery is a major challenge. We evaluated associations between nadir oxygen delivery (DO2) during paediatric cardiac surgery and a biomarker of brain injury, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)...
  21. pmc Reoperations for pediatric and congenital heart disease: an analysis of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) congenital heart surgery database
    Jeffrey P Jacobs
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md Electronic address
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 17:2-8. 2014
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Informed consent, bioethical equipoise, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome
    Constantine Mavroudis
    Department of Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Surgery, Center for Ethics, Humanities and Spiritual Care, Cleveland Clinic Children s Hospital, 9500Euclid Avenue M41 02, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA
    Cardiol Young 21:133-40. 2011
    ....
  23. doi request reprint Management of the ventricular septal defect during double switch operation for atrioventricular discordant connections
    Constantine Mavroudis
    Department of Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Surgery, Center for Pediatric and Adult Congenital Heart Diseases, Cleveland Clinic, The Children s Hospital, Cleveland, OH, USA
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 14:29-34. 2011
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Late complications associated with the Fontan circulation
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19134, USA
    Cardiol Young 16:80-4. 2006
  25. doi request reprint Simplified mitral valve repair in pediatric patients with connective tissue disorders
    Luca A Vricella
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Md Electronic address
    J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 153:399-403. 2017
    ..We adopted a simplified repair to address MR and prevent systolic anterior motion (SAM) in this unique group of patients...
  26. doi request reprint Outcomes Following Single and Recurrent In-Hospital Cardiac Arrests in Children With Heart Disease: A Report From American Heart Association's Get With the Guidelines Registry-Resuscitation
    Punkaj Gupta
    1Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Arkansas Children s Hospital, University of Arkansas Medical Center, Little Rock, AR 2Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Arkansas Children s Hospital, University of Arkansas Medical Center, Little Rock, AR 3Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 4Johns Hopkins Children s Heart Surgery, All Children s Hospital, Saint Petersburg, Florida, St Petersburg, Tampa, FL 5Division of Cardiac Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 6Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pediatrics, Arkansas Children s Hospital, University of Arkansas Medical Center, Little Rock, AR 7Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery 8University of Pennsylvania Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Philadelphia, PA 9Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia Philadelphia, PA
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 17:531-9. 2016
    ..We described clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes in cardiac patients with both single and recurrent cardiac arrests...
  27. doi request reprint Introduction to the STS National Database Series: Outcomes Analysis, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety
    Jeffrey P Jacobs
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins All Children s Heart Institute, All Children s Hospital and Florida Hospital for Children, Saint Petersburg, Tampa, and Orlando, Florida Electronic address
    Ann Thorac Surg 100:1992-2000. 2015
    ..This series will allow STS and its Workforces on National Databases, Research Development, and Patient Safety to convey timely information aimed at improving the quality and safety of cardiothoracic surgery...
  28. doi request reprint The Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society Registry of Anomalous Aortic Origin of a Coronary Artery: an update
    Julie A Brothers
    1Division of Cardiology, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    Cardiol Young 25:1567-71. 2015
    ..In this report, we describe the data we have collected from the registry and the current state of the registry. ..
  29. doi request reprint Plastic bronchitis in patients with fontan physiology: review of the literature and preliminary experience with fontan conversion and cardiac transplantation
    Madeleine Larue
    Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA
    World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 3:364-72. 2012
    ..We propose that bronchial cast formation may result from the confluence of genetic makeup, inflammation, and the Fontan physiology and conclude that further investigation into therapies directed at these factors is merited. ..
  30. ncbi request reprint The role of Fontan's procedure and aortic translocation in the surgical management of patients with discordant atrioventricular connections, interventricular communication, and pulmonary stenosis or atresia
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19134, USA
    Cardiol Young 16:97-102. 2006
  31. ncbi request reprint Surgical palliation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome: is there a role for hypothermic circulatory arrest?
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Philadelphia, PA 19134, USA
    Cardiol Young 14:65-9. 2004
  32. ncbi request reprint Recent innovations in the Norwood sequence of operations
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, St Christopher s Hospitalfor Children, Philadelphia 19134, USA
    Cardiol Young 14:47-51. 2004
  33. doi request reprint Coronary steal syndrome after coronary artery bypass for anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery
    Benjamin A Youdelman
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 87:1292-5. 2009
    ..We recommend caution in choosing coronary artery bypass grafting using a left internal mammary artery pedicle graft for the treatment of anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery...
  34. doi request reprint The registry of anomalous aortic origin of the coronary artery of the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society
    Julie A Brothers
    The Division of Cardiology, The Children s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States of America
    Cardiol Young 20:50-8. 2010
    ..In this report, we describe the creation and design of the Registry of Anomalous Aortic Origin of the Coronary Artery. Data from the registry will be published at a later date...
  35. pmc Linking the congenital heart surgery databases of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the Congenital Heart Surgeons' Society: part 1--rationale and methodology
    Jeffrey P Jacobs
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 5:256-71. 2014
    ....
  36. doi request reprint Prenatal diagnosis and neonatal surgical management of a giant proximal right coronary artery to right ventricular fistula
    Megan Daniel
    Center for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA
    World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 1:243-8. 2010
    ..Timely and appropriate diagnosis and surgical management resulted in preserved patency of the right coronary artery and restoration of normal right ventricular function. ..
  37. doi request reprint Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations in Heterotaxy Syndrome: The Case for Early, Direct Hepatic Vein-to-Azygos Vein Connection
    Danielle S Burstein
    Center for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio
    World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2:119-28. 2011
    ..We review the physiology of heterotaxy syndrome with congenital heart disease and justify our approach in the context of a review of previous surgical strategies used in this patient population. ..
  38. ncbi request reprint Nomenclature of the functionally univentricular heart
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
    Cardiol Young 16:3-8. 2006
  39. ncbi request reprint Right aortic arch, isolated left subclavian artery and ductus arteriosus with normal intracardiac anatomy: rare manifestation of chromosome 22q11 deletion
    Nandini Madan
    Heart Center for Children, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Erie Avenue and Front Street, Philadelphia, PA 19134, USA
    Pediatr Cardiol 27:781-3. 2006
  40. ncbi request reprint The hemi-Fontan operation
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Philadelphia, PA 19134, USA
    Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu 6:90-7. 2003
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Staged reconstructive surgery--the most appropriate therapy for hypoplastic left heart syndrome
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, St Christopher s Hospitalfor Children, Philadelphia, PA 19134, USA
    Cardiol Young 14:105-8. 2004
  42. doi request reprint The Effect of Institutional Volume on Complications and Their Impact on Mortality After Pediatric Heart Transplantation
    Cecillia Lui
    Division of Cardiac Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland
    Ann Thorac Surg 100:1423-31. 2015
    ..This study evaluated the potential association of institutional volume with survival and mortality subsequent to major complications in a modern cohort of pediatric patients after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT)...
  43. doi request reprint Transparency and Public Reporting of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery Outcomes in North America
    Jeffrey P Jacobs
    Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins All Children s Heart Institute, All Children s Hospital and Florida Hospital for Children, Saint Petersburg, Tampa, and Orlando, FL, USA Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 7:49-53. 2016
    ..It is our expectation that in the future, this information will also be publicly reported. In this era of increased transparency, the complete and accurate coding of both patient-level factors and procedure-level factors is critical. ..
  44. doi request reprint Challenges of univentricular physiology in heterotaxy
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Center for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Diseases, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA
    World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2:258-63. 2011
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint Invited commentary
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Erie Ave at Front St, Philadelphia, PA 19134 1095, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 84:855-6. 2007
  46. ncbi request reprint Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19134 1095, USA
    Ann Thorac Surg 86:1049-51. 2008
  47. ncbi request reprint The Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome
    Marshall L Jacobs
    Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, St Christopher s Hospital For Children, Philadelphia 19134, USA
    Cardiol Young 14:34-40. 2004