Bernard L Nahlen

Summary

Affiliation: Bureau for Global Health
Country: USA

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Serological markers for monitoring historical changes in malaria transmission intensity in a highly endemic region of Western Kenya, 1994-2009
    Jacklyn Wong
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Malar J 13:451. 2014
  2. pmc Effect of malaria transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (MSP-1) and circumsporozoite (CSP) in western Kenya
    Simon K Kariuki
    Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    Malar J 12:295. 2013
  3. pmc Temporal trends of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) drug-resistance molecular markers in Plasmodium falciparum parasites from pregnant women in western Kenya
    Nnaemeka C Iriemenam
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329 4018, USA
    Malar J 11:134. 2012
  4. pmc Effects of transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on parasite genetics population structure: I. The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum parasites by microsatellite markers in western Kenya
    Wangeci Gatei
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Malar J 9:353. 2010
  5. pmc Polymorphisms in genes of interleukin 12 and its receptors and their association with protection against severe malarial anaemia in children in western Kenya
    Lyna Zhang
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Malar J 9:87. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint Building to collective impact: the Global Fund support for measuring reduction in the burden of malaria
    Bernard L Nahlen
    Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Chemin de Blandonnet, 1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:321-7. 2007
  7. pmc Lives saved by Global Fund-supported HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria programs: estimation approach and results between 2003 and end-2007
    Ryuichi Komatsu
    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Chemin Blandonnet 8, 1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
    BMC Infect Dis 10:109. 2010
  8. pmc Malaria attributable to the HIV-1 epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa
    Eline L Korenromp
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1410-9. 2005
  9. ncbi request reprint Impact of malaria control on childhood anaemia in Africa -- a quantitative review
    Eline L Korenromp
    World Health Organization, Roll Back Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trop Med Int Health 9:1050-65. 2004
  10. ncbi request reprint Factors associated with hemoglobin concentrations in pre-school children in Western Kenya: cross-sectional studies
    Meghna R Desai
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 72:47-59. 2005

Collaborators

  • Daniel Low-Beer
  • Umberto D'Alessandro
  • Eline L Korenromp
  • Jesus M Garcia-Calleja
  • Richard W Steketee
  • Ryuichi Komatsu
  • Robert W Snow
  • Jennifer E Friedman
  • Meghna Desai
  • V Wiseman
  • Thomas Eisele
  • Alexander K Rowe
  • Michael D Green
  • Feiko O Ter Kuile
  • Penelope A Phillips-Howard
  • Ya Ping Shi
  • William A Hawley
  • Margarette S Kolczak
  • John M Vulule
  • Dianne J Terlouw
  • Jane A Alaii
  • Altaf A Lal
  • Laurence Slutsker
  • Anna M van Eijk
  • Simon K Kariuki
  • John E Gimnig
  • Venkatachalam Udhayakumar
  • John G Ayisi
  • Piet A Kager
  • Simon Kariuki
  • Juliana A Otieno
  • Wangeci Gatei
  • Aggrey J Oloo
  • Allen W Hightower
  • Kim A Lindblade
  • Daniel H Rosen
  • Mary J Hamel
  • Juliana Otieno
  • Julie M Moore
  • Amos Odhacha
  • S Patrick Kachur
  • Sujittra Chaisavaneeyakorn
  • Feiko ter Kuile
  • Jacklyn Wong
  • Kephas Otieno
  • Renu B Lal
  • Nnaemeka C Iriemenam
  • Lisa B Mirel
  • Jodi Vanden Eng
  • Dianne Terlouw
  • Douglas J Perkins
  • Lyna Zhang
  • Kathleen A Wannemuehler
  • Sara Crawford
  • Martin I Meltzer
  • Erik Schoute
  • Caroline Othoro
  • Ambrose O Misore
  • John Ayisi
  • John M Miller
  • Phillip Cullison Bonner
  • Kimberly C Brouwer
  • H W van den Borne
  • Tjalling Leenstra
  • Oren S Rosenberg
  • Monica E Parise
  • Halima Mwenesi
  • Jeanne M Courval
  • Sansanee C Chaiyaroj
  • Chris Odero
  • Vincent Were
  • Michael Aidoo
  • Peter Otieno
  • Peter B Bloland
  • Chris J Drakeley
  • Geofrey Muluvi
  • James Njunge
  • Ann Muia
  • Monica Shah
  • Julie Moore
  • Peter Ouma
  • Ashima A Lal
  • Yusuf O Omosun
  • Simon O Owino
  • Penelope Phillips-Howard
  • John Williamson
  • John Gimnig
  • Kim Lindblade
  • William Hawley
  • Mary Hamel

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. ncbi request reprint Serological markers for monitoring historical changes in malaria transmission intensity in a highly endemic region of Western Kenya, 1994-2009
    Jacklyn Wong
    Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Malar J 13:451. 2014
    ..It is unclear whether serological markers are also informative in high transmission settings, where interventions may reduce transmission, but to a level where considerable exposure continues...
  2. pmc Effect of malaria transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (MSP-1) and circumsporozoite (CSP) in western Kenya
    Simon K Kariuki
    Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    Malar J 12:295. 2013
    ..Although several studies have investigated the impact of reduced malaria transmission due to insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the patterns of morbidity and mortality, there is limited information on their effect on parasite diversity...
  3. pmc Temporal trends of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) drug-resistance molecular markers in Plasmodium falciparum parasites from pregnant women in western Kenya
    Nnaemeka C Iriemenam
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329 4018, USA
    Malar J 11:134. 2012
    ..SP remains the recommended drug for intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and information on population prevalence of the SP resistance molecular markers in pregnant women is limited...
  4. pmc Effects of transmission reduction by insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on parasite genetics population structure: I. The genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum parasites by microsatellite markers in western Kenya
    Wangeci Gatei
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Malar J 9:353. 2010
    ..This study examined the relationship between transmission reduction from ITN use and the population genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in an area of high ITN coverage in western Kenya...
  5. pmc Polymorphisms in genes of interleukin 12 and its receptors and their association with protection against severe malarial anaemia in children in western Kenya
    Lyna Zhang
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector Borne and Enteric Diseases, Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Malar J 9:87. 2010
    ..Based on the biological relevance of IL12 in malaria anaemia, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of IL12 and its receptors and SMA was examined...
  6. ncbi request reprint Building to collective impact: the Global Fund support for measuring reduction in the burden of malaria
    Bernard L Nahlen
    Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Chemin de Blandonnet, 1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 77:321-7. 2007
    ..To sustain the scale-up in funding to support malaria interventions, countries must ensure that resources are used now to show robust, systematic, and regular measurement of impact on the burden of malaria...
  7. pmc Lives saved by Global Fund-supported HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria programs: estimation approach and results between 2003 and end-2007
    Ryuichi Komatsu
    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, Chemin Blandonnet 8, 1214 Vernier, Geneva, Switzerland
    BMC Infect Dis 10:109. 2010
    ..This paper presents and discusses a methodology for estimating the lives saved through selected service deliveries reported to the Global Fund...
  8. pmc Malaria attributable to the HIV-1 epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa
    Eline L Korenromp
    World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
    Emerg Infect Dis 11:1410-9. 2005
    ..These effects were due to high HIV-1 prevalence in rural areas and the locally unstable nature of malaria transmission that results in a high proportion of adult cases...
  9. ncbi request reprint Impact of malaria control on childhood anaemia in Africa -- a quantitative review
    Eline L Korenromp
    World Health Organization, Roll Back Malaria, Geneva, Switzerland
    Trop Med Int Health 9:1050-65. 2004
    ..To review the impact of malaria control on haemoglobin (Hb) distributions and anaemia prevalences in children under 5 in malaria-endemic Africa...
  10. ncbi request reprint Factors associated with hemoglobin concentrations in pre-school children in Western Kenya: cross-sectional studies
    Meghna R Desai
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 72:47-59. 2005
    ..Prevention of severe anemia should start early in infancy and include a combination of micronutrient supplementation, malaria control, and possibly interventions against diarrheal illness...
  11. pmc Hemozoin differentially regulates proinflammatory cytokine production in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and -seronegative women with placental malaria
    Julie M Moore
    Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
    Infect Immun 72:7022-9. 2004
    ..Cytokine production dysregulated by accumulation of hemozoin or high-density parasitemia may induce pathology and impair protective immunity in HIV-infected and -uninfected women...
  12. ncbi request reprint Factors affecting use of permethrin-treated bed nets during a randomized controlled trial in western Kenya
    Jane A Alaii
    Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:137-41. 2003
    ..Challenges faced by health education programs to maximize adherence with ITN use are discussed...
  13. ncbi request reprint Polymorphism of Fc receptor IIa for immunoglobulin G is associated with placental malaria in HIV-1-positive women in western Kenya
    Kimberly C Brouwer
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Chamblee, GA 30341, USA
    J Infect Dis 190:1192-8. 2004
    ..The present study was undertaken to examine the relationship between Fc gamma RIIa polymorphism and placental malaria (PM) in pregnant women of known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 status...
  14. pmc Maternal malaria and perinatal HIV transmission, western Kenya
    John G Ayisi
    Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    Emerg Infect Dis 10:643-52. 2004
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Sustainability of reductions in malaria transmission and infant mortality in western Kenya with use of insecticide-treated bednets: 4 to 6 years of follow-up
    Kim A Lindblade
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    JAMA 291:2571-80. 2004
    ..Previous investigators have suggested that bednet use might paradoxically increase mortality in older children through delayed acquisition of immunity to malaria...
  16. pmc Placental malaria diminishes development of antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum epitopes in infants residing in an area of western Kenya where P. falciparum is endemic
    Phillip Cullison Bonner
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, NCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:375-9. 2005
    ..0035). These findings suggest that PM can negatively influence the development of immune responses to malaria in infants...
  17. ncbi request reprint Effect of sustained insecticide-treated bed net use on all-cause child mortality in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya
    Thomas P Eisele
    Department of International Heath and Development, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:149-56. 2005
    ..9%), after controlling for seasonality (AHR = 1.03, P = 0.834). We find no evidence that sustained ITN use increased the risk of mortality in older children in this area of intense perennial malaria transmission...
  18. ncbi request reprint Malaria and nutritional status among pre-school children: results from cross-sectional surveys in western Kenya
    Jennifer F Friedman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:698-704. 2005
    ....
  19. ncbi request reprint Relationship of measles vaccination with anaemia and malaria in western Kenya
    Meghna R Desai
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Centers for Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
    Trop Med Int Health 10:1099-107. 2005
    ..The objective of this paper was to determine if immunization with LAMV was associated with increased risk of transient anaemia and malaria infection...
  20. ncbi request reprint Effect of haematinic supplementation and malaria prevention on maternal anaemia and malaria in western Kenya
    Anna M van Eijk
    Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    Trop Med Int Health 12:342-52. 2007
    ..To evaluate the effect of routine antenatal haematinic supplementation programmes and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in Kenya...
  21. ncbi request reprint Estimating the number of insecticide-treated nets required by African households to reach continent-wide malaria coverage targets
    John M Miller
    PATH Malaria Control and Evaluation Partnership in Africa MACEPA, National Malaria Control Centre, Lusaka, Zambia
    JAMA 297:2241-50. 2007
    ..African countries are scaling up malaria interventions, especially insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), for which ambitious coverage targets have been set...
  22. ncbi request reprint HIV, malaria, and infant anemia as risk factors for postneonatal infant mortality among HIV-seropositive women in Kisumu, Kenya
    Anna M van Eijk
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    J Infect Dis 196:30-7. 2007
    ..We studied the association of placental malaria, infant malaria and anemia, and infant HIV status with postneonatal infant mortality (PNIM) among infants of HIV-seropositive women...
  23. ncbi request reprint Pharmacokinetics of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in HIV-infected and uninfected pregnant women in Western Kenya
    Michael D Green
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    J Infect Dis 196:1403-8. 2007
    ..We investigated whether this reflects their impaired immunity or an HIV-associated alteration in the disposition of SP...
  24. ncbi request reprint Viewpoint: evaluating the impact of malaria control efforts on mortality in sub-Saharan Africa
    Alexander K Rowe
    Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA
    Trop Med Int Health 12:1524-39. 2007
    ....
  25. ncbi request reprint The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya I. Development of infrastructure and description of study site
    Penelope A Phillips-Howard
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:3-9. 2003
    ..We outline the development of the human and physical infrastructure required to conduct this trial and discuss some of the difficulties encountered and lessons learned in conducting it...
  26. ncbi request reprint In vivo acquisition of hemozoin by placental blood mononuclear cells suppresses PGE2, TNF-alpha, and IL-10
    Douglas J Perkins
    Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 311:839-46. 2003
    ..Results presented here show that in vivo acquisition of high levels of hemozoin by IVBMC leads to decreased synthesis of PGE(2), IL-10, and TNF-alpha...
  27. pmc Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in treatment of malaria in Western Kenya: increasing resistance and underdosing
    Dianne J Terlouw
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:2929-32. 2003
    ..Underdosing may have contributed to the rate at which sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance developed in this area. Treatment guidelines should ensure that adequate doses are given from the initial deployment of antimalarials onward...
  28. pmc A rapid assessment approach for public health decision-making related to the prevention of malaria during pregnancy
    Monica E Parise
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
    Bull World Health Organ 81:316-23. 2003
    ..To develop a rapid field assessment methodology to address the burden of malaria during pregnancy and the options for intervening within the existing antenatal care system in Kenya...
  29. ncbi request reprint Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria, anemia, and growth in infants in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya
    Feiko O Ter Kuile
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:68-77. 2003
    ..Reduced malaria exposure during infancy did not result, with continued ITN use, in increased malaria morbidity in one-year-old children...
  30. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic and prescribing practices in peripheral health facilities in rural western Kenya
    Penelope A Phillips-Howard
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:44-9. 2003
    ..This study highlights limited diagnostic and prescribing practices and a lack of adherence to national treatment guidelines in rural western Kenya...
  31. ncbi request reprint Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on the incidence of sick child visits to peripheral health facilities
    Penelope A Phillips-Howard
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:38-43. 2003
    ..Routine statistics from these facilities provided useful information on trends in malaria incidence, but underestimated the burden of severe anemia...
  32. ncbi request reprint Efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of mortality in young children in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya
    Penelope A Phillips-Howard
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:23-9. 2003
    ..ITNs prevent approximately one in four infant deaths in areas of intense perennial malaria transmission, but their efficacy is compromised if re-treatment is delayed beyond six months...
  33. ncbi request reprint The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya II. Study design and methods
    Penelope A Phillips-Howard
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:10-5. 2003
    ..Methodologic difficulties encountered in such large-scale field trials are discussed...
  34. ncbi request reprint Risk factors for malaria in pregnancy in an urban and peri-urban population in western Kenya
    Anna M van Eijk
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kisumu, Kenya
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96:586-92. 2002
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Randomized, controlled trial of daily iron supplementation and intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of mild childhood anemia in western Kenya
    Meghna R Desai
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:658-66. 2003
    ..The combination of IPT and iron supplementation was most effective in the treatment of mild anemia. Although IPT prevented malaria, the hematological benefit it added to that of a single dose of SP and bednet use was modest...
  36. ncbi request reprint Treatment history and treatment dose are important determinants of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine efficacy in children with uncomplicated malaria in Western Kenya
    Dianne J Terlouw
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Infect Dis 187:467-76. 2003
    ..Many age-based dose recommendations need urgent revision, because SP is increasingly used as first-line treatment in sub-Saharan Africa...
  37. ncbi request reprint Immunity to placental malaria. IV. Placental malaria is associated with up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in intervillous blood
    Sujittra Chaisavaneeyakorn
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, United States Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    J Infect Dis 186:1371-5. 2002
    ..02). Primigravid and secundigravid women had significantly higher levels of MIF in their IVB plasma than did multigravid women (P<.05). HIV infection did not significantly alter MIF levels in any site examined...
  38. ncbi request reprint Malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection as risk factors for anemia in infants in Kisumu, western Kenya
    Anna M van Eijk
    Kenya Medical Research Institute, Center for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kisumu
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:44-53. 2002
    ..Although not proven effective in this study, micronutrient supplementation should be prospectively assessed in HIV-infected infants as a means of preventing anemia...
  39. ncbi request reprint Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on growth, nutritional status, and body composition of primary school children in western Kenya
    Jennifer F Friedman
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:78-85. 2003
    ..2%; P = 0.04). This may be consequent to reduced exposure to malaria with subsequent reduced elaboration of pro-inflammatory cytokines known to promote muscle wasting...
  40. ncbi request reprint Permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of malaria and anemia in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya
    Tjalling Leenstra
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Tropical Medicine and AIDS, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:86-93. 2003
    ..ITNs approximately halved the prevalence of mild anemia in young, school-attending, non-pregnant, adolescent girls, but had no impact in older girls or on other malaria-associated morbidity or nutritional status...
  41. pmc Levels of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and MIP-1 beta in intervillous blood plasma samples from women with placental malaria and human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Sujittra Chaisavaneeyakorn
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, U S Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:631-6. 2003
    ..In summary, an elevated level of MIP-1 beta was associated with PM. HIV infection did not significantly alter these two chemokine levels in IVB plasma...
  42. ncbi request reprint Implications of the western Kenya permethrin-treated bed net study for policy, program implementation, and future research
    William A Hawley
    Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:168-73. 2003
    ..Research should continue to improve the intervention tools (the net, the insecticide, and methods for durable treatment and re-treatment) and their deployment...
  43. ncbi request reprint The cost-effectiveness of permethrin-treated bed nets in an area of intense malaria transmission in western Kenya
    Virginia Wiseman
    Health Economics and Financing Programme and Gates Malaria Partnership, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:161-7. 2003
    ..S. dollars and 38 U.S. dollars, respectively. This study provides further evidence that ITNs are a highly cost-effective use of scarce health care resources...
  44. ncbi request reprint The household-level economics of using permethrin-treated bed nets to prevent malaria in children less than five years of age
    Martin I Meltzer
    Office of Surveillance, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:149-60. 2003
    ..50 U.S. dollars; P = 0.002), leaving little opportunity for household-level, ITN-induced direct savings. The widespread adoption of the ITNs will therefore probably require a subsidy...
  45. ncbi request reprint Perceptions of bed nets and malaria prevention before and after a randomized controlled trial of permethrin-treated bed nets in western Kenya
    Jane A Alaii
    Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:142-8. 2003
    ..036 (control) for re-treating a bed net. This study suggests that, despite two years of experience of use, bed nets and insecticides would not be purchased as a household priority in this impoverished rural community...
  46. ncbi request reprint Community reactions to the introduction of permethrin-treated bed nets for malaria control during a randomized controlled trial in western Kenya
    Jane A Alaii
    Center for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:128-36. 2003
    ..Attempts were made to allay fears by improved communication on these subjects and modification of the study design...
  47. ncbi request reprint Community-wide effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and malaria morbidity in western Kenya
    William A Hawley
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:121-7. 2003
    ..The strength of the community effect depended upon the proportion of nearby compounds with treated nets. To maximize their public health impact, high coverage with treated nets is essential...
  48. ncbi request reprint Effect of permethrin-treated bed nets on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in western Kenya
    John E Gimnig
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:115-20. 2003
    ....
  49. ncbi request reprint Effects of permethrin-treated bed nets on immunity to malaria in western Kenya II. Antibody responses in young children in an area of intense malaria transmission
    Simon K Kariuki
    Centre for Vector Biology and Control Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:108-14. 2003
    ....
  50. ncbi request reprint Impact of permethrin-treated bed nets on malaria and all-cause morbidity in young children in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya: cross-sectional survey
    Feiko O Ter Kuile
    Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30341, USA
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 68:100-7. 2003
    ..The ITNs substantially reduced malaria-associated morbidity and improved weight gain in young children in this area of intense perennial malaria transmission...
  51. ncbi request reprint Protective effects of the sickle cell gene against malaria morbidity and mortality
    Michael Aidoo
    Lancet 359:1311-2. 2002
    ..These data are important in understanding the role of malaria in the selection and maintenance of the sickle cell gene...