D Grimes

Summary

Affiliation: Family Health International
Country: USA

Publications

  1. doi "Case-control" confusion: mislabeled reports in obstetrics and gynecology journals
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 114:1284-6. 2009
  2. ncbi Oral contraceptives for functional ovarian cysts
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, Clinical Research Department, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2006
  3. ncbi Immediate post-partum insertion of intrauterine devices
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2003
  4. ncbi Combined hormonal versus nonhormonal versus progestin-only contraception in lactation
    S T Truitt
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2003
  5. ncbi Steroid hormones for contraception in men
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2004
  6. ncbi Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2004
  7. ncbi Fertility awareness-based methods for contraception
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2004
  8. ncbi Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2002
  9. ncbi Spermicide used alone for contraception
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, Durham, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2005
  10. ncbi Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for heavy bleeding or pain associated with intrauterine-device use
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, Clinical Research Department, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2006

Detail Information

Publications100

  1. doi "Case-control" confusion: mislabeled reports in obstetrics and gynecology journals
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 114:1284-6. 2009
    ..To review published articles in four U.S. obstetrics and gynecology journals labeled "case-control" studies to estimate the frequency of mislabeling the type of study...
  2. ncbi Oral contraceptives for functional ovarian cysts
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, Clinical Research Department, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2006
    ..This became a common clinical practice in the early 1970s...
  3. ncbi Immediate post-partum insertion of intrauterine devices
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2003
    ..The woman is known not to be pregnant, her motivation for contraception may be high and the setting may be convenient for both the woman and her provider. However, the risk of spontaneous expulsion may be unacceptably high...
  4. ncbi Combined hormonal versus nonhormonal versus progestin-only contraception in lactation
    S T Truitt
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2003
    ..Additionally, because the return of menstruation and ovulation can be unpredictable in breastfeeding women, the timing of contraception initiation is important...
  5. ncbi Steroid hormones for contraception in men
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2004
    ..Administration of sex steroids to men can shut off sperm production through effects on the pituitary and hypothalamus. However, this approach also decreases production of testosterone, so "add-back" therapy is needed...
  6. ncbi Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2004
    ..However, insertion of an IUD immediately after a pregnancy ends carries potential risks as well. For example, the risk of spontaneous expulsion may be increased due to recent cervical dilation...
  7. ncbi Fertility awareness-based methods for contraception
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2004
    ..Fertility awareness-based methods can be used with abstinence from sexual intercourse. Alternatively, they can be used with barrier contraceptives or withdrawal during presumed fertile times...
  8. ncbi Immediate postabortal insertion of intrauterine devices
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2002
    ..Gillett 1980] Another potential concern is infection. Insertion of an IUD after a clandestine or unsafe abortion may increase the risk of upper genital tract infection compared with interval insertion (remote from pregnancy)...
  9. ncbi Spermicide used alone for contraception
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, Durham, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2005
    ..Spermicides contain an active ingredient (most commonly nonoxynol-9) and a formulation used to disperse the product, such as foam or vaginal suppository...
  10. ncbi Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for heavy bleeding or pain associated with intrauterine-device use
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, Clinical Research Department, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, Durham, NC 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2006
    ..Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, have been shown to be effective in reducing menstrual bleeding and pain in women without IUDs...
  11. ncbi Steroid hormones for contraception in men
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, Clinical Research, Post Office Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2007
    ..Administration of sex steroids to men can shut off sperm production through effects on the pituitary and hypothalamus. However, this approach also decreases production of testosterone, so 'add-back' therapy is needed...
  12. ncbi Immediate post-partum insertion of intrauterine devices
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2001
    ..To assess the efficacy and feasibility of IUD insertion immediately after expulsion of the placenta. Our a priori hypothesis was that this practice is safe but associated with higher expulsion rates than interval IUD insertion...
  13. ncbi Biphasic versus monophasic oral contraceptives for contraception
    H van Vliet
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2001
    ....
  14. ncbi Antibiotic prophylaxis for intrauterine contraceptive device insertion
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2001
    ..Thus, antibiotic administration before IUD insertion might reduce the risk of upper genital tract infection from passive introduction of bacteria at insertion...
  15. doi Oral contraceptives for functional ovarian cysts
    David A Grimes
    Behavioral and Biomedical Research, Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2009
    ..This became a common clinical practice in the early 1970s...
  16. ncbi Antibiotic prophylaxis for intrauterine contraceptive device insertion
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2000
    ..Thus, antibiotic administration before IUD insertion might reduce the risk of upper genital tract infection from passive introduction of bacteria at insertion...
  17. ncbi Immediate post-abortal insertion of intrauterine devices
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2000
    ..To assess the safety and efficacy of IUD insertion immediately after spontaneous or induced abortion...
  18. ncbi Biphasic versus monophasic oral contraceptives for contraception
    H van Vliet
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2001
    ..Three approaches have been used to decrease these adverse effects: reduction of steroid dose, development of new steroids, and new formulas and schedules of administration. The third strategy led to the biphasic oral contraceptive pill...
  19. ncbi Biphasic versus triphasic oral contraceptives for contraception
    H van Vliet
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2001
    ..A suggested disadvantage of biphasic oral contraceptive pills as compared to triphasic oral contraceptive pills is an increase in breakthrough bleeding. We conducted this systematic review to examine this potential disadvantage...
  20. ncbi Biphasic versus monophasic oral contraceptives for contraception
    H A A M van Vliet
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2003
    ..Three approaches have been used to decrease these adverse effects: reduction of steroid dose, development of new steroids, and new formulas and schedules of administration. The third strategy led to the biphasic oral contraceptive pill...
  21. ncbi Antibiotic prophylaxis for intrauterine contraceptive device insertion
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA, 27709
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2001
    ..Thus, antibiotic administration before IUD insertion might reduce the risk of upper genital tract infection from passive introduction of bacteria at insertion...
  22. ncbi Teaching critical appraisal to medical students in obstetrics and gynecology
    D A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 92:877-82. 1998
    ..Although we lack a quantitative assessment of this approach, student feedback has been enthusiastic. Critical appraisal skills enable students to continue their medical education after completion of their formal training...
  23. doi Do clinical experts rely on the Cochrane library?
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 111:420-2. 2008
    ..Although about one half of Clinical Expert Series articles cited relevant Cochrane reviews, most eligible reviews were not referenced. Wider use of Cochrane reviews could strengthen the scientific basis of this popular series...
  24. doi Forgettable contraception
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13952, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 80:497-9. 2009
    ..Stated alternatively, the only class of contraceptives today with exclusively first-tier effectiveness is the one that can be started -- and then forgotten for years...
  25. ncbi When to deliver the stunted fetus?
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 364:483-4. 2004
  26. ncbi Steroid hormones for contraception in men: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 71:89-94. 2005
    ..To avoid bias, future trials need to pay more attention on the methodological requirements for randomized controlled trials. Trials with adequate power would also be helpful...
  27. ncbi Compared to what? Finding controls for case-control studies
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1429-33. 2005
    ..Although no ideal control group exists, readers need to think carefully about how representative the controls are. Poor choice of controls can lead to both wrong results and possible medical harm...
  28. ncbi Refining clinical diagnosis with likelihood ratios
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1500-5. 2005
    ..When combined with an accurate clinical diagnosis, likelihood ratios from ancillary tests improve diagnostic accuracy in a synergistic manner...
  29. ncbi Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 105:1114-8. 2005
    ..The clinical maxim that "a difference to be a difference must make a difference" applies to research as well. Clinical research should focus on outcomes that matter...
  30. ncbi The Good Clinical Practice guideline: a bronze standard for clinical research
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Lancet 366:172-4. 2005
  31. ncbi Fertility awareness-based methods for contraception: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 72:85-90. 2005
    ..The efficacy and acceptability of these methods are unclear...
  32. ncbi Clinical research in obstetrics and gynecology: more tips for busy clinicians
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 60:S53-69. 2005
  33. ncbi The nomogram epidemic: resurgence of a medical relic
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Ann Intern Med 149:273-5. 2008
    ..Modern computing features both accuracy and speed; nomograms offer only the latter...
  34. ncbi Estimation of pregnancy-related mortality risk by pregnancy outcome, United States, 1991 to 1999
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 194:92-4. 2006
    ..Abortion (legal and spontaneous) was associated with the lowest risk, live birth intermediate risk, and ectopic pregnancy and fetal death the highest risk...
  35. ncbi Magnesium sulfate tocolysis: time to quit
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 108:986-9. 2006
    ..Should tocolysis be desired, calcium channel blockers, such as nifedipine, seem preferable...
  36. doi Making sense of odds and odds ratios
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 111:423-6. 2008
    ..Because of the difficulty in understanding odds ratios, their use should probably be limited to case-control studies and logistic regression, for which odds ratios are the proper measures of association...
  37. doi Nonspecific side effects of oral contraceptives: nocebo or noise?
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 83:5-9. 2011
    ..When in doubt, clinicians should err on the side of optimism...
  38. ncbi Cochrane systematic reviews of IUD trials: lessons learned
    David A Grimes
    Family Health, International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27796, USA
    Contraception 75:S55-9. 2007
    ..Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are the most widely used reversible contraceptives in the world today, and decisions about their use should reflect the best available evidence...
  39. ncbi "Oligozoospermia," "azoospermia," and other semen-analysis terminology: the need for better science
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Fertil Steril 88:1491-4. 2007
    ..g., "oligozoospermia" and "azoospermia") are unscientific, have overlapping definitions, and are often misinterpreted. The best course is to abandon these vague and difficult labels and simply report semen analyses quantitatively...
  40. ncbi Intrauterine contraception as an alternative to interval tubal sterilization
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 77:6-9. 2008
  41. ncbi Uses and abuses of screening tests
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:881-4. 2002
    ..However, inappropriate application or interpretation of screening tests can rob people of their perceived health, initiate harmful diagnostic testing, and squander health-care resources...
  42. ncbi Bias and causal associations in observational research
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:248-52. 2002
    ..Differentiation between spurious, indirect, and causal associations can be difficult. Criteria such as temporal sequence, strength and consistency of an association, and evidence of a dose-response effect lend support to a causal link...
  43. ncbi Descriptive studies: what they can and cannot do
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:145-9. 2002
    ..Hypotheses about causation from descriptive studies are often tested in rigorous analytical studies...
  44. ncbi Cohort studies: marching towards outcomes
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:341-5. 2002
    ..Strengths of a cohort study include the ability to calculate incidence rates, relative risks, and 95% CIs. This format is the preferred way of presenting study results, rather that with p values...
  45. ncbi An overview of clinical research: the lay of the land
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:57-61. 2002
    ..By contrast, p values address only chance. Testing null hypotheses at a p value of 0.05 has no basis in medicine and should be discouraged...
  46. ncbi Emergency contraception over-the-counter: the medical and legal imperatives
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 98:151-5. 2001
    ..The current prescription requirement is not only gratuitous but also harmful to women's health because it impedes access to this important therapy...
  47. ncbi Immediate post-partum insertion of intrauterine devices: a Cochrane review
    D Grimes
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Hum Reprod 17:549-54. 2002
    ..Our a priori hypothesis was that this practice is safe, but associated with higher expulsion rates than interval IUD insertion...
  48. ncbi Intrauterine device and upper-genital-tract infection
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Lancet 356:1013-9. 2000
    ..Similarly, fair evidence indicates no important effect of IUD use on tubal infertility. Contemporary IUDs rival tubal sterilisation in efficacy and are much safer than previously thought...
  49. ncbi A faculty development course in obstetrics and gynecology
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 183:1041-4. 2000
    ..In addition, many participants have introduced the principles of evidence-based medicine in their own teaching programs...
  50. ncbi Prophylactic antibiotics for intrauterine device insertion: a metaanalysis of the randomized controlled trials
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Contraception 60:57-63. 1999
    ..A more important finding in these trials is the low incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease with or without prophylactic antibiotics...
  51. ncbi Emergency contraception
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Ann Intern Med 137:180-9. 2002
    ..Easier access to and wider use of emergency contraception could dramatically lower the high rates of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in the United States...
  52. ncbi Bundling a pregnancy test with the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception
    D A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 94:471-3. 1999
    ..However, this approach sets a worrisome precedent and further isolates the United States from the international medical community...
  53. ncbi Perspectives on the Women's Health Initiative trial of hormone replacement therapy
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 100:1344-53. 2002
    ..Heart disease prevention strategies of proven value include exercise, weight control, blood pressure and lipid control, and avoidance of smoking. Hormone replacement therapy should not be used for this purpose...
  54. ncbi Emergency contraception and fire extinguishers: a prevention paradox
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Am J Obstet Gynecol 187:1536-8. 2002
    ..Clearly, a double standard prevails in prevention strategies for women. The Food and Drug Administration should approve over-the-counter availability of emergency contraception without further study or delay...
  55. ncbi Clinical research in obstetrics and gynecology: a Baedeker for busy clinicians
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 57:S35-53. 2002
  56. ncbi Patients' understanding of medical risks: implications for genetic counseling
    D A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 93:910-4. 1999
    ..To assess patients' ability to compare magnitudes of Down syndrome risk at maternal ages of 35 and 40 years, expressed as rates or as proportions...
  57. pmc Sino-implant (II)--a levonorgestrel-releasing two-rod implant: systematic review of the randomized controlled trials
    Markus J Steiner
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 81:197-201. 2010
    ..We examined randomized controlled trials of Sino-implant (II) for effectiveness and side effects...
  58. ncbi The public health impact of legal abortion: 30 years later
    Willard Cates
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    Perspect Sex Reprod Health 35:25-8. 2003
  59. ncbi Noncontraceptive health benefits of intrauterine devices: a systematic review
    David Hubacher
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 57:120-8. 2002
    ..Like oral contraceptives, intrauterine contraceptives confer important noncontraceptive health benefits...
  60. ncbi Case-control studies: research in reverse
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:431-4. 2002
    ..Devotion of meticulous attention to these points enhances the validity of the results and bolsters the reader's confidence in the findings...
  61. doi Postpartum education for contraception: a systematic review
    Laureen M Lopez
    Behavioral and Biomedical Research, Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 65:325-31. 2010
    ..The longer-term programs were promising and not necessarily more costly than usual care. Health care providers can determine if 1 of these interventions suits their setting and level of resources...
  62. ncbi [Failures in sample size calculation in randomized trial: mandatory and mystical]
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, Research, Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 100:129-35. 2006
  63. ncbi Generation of allocation sequences in randomised trials: chance, not choice
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:515-9. 2002
    ..Investigators should devote appropriate resources to the generation of properly randomised trials and reporting their methods clearly...
  64. ncbi Nonhormonal drugs for contraception in men: a systematic review
    Laureen M Lopez
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 60:746-52. 2005
    ..Clinical trials studied injecting styrene maleic anhydride into the vas deferens, but no comparative data were provided. At this time, no safe and effective nonhormonal drug is available for contraception in men...
  65. ncbi Allocation concealment in randomised trials: defending against deciphering
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, 27709, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
    Lancet 359:614-8. 2002
    ..Hypothesis tests of baseline characteristics, however, are superfluous and could be harmful if they lead investigators to suppress reporting any baseline imbalances...
  66. doi Theory-based strategies for improving contraceptive use: a systematic review
    Laureen M Lopez
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 79:411-7. 2009
    ..Theories and models help explain how behavior change occurs. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials that examined theory-based interventions for improving contraceptive use...
  67. ncbi Blinding in randomised trials: hiding who got what
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:696-700. 2002
    ..Unfortunately, many articles do not contain proper reporting. If an article claims blinding without any accompanying clarification, readers should remain sceptical about its effect on bias reduction...
  68. ncbi Sample size slippages in randomised trials: exclusions and the lost and wayward
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:781-5. 2002
    ..Unfortunately, some explanations for mishandling exclusions intuitively appeal to readers, disguising the seriousness of the issues. Creative mismanagement of exclusions can undermine trial validity...
  69. ncbi [Epidemiological methods 7: secrecy of randomization in randomized studies: how one defends against decisions]
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 101:499-505. 2007
  70. ncbi Multiplicity in randomised trials II: subgroup and interim analyses
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1657-61. 2005
    ..Investigators and readers, however, need to grasp that the estimated treatment effects are prone to exaggeration, a random high, with early stopping...
  71. ncbi Unequal group sizes in randomised trials: guarding against guessing
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 359:966-70. 2002
    ..Simple randomisation contributes the unpredictability whereas permuted-block randomisation contributes the balance, but avoids the perfect balance that can result in selection bias...
  72. ncbi Sample size calculations in randomised trials: mandatory and mystical
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Lancet 365:1348-53. 2005
    ..Unbiased trials with imprecise results trump no results at all. Clinicians and patients deserve guidance now...
  73. ncbi [Epidemiological methods 8: blinded randomized trial: what one covers up is what one obtains]
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Z Arztl Fortbild Qualitatssich 101:630-7. 2007
  74. ncbi Biphasic versus triphasic oral contraceptives for contraception
    Hubertus A A M van Vliet
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 65:321-4. 2002
    ..This suggests that the choice of progestin may be more important that the phasic regimen in determining bleeding patterns...
  75. ncbi Mifepristone and misoprostol versus dilation and evacuation for midtrimester abortion: a pilot randomised controlled trial
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    BJOG 111:148-53. 2004
    ..To test the feasibility of mounting a randomised controlled trial comparing mifepristone-misoprostol versus dilation and evacuation (D&E) for midtrimester abortion...
  76. ncbi Multiplicity in randomised trials I: endpoints and treatments
    Kenneth F Schulz
    Family Health International, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 USA
    Lancet 365:1591-5. 2005
    ..In these cases, adjustments somewhat rescue scattershot analyses. Readers need to be aware of the potential for under-reporting of analyses...
  77. ncbi Reducing publication bias through trial registration
    Lisa N Abaid
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 109:1434-7. 2007
    ..Trial registration and the development of comprehensive, computerized databases will promote transparency in research and help reduce publication bias...
  78. ncbi Expectant care versus surgical treatment for miscarriage
    K Nanda
    Family Health International, Clinical Research Department, PO Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2006
    ..The need for routine surgical evacuation with miscarriage has been questioned because of potential complications such as cervical trauma, uterine perforation, hemorrhage, or infection...
  79. ncbi Can intrauterine device removals for bleeding or pain be predicted at a one-month follow-up visit? A multivariate analysis
    J Stanback
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Contraception 58:357-60. 1998
    ..5 times more likely to have removals within 12 months (95% CI 1.4-9.2). Women reporting these menstrual problems during scheduled revisits may benefit from counseling and treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)...
  80. ncbi Combination estrogen-progestin contraceptives and body weight: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    Maria F Gallo
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 103:359-73. 2004
    ..This concern can deter women from starting hormonal contraception or lead to premature quitting. This review evaluated the association between combination contraceptive use and change in body weight...
  81. ncbi Risks of mifepristone abortion in context
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7570, USA
    Contraception 71:161. 2005
  82. doi The choice of second trimester abortion method: evolution, evidence and ethics
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA
    Reprod Health Matters 16:183-8. 2008
    ..According to the principles of evidence-based medicine and bioethics, these barriers to better care for women can and should be overcome...
  83. ncbi Diaphragm versus diaphragm with spermicides for contraception
    L Cook
    Clinical Trials, Family Health International, 2224 E NC HWY 54, Durham, NC 27707, USA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2001
    ..The diaphragm is usually used with a spermicide. However, some practitioners have suggested that spermicides offer no additional contraceptive protection and have advocated alternative guidelines for the use of diaphragms...
  84. ncbi Unsafe abortion: the preventable pandemic
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7570, USA
    Lancet 368:1908-19. 2006
    ..The underlying causes of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion today are not blood loss and infection but, rather, apathy and disdain toward women...
  85. ncbi Effect of lactation on maternal body weight: a systematic review
    Anna B Fraser
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 58:265-9. 2003
    ....
  86. ncbi Unsafe abortion: the silent scourge
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Br Med Bull 67:99-113. 2003
    ..While the debate over abortion will continue, the public health record is settled: safe, legal, accessible abortion improves health...
  87. ncbi Induced abortion: an overview for internists
    David A Grimes
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 7570, USA
    Ann Intern Med 140:620-6. 2004
    ..The cost of abortion (currently about 372 dollars at 10 weeks) has decreased in recent decades. Provision of ongoing contraception and encouragement of emergency contraception can reduce unintended pregnancies and the need for abortion...
  88. doi Intrauterine devices for adolescents: a systematic review
    Elizabeth I Deans
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 7570, USA
    Contraception 79:418-23. 2009
    ..Unplanned pregnancy among teenagers remains epidemic, and long-acting methods, such as IUDs, offer the promise of top-tier effectiveness...
  89. ncbi Switching emergency contraception to over-the-counter status
    David A Grimes
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27713, USA
    N Engl J Med 347:846-9. 2002
  90. ncbi Twenty micrograms vs. >20 microg estrogen oral contraceptives for contraception: systematic review of randomized controlled trials
    Maria F Gallo
    Family Health International, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA
    Contraception 71:162-9. 2005
    ..While health care providers and women might select COCs containing 20 microg EE based on theoretical improvements in safety profile from the reduced dose of estrogen, no evidence is available to support this choice...
  91. ncbi Biphasic versus monophasic oral contraceptives for contraception: a Cochrane review
    Hubertus A A M van Vliet
    Family Health International, P O Box 13950, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA
    Hum Reprod 17:870-3. 2002
    ....
  92. ncbi Effect of a levonorgestrel intrauterine system on women with type 1 diabetes: a randomized trial
    Svetlana Rogovskaya
    Research Center of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Perinatology, Russian Academy of Medical Science, Moscow, Russia
    Obstet Gynecol 105:811-5. 2005
    ..To examine the effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on glucose metabolism in diabetic women...
  93. ncbi Family planning for obese women: challenges and opportunities
    David A Grimes
    Contraception 72:1-4. 2005
  94. ncbi Intrauterine insemination versus timed intercourse for cervical hostility in subfertile couples
    Frans M Helmerhorst
    Department of Gynaecology, Division of Reproductive Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 61:402-14; quiz 423. 2006
    ....
  95. ncbi The "CONSORT" guidelines for randomized controlled trials in Obstetrics & Gynecology
    David A Grimes
    Obstet Gynecol 100:631-2. 2002
  96. ncbi Advance provision of emergency contraception for pregnancy prevention: a meta-analysis
    Chelsea B Polis
    Department of Population, Family, and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21202, USA
    Obstet Gynecol 110:1379-88. 2007
    ....
  97. ncbi Is there seasonal variation in risk of Parkinson's disease?
    Ronald B Postuma
    Department of Neurology, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Mov Disord 22:1097-101. 2007
    ..We found no evidence of systematic seasonal variation in PD incidence by birth date, or of clustering of birth dates during influenza pandemic years in PD patients...
  98. doi Effective medical education: insights from the Cochrane Library
    Winston G Satterlee
    Medical Affairs, Avant Healthcare Marketing, Carmel, Indiana 46032, USA
    Obstet Gynecol Surv 63:329-33. 2008
    ..Integrating the findings from the Cochrane reviews may allow continuing medical education to be more successful in bringing about changes to healthcare providers' behavior...
  99. ncbi Risks of mifepristone abortion in context
    David A Grimes
    Contraception 74:174-5 author reply175-6. 2006
  100. ncbi The Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group: synthesizing the best evidence about family planning
    Frans M Helmerhorst
    Fertility Regulation Group of the Cochrane Collaboration, Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Gynaecology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
    Contraception 74:280-6. 2006
    ..Systematic reviews of evidence, with an emphasis on randomized controlled trials when available, will continue to improve fertility regulation in the years ahead...