G Williams

Summary

Affiliation: University of Liverpool
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint The hypothalamus and the control of energy homeostasis: different circuits, different purposes
    G Williams
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, L69 3GA, Liverpool, UK
    Physiol Behav 74:683-701. 2001
  2. ncbi request reprint The hypothalamus and the regulation of energy homeostasis: lifting the lid on a black box
    G Williams
    Department of Medicine, The University of Liverpool, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 59:385-96. 2000
  3. ncbi request reprint Individual severity of dietary obesity in unselected Wistar rats: relationship with hyperphagia
    J A Harrold
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279:E340-7. 2000
  4. ncbi request reprint Troglitazone corrects metabolic changes but not vascular dysfunction in dietary-obese rats
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UCD, Daulby Street, L69 3GA, Liverpool, UK
    Eur J Pharmacol 416:133-9. 2001
  5. ncbi request reprint Down-regulation of orexin gene expression by severe obesity in the rats: studies in Zucker fatty and zucker diabetic fatty rats and effects of rosiglitazone
    X J Cai
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 77:131-7. 2000
  6. ncbi request reprint Cachexia in MAC16 adenocarcinoma: suppression of hunger despite normal regulation of leptin, insulin and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y
    C Bing
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Neurochem 79:1004-12. 2001
  7. ncbi request reprint Diurnal changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide and SOCS-3 expression: effects of lactation and relationship with serum leptin and food intake
    R G P Denis
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
    J Endocrinol 183:173-81. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Comparable vasorelaxant effects of 17alpha- and 17beta-oestradiol on rat mesenteric resistance arteries: an action independent of the oestrogen receptor
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, U K
    Clin Sci (Lond) 97:649-55. 1999
  9. ncbi request reprint Hypoglycemia activates orexin neurons and selectively increases hypothalamic orexin-B levels: responses inhibited by feeding and possibly mediated by the nucleus of the solitary tract
    X J Cai
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, University of Liverpool, UK
    Diabetes 50:105-12. 2001
  10. ncbi request reprint Resveratrol induces vasorelaxation of mesenteric and uterine arteries from female guinea-pigs
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, University Clinical Department, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, U K
    Clin Sci (Lond) 98:537-43. 2000

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. ncbi request reprint The hypothalamus and the control of energy homeostasis: different circuits, different purposes
    G Williams
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, L69 3GA, Liverpool, UK
    Physiol Behav 74:683-701. 2001
    ..Orexin neurones are stimulated by hypoglycaemia partly via the NTS and inhibited by food ingestion. These neurones may therefore be involved in the severe hyperphagia of hypoglycaemia and short-term control of feeding...
  2. ncbi request reprint The hypothalamus and the regulation of energy homeostasis: lifting the lid on a black box
    G Williams
    Department of Medicine, The University of Liverpool, UK
    Proc Nutr Soc 59:385-96. 2000
    ..The LHA is important in receiving sensory signals from the gut and liver, and in sensing glucose, and orexin neurones may be involved in stimulating feeding in response to falls in plasma glucose...
  3. ncbi request reprint Individual severity of dietary obesity in unselected Wistar rats: relationship with hyperphagia
    J A Harrold
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 279:E340-7. 2000
    ..5 +/- 0.1 vs. 37.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C; P > 0.5). We conclude that a higher energy intake is the critical factor determining susceptibility to dietary obesity in unselected Wistar rats...
  4. ncbi request reprint Troglitazone corrects metabolic changes but not vascular dysfunction in dietary-obese rats
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UCD, Daulby Street, L69 3GA, Liverpool, UK
    Eur J Pharmacol 416:133-9. 2001
    ..Our data show that although troglitazone markedly improved obesity-induced metabolic changes, it failed to correct vascular dysfunction associated with obesity in female Wistar rats...
  5. ncbi request reprint Down-regulation of orexin gene expression by severe obesity in the rats: studies in Zucker fatty and zucker diabetic fatty rats and effects of rosiglitazone
    X J Cai
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 77:131-7. 2000
    ..Obesity-related signals that might mediate this effect have not been identified, but plasma leptin, insulin and glucose are not obviously involved...
  6. ncbi request reprint Cachexia in MAC16 adenocarcinoma: suppression of hunger despite normal regulation of leptin, insulin and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y
    C Bing
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Neurochem 79:1004-12. 2001
    ..Therefore, suppression of hunger is probably due to tumour products that inhibit NPY transport or release, or that interfere with neuronal targets downstream of NPY...
  7. ncbi request reprint Diurnal changes in hypothalamic neuropeptide and SOCS-3 expression: effects of lactation and relationship with serum leptin and food intake
    R G P Denis
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
    J Endocrinol 183:173-81. 2004
    ..However, such changes are likely to enhance the ability of leptin-responsive neurones to transmit the leptin signal, and so are unlikely to contribute to either the nocturnal increase in appetite or the hyperphagia of lactation...
  8. ncbi request reprint Comparable vasorelaxant effects of 17alpha- and 17beta-oestradiol on rat mesenteric resistance arteries: an action independent of the oestrogen receptor
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, U K
    Clin Sci (Lond) 97:649-55. 1999
    ..Direct interactions with the cell membrane or with ion-channel proteins may be responsible...
  9. ncbi request reprint Hypoglycemia activates orexin neurons and selectively increases hypothalamic orexin-B levels: responses inhibited by feeding and possibly mediated by the nucleus of the solitary tract
    X J Cai
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, University of Liverpool, UK
    Diabetes 50:105-12. 2001
    ..Orexin-A and -B may play specific roles in behavioral or neuroendocrine responses to hypoglycemia...
  10. ncbi request reprint Resveratrol induces vasorelaxation of mesenteric and uterine arteries from female guinea-pigs
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, University Clinical Department, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, U K
    Clin Sci (Lond) 98:537-43. 2000
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint The mechanism of resveratrol-induced vasorelaxation differs in the mesenteric resistance arteries of lean and obese rats
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UCD, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
    Clin Sci (Lond) 100:55-60. 2001
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Neuropeptide Y receptor alterations in the hypothalamus of lactating rats
    L C Pickavance
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 20:1055-60. 1999
    ..01). Thus, although the NPY system may not have a major role in the hyperphagia of freely fed lactating rats, it appears to have an important function in the response to undernutrition in such animals...
  13. ncbi request reprint Differential distribution of orexin-A and orexin-B immunoreactivity in the rat brain and spinal cord
    D J Cutler
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, England
    Peptides 20:1455-70. 1999
    ..Orexin cells are strategically sited to contribute to feeding regulation, but their widespread projections suggest that orexins have other physiological roles...
  14. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic NPY status during positive energy balance and the effects of the NPY antagonist, BW 1229U91, on the consumption of highly palatable energy-rich diet
    P S Widdowson
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 20:367-72. 1999
    ..The lack of effect of BW1229U91 on the increased caloric intake of dietary-obese rats suggests that the hyperphagia is not NPY-driven and supports the data indicating reduced synaptic activity of the hypothalamic NPY system...
  15. ncbi request reprint Altered energy balance causes selective changes in melanocortin-4(MC4-R), but not melanocortin-3 (MC3-R), receptors in specific hypothalamic regions: further evidence that activation of MC4-R is a physiological inhibitor of feeding
    J A Harrold
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Diabetes 48:267-71. 1999
    ..This alpha-MSH/MC4-R system may be inhibited by leptin and/or insulin. MC3-R are not apparently involved in regulating feeding...
  16. ncbi request reprint Diet-induced endothelial dysfunction in the rat is independent of the degree of increase in total body weight
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UCD, Daulby Street, Liverpool L693GA, UK
    Clin Sci (Lond) 100:635-41. 2001
    ..05) associated with the amount of fat-pad mass. These data suggest that diet-induced vascular dysfunction can occur in the absence of insulin resistance, and that plasma TGs may have a detrimental effect on vascular reactivity...
  17. ncbi request reprint Regulation of neuropeptide Y release from hypothalamic slices by melanocortin-4 agonists and leptin
    P J King
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, Liverpool University, Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 21:45-8. 2000
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Changes in hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AGRP), but not alpha-MSH or pro-opiomelanocortin concentrations in dietary-obese and food-restricted rats
    J A Harrold
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 258:574-7. 1999
    ..AGRP may be an important modulator of feeding behaviour...
  19. ncbi request reprint Food restriction selectively increases hypothalamic orexin-B levels in lactating rats
    X J Cai
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, Daulby Street, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
    Regul Pept 97:163-8. 2001
    ..Changes in orexin-B availability may influence physiological activities other than energy homeostasis, perhaps inducing arousal...
  20. ncbi request reprint Dietary obesity in the rat induces endothelial dysfunction without causing insulin resistance: a possible role for triacylglycerols
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UCD, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
    Clin Sci (Lond) 101:499-506. 2001
    ..Dietary-induced obesity severely impaired arterial relaxation in both sexes, particularly at the endothelial level. This is not attributable to insulin resistance, but may be related to moderate hypertriglyceridaemia...
  21. ncbi request reprint Early leptin response to a palatable diet predicts dietary obesity in rats: key role of melanocortin-4 receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus
    J A Harrold
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, England
    J Neurochem 74:1224-8. 2000
    ..The early leptin response to palatable feeding may therefore "program" subsequent feeding behaviour and weight gain by regulating neurones that project selectively to the VMH...
  22. ncbi request reprint Alterations in hypothalamic NPY and CRF in anorexic tumor-bearing rats
    H D McCarthy
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol 264:E638-43. 1993
    ..Such changes may include impaired activity of NPY or failure of CRF activity to be suppressed after underfeeding and weight loss...
  23. ncbi request reprint Orexin-A immunoreactive neurons in the rat hypothalamus do not contain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)
    D J Cutler
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, L69 3GA, Liverpool, England, UK
    Peptides 22:123-8. 2001
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Effect of cytokines on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y release in vitro
    P J King
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, Liverpool University, Liverpool, UK
    Peptides 21:143-6. 2000
    ..Therefore, we suggest that the failure to activate the hypothalamic NPY system in states of cancer cachexia cannot be attributed to a cytokine-induced reduction in neurotransmitter release...
  25. ncbi request reprint Leptin, the hypothalamus and the regulation of adiposity
    J A Harrold
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Curr Opin Lipidol 9:295-9. 1998
    ..This review will discuss several of the more recently identified neurotransmitters and consider their validity as candidates in the regulation of energy homeostasis...
  26. ncbi request reprint Effect of a selective neuropeptide Y Y(2) receptor antagonist, BIIE0246 on neuropeptide Y release
    P J King
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, L69 3GA, Liverpool, UK
    Eur J Pharmacol 396:R1-3. 2000
    ..These data are consistent with anatomical and functional studies suggesting a pre-synaptic role for neuropeptide Y Y(2) receptors in regulating rat hypothalamic neuropeptide Y release in the rat...
  27. ncbi request reprint Increased binding at 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), and 5-HT(2A) receptors and 5-HT transporters in diet-induced obese rats
    S Park
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, Liverpool, UK
    Brain Res 847:90-7. 1999
    ..Reduction in the hypophagic action of 5-HT, possibly acting at 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2A) receptors, may contribute to increased appetite in rats presented with highly palatable diet...
  28. ncbi request reprint Vasorelaxant effects of oestradiols on guinea pigs: a role for gender differences
    E K Naderali
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UCD, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
    Eur J Clin Invest 31:215-20. 2001
    ..These data indicate a possible role for gender differences in the vascular effects of oestradiols...
  29. ncbi request reprint Orexin a preferentially excites glucose-sensitive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus of the rat in vitro
    X H Liu
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    Diabetes 50:2431-7. 2001
    ..Orexin neurons may regulate GSNs so as to control the onset and termination of hypoglycemia-induced feeding...
  30. ncbi request reprint Decreased plasma leptin levels in lean and obese Zucker rats after treatment with the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine
    S Dryden
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, UK
    Horm Metab Res 31:363-6. 1999
    ..01). We have previously suggested that serotonin may decrease food intake by inhibiting neuropeptide Y neurones, and we further suggest that it also inhibits leptin, possibly by an effect on white adipose tissue...
  31. ncbi request reprint Weight loss in tumour-bearing mice is not associated with changes in resistin gene expression in white adipose tissue
    J Gomez-Ambrosi
    Neuroendocrine and Obesity Biology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, University Clinical Departments, UK
    Horm Metab Res 34:674-7. 2002
    ..Maintenance of resistin production may help inhibit the formation of new adipocytes in cancer cachexia...
  32. ncbi request reprint Divergent effects of intracerebroventricular and peripheral leptin administration on feeding and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y in lean and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats
    S Dryden
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Duncan Building, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, U K
    Clin Sci (Lond) 96:307-12. 1999
    ..Obesity in the fa/fa Zucker rat may be partly due to the inability of leptin to inhibit hypothalamic neuropeptide Y neurons...
  33. ncbi request reprint Acute hyperleptinemia does not modify insulin sensitivity in vivo in the rat
    P S Widdowson
    Department of Medicine, Liverpool University, UK
    Horm Metab Res 30:259-62. 1998
    ..In summary, our data demonstrate that acute hyperleptinemia in normal weight Wistar rats does not appear to reduce insulin sensitivity, in vivo, or to affect HPR under clamp conditions...
  34. ncbi request reprint Lactation modulates diurnal expression profiles of specific leptin receptor isoforms in the rat hypothalamus
    R G P Denis
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
    J Endocrinol 178:225-32. 2003
    ..Thus, selective changes in expression of specific isoforms of the leptin receptor may contribute to the hyperphagia of lactation in rats...
  35. ncbi request reprint Obesity and type 2 diabetes: a conflict of interests?
    G Williams
    Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 23:S2-4. 1999
    ....
  36. ncbi request reprint Effects of short-term feeding of a highly palatable diet on vascular reactivity in rats
    E K Naderali
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Daulby Street, Liverpool L69 3GA, UK
    Eur J Clin Invest 31:1024-8. 2001
    ..However, there is little or no data on the acute effects of a highly palatable diet on vascular function...
  37. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic obesity in humans: what do we know and what can be done?
    J Pinkney
    University of Liverpool, Department of Medicine, Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Clinical Sciences Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool L9 7AL, UK
    Obes Rev 3:27-34. 2002
    ..In those who are already obese, we propose that the principal causal mechanisms in individual patients should be considered as a basis for guiding clinical management...
  38. ncbi request reprint NSF and SNAP are present on adrenal chromaffin granules
    R D Burgoyne
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Liverpool, UK
    FEBS Lett 414:349-52. 1997
    ..These results suggest that NSF and alpha-SNAP are associated with chromaffin granules and support the idea that they function prior to docking of the granules on the plasma membrane...
  39. ncbi request reprint Smoking, eicosanoids and ulcerative colitis
    R J Motley
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK
    J Pharm Pharmacol 42:288-9. 1990
    ..However, with each eicosanoid the statistical probability approached only the 10% level, but the fact that the trend was the same for all eicosanoids somewhat strengthens the possibility of a real difference between the groups...
  40. pmc Hyperglycaemic crises and lactic acidosis in diabetes mellitus
    P English
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Clinical Sciences Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK
    Postgrad Med J 80:253-61. 2004
    ..As far as is possible, the recommendations are based on clear published evidence; failing that, what is considered to be a common sense synthesis of consensus guidelines and recommendations is provided...
  41. pmc Expression of uncoupling proteins-1, -2 and -3 mRNA is induced by an adenocarcinoma-derived lipid-mobilizing factor
    C Bing
    Diabetes and Endocrinology Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3G, UK
    Br J Cancer 86:612-8. 2002
    ....
  42. pmc Muscle UCP-3 mRNA levels are elevated in weight loss associated with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma in humans
    P Collins
    Gastroenterology Unit, University Hospital Aintree, Longmoor Lane, Liverpool L9 7AL, UK
    Br J Cancer 86:372-5. 2002
    ..23; P<0.02). Uncoupling proteins-2 mRNA levels did not differ significantly between groups. Elevations in muscle uncoupling proteins-3 activity may enhance energy expenditure and this in turn could contribute to tissue catabolism...
  43. ncbi request reprint Leptin and the adaptations of lactation in rodents and ruminants
    R G Vernon
    Hannah Research Institute, Ayr, Scotland
    Horm Metab Res 34:678-85. 2002
    ....