P M Stewart

Summary

Affiliation: University of Birmingham
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the pre-receptor regulation of corticosteroid hormone action
    Nicole Draper
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Endocrinol 186:251-71. 2005
  2. doi request reprint Reduced glucocorticoid production rate, decreased 5alpha-reductase activity, and adipose tissue insulin sensitization after weight loss
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Diabetes 57:1536-43. 2008
  3. pmc Characterisation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes from a murine model of joint inflammation
    Rowan S Hardy
    Bone Research Program, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Hospital Road, Concord, Sydney, 2139, Australia
    Arthritis Res Ther 15:R24. 2013
  4. pmc A switch in hepatic cortisol metabolism across the spectrum of non alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Adeeba Ahmed
    Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Institute of Biomedical Research, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e29531. 2012
  5. pmc Biomarkers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in mice lacking 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH
    Lianne Abrahams
    School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research, Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Endocrinol 214:367-72. 2012
  6. pmc Synovial DKK1 expression is regulated by local glucocorticoid metabolism in inflammatory arthritis
    Rowan Hardy
    Arthritis Res Ther 14:R226. 2012
  7. doi request reprint 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1: translational and therapeutic aspects
    Laura L Gathercole
    School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    Endocr Rev 34:525-55. 2013
  8. doi request reprint Mortality and pituitary disease
    Paul M Stewart
    Department of Endocrinology, The Medical School, College of Medical and Dental Sciences Edgbaston, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 73:81-2. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Outcome of Cushing's disease following transsphenoidal surgery in a single center over 20 years
    Zaki K Hassan-Smith
    Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Institute for Biomedical Research, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:1194-201. 2012
  10. pmc Differential expression, function and response to inflammatory stimuli of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in human fibroblasts: a mechanism for tissue-specific regulation of inflammation
    Rowan S Hardy
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, UK
    Arthritis Res Ther 8:R108. 2006

Detail Information

Publications150 found, 100 shown here

  1. ncbi request reprint 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the pre-receptor regulation of corticosteroid hormone action
    Nicole Draper
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Endocrinol 186:251-71. 2005
    ..In each case, these clinical studies have been underpinned by studies in vitro and the manipulation of enzyme expression in vivo using recombinant mouse models...
  2. doi request reprint Reduced glucocorticoid production rate, decreased 5alpha-reductase activity, and adipose tissue insulin sensitization after weight loss
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Diabetes 57:1536-43. 2008
    ..We have assessed the impact of weight loss on glucocorticoid secretion and metabolism (notably 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and 5alpha-reductase [5alphaR] activity) and insulin sensitivity...
  3. pmc Characterisation of fibroblast-like synoviocytes from a murine model of joint inflammation
    Rowan S Hardy
    Bone Research Program, ANZAC Research Institute, University of Sydney, Hospital Road, Concord, Sydney, 2139, Australia
    Arthritis Res Ther 15:R24. 2013
    ..Additionally, this study provides guidelines for the effective characterisation, duration and treatment of murine FLS culture...
  4. pmc A switch in hepatic cortisol metabolism across the spectrum of non alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Adeeba Ahmed
    Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Institute of Biomedical Research, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e29531. 2012
    ....
  5. pmc Biomarkers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in mice lacking 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH
    Lianne Abrahams
    School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research, Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Endocrinol 214:367-72. 2012
    ..Urinary steroid metabolite profile by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as a biomarker assay may be beneficial in assaying HPA axis status clinically in cases of congenital and acquired 11β-HSD1/H6PDH deficiency...
  6. pmc Synovial DKK1 expression is regulated by local glucocorticoid metabolism in inflammatory arthritis
    Rowan Hardy
    Arthritis Res Ther 14:R226. 2012
    ..Consequently, the links between synovial inflammation, altered Wnt signalling and bone remodelling are not direct but are dependent on local activation of endogenous glucocorticoids...
  7. doi request reprint 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1: translational and therapeutic aspects
    Laura L Gathercole
    School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    Endocr Rev 34:525-55. 2013
    ..Although the data are preliminary, therapeutic inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is also an exciting prospect for the treatment of a variety of other disorders such as osteoporosis, glaucoma, intracranial hypertension, and cognitive decline. ..
  8. doi request reprint Mortality and pituitary disease
    Paul M Stewart
    Department of Endocrinology, The Medical School, College of Medical and Dental Sciences Edgbaston, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 73:81-2. 2012
    ....
  9. doi request reprint Outcome of Cushing's disease following transsphenoidal surgery in a single center over 20 years
    Zaki K Hassan-Smith
    Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Institute for Biomedical Research, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97:1194-201. 2012
    ..Although advances in CD management have seen mortality rates improve, outcome from transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), the current first-line treatment, varies significantly between centers...
  10. pmc Differential expression, function and response to inflammatory stimuli of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in human fibroblasts: a mechanism for tissue-specific regulation of inflammation
    Rowan S Hardy
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, The University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, UK
    Arthritis Res Ther 8:R108. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Pegvisomant: an advance in clinical efficacy in acromegaly
    Paul M Stewart
    The University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, UK
    Eur J Endocrinol 148:S27-32. 2003
    ..Although additional long-term studies are required to further assess safety, the introduction of this innovative treatment should allow for optimal disease control in patients with acromegaly...
  12. doi request reprint Rationale for treatment and therapeutic options in Cushing's disease
    Paul M Stewart
    Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 23:S15-22. 2009
    ..Treatment options include pituitary or adrenal surgery, radiotherapy, and various medical therapies, but each has important limitations. Medical therapies that effectively target the pituitary tumour are urgently needed...
  13. ncbi request reprint Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I and the cortisol-cortisone shuttle
    P M Stewart
    Department of Endocrinology, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Horm Res 56:1-6. 2001
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Mineralocorticoid hypertension
    P M Stewart
    Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Lancet 353:1341-7. 1999
    ..Hypertensive patients with hypokalaemia, together with those with severe hypertension or a family history of hypertension or stroke, should be screened for mineralocorticoid excess...
  15. doi request reprint The effect of spironolactone upon corticosteroid hormone metabolism in patients with early stage chronic kidney disease
    Fabian Hammer
    School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, University Hospitals Birmingham Foundation NHS Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 73:566-72. 2010
    ..Despite the increasing use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in these patients, little is known about the effects on corticosteroid hormone secretion and metabolism...
  16. pmc Can licorice lick colon cancer?
    Paul M Stewart
    College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Clin Invest 119:760-3. 2009
    ..Their findings suggest that 11betaHSD2 inhibition may be a potential therapeutic option in colon cancer, warranting further investigation...
  17. ncbi request reprint Tissue-specific Cushing's syndrome, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and the redefinition of corticosteroid hormone action
    Paul M Stewart
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Eur J Endocrinol 149:163-8. 2003
    ..Modulation of enzyme activity may offer a future therapeutic approach to treating these diseases whilst circumventing the endocrine consequences of glucocorticoid excess or deficiency...
  18. ncbi request reprint Acromegaly databases--time for European unification
    Paul M Stewart
    University of Birmingham, Egbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Eur J Endocrinol 151:431-2. 2004
  19. ncbi request reprint Cortisol metabolism in human obesity: impaired cortisone-->cortisol conversion in subjects with central adiposity
    P M Stewart
    Endocrinology, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:1022-7. 1999
    ..This reduction in 11betaHSD1 activity raises new questions as to the primary role of 11betaHSD1 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and central obesity...
  20. ncbi request reprint Current therapy for acromegaly
    P M Stewart
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK B15 2TH
    Trends Endocrinol Metab 11:128-32. 2000
    ..These effective medical therapies will undoubtedly raise the issue of their use as primary therapy for acromegaly but at present they should be used as an adjunct to surgery and/or radiotherapy...
  21. ncbi request reprint Expression and putative role of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozymes within the human eye
    S Rauz
    Academic Unit of Ophthalmology, Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42:2037-42. 2001
    ..11 mm Hg, P < 0.0001 and 11.78 +/- 1.50 mm Hg, P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the 11 beta-HSD1 isozyme may modulate steroid-regulated sodium transport across the NPE, thereby influencing IOP...
  22. ncbi request reprint Modulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozymes by growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor: in vivo and in vitro studies
    J S Moore
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 84:4172-7. 1999
    ....
  23. ncbi request reprint Expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozymes and corticosteroid hormone receptors in primary cultures of human trophoblast and placental bed biopsies
    P M Driver
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Mol Hum Reprod 7:357-63. 2001
    ..The presence of the MR within trophoblast indicates that some of the effects of cortisol could be MR- rather than GR-mediated...
  24. ncbi request reprint Modulation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozymes by proinflammatory cytokines in osteoblasts: an autocrine switch from glucocorticoid inactivation to activation
    M S Cooper
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    J Bone Miner Res 16:1037-44. 2001
    ..Therefore, it can be postulated that some of the effects of proinflammatory cytokines within bone (e.g., periarticular erosions in inflammatory arthritis) are mediated by this mechanism...
  25. doi request reprint ACTH deficiency, higher doses of hydrocortisone replacement, and radiotherapy are independent predictors of mortality in patients with acromegaly
    M Sherlock
    Centre for Endocrinology, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:4216-23. 2009
    ..Many patients with acromegaly develop hypopituitarism as a result of the pituitary adenoma itself or therapies such as surgery and radiotherapy. Pituitary radiotherapy and hypopituitarism have also been associated with an increased SMR...
  26. pmc Synergistic induction of local glucocorticoid generation by inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids: implications for inflammation associated bone loss
    K Kaur
    Endocrinology, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Ann Rheum Dis 69:1185-90. 2010
    ..During inflammatory arthritis synovium and bone are exposed to both these factors. This study hypothesised that glucocorticoids magnify the effects of inflammatory cytokines on local glucocorticoid production in both synovium and bone...
  27. ncbi request reprint Regulation of expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue: tissue-specific induction by cytokines
    J W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom B15 2TH
    Endocrinology 142:1982-9. 2001
    ..Tissue-specific 11betaHSD1 regulation offers the potential for selective enzyme inhibition within adipose tissue as a novel therapy for visceral obesity...
  28. ncbi request reprint Gender differences in the regulation of P450 aromatase expression and activity in human adipose tissue
    P G McTernan
    Department of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Birmingham Heartlands Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24:875-81. 2000
    ..To investigate the hormonal regulation of P450 aromatase activity (responsible for the conversion of C19 androgens to C18 oestrogens) in human adipose tissue from men and pre- and post-menopausal women...
  29. ncbi request reprint Expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rat osteoblastic cells: pre-receptor regulation of glucocorticoid responses in bone
    L J Eyre
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Clinical Research, The University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, United Kingdom
    J Cell Biochem 81:453-62. 2001
    ..In addition to the established effects of 11 beta-HSD2 in protecting MR in the kidney and colon, our data suggest that 11 beta-HSD2 in bone represents an important pre-receptor mechanism in determining ligand availability to GR...
  30. ncbi request reprint Low-dose growth hormone inhibits 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 but has no effect upon fat mass in patients with simple obesity
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom B15 2TH
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2113-8. 2003
    ..09, GH vs. placebo, P = 0.07). Treatment with low-dose GH in obesity fails to alter fat mass despite a significant elevation in IGF-I and a shift in the global set point of E to F conversion consistent with inhibition of 11 beta-HSD1...
  31. ncbi request reprint Association studies between microsatellite markers within the gene encoding human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and glucocorticoid metabolism
    N Draper
    Division Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom B15 2TH
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:4984-90. 2002
    ....
  32. ncbi request reprint Expression and functional consequences of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in human bone
    M S Cooper
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK
    Bone 27:375-81. 2000
    ..In particular, variation in 11beta-HSD isozyme expression and activity may explain individual variation in susceptibility to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis...
  33. doi request reprint Monitoring disease activity using GH and IGF-I in the follow-up of 501 patients with acromegaly
    M Sherlock
    Division of Medical Sciences, Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 71:74-81. 2009
    ..The aims of treatment in patients with acromegaly are to achieve serum GH/IGF-I concentrations associated with cure or normalization of mortality and alleviation of symptoms...
  34. pmc Molecular basis for hypertension in the "type II variant" of apparent mineralocorticoid excess
    A Li
    Department of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Hum Genet 63:370-9. 1998
    ..Hypertensive populations should be screened to identify the prevalence of milder defects in 11beta-HSD2 in patients currently labeled as having "essential" hypertension...
  35. doi request reprint Medical therapy in patients with acromegaly: predictors of response and comparison of efficacy of dopamine agonists and somatostatin analogues
    M Sherlock
    Division of MedicalSciences, Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:1255-63. 2009
    ..Acromegaly is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment options include surgery, radiotherapy, and medical therapy...
  36. doi request reprint 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates insulin and glucagon secretion in pancreatic islets
    A Swali
    Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Diabetologia 51:2003-11. 2008
    ..We investigated the localisation and activity of 11beta-HSD1 within pancreatic islets, and determined its functional role in the regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion...
  37. ncbi request reprint The functional consequences of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in adipose tissue
    J W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Horm Metab Res 34:746-51. 2002
    ..Clinical studies utilizing selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors may help to answer this question...
  38. ncbi request reprint Association between premature mortality and hypopituitarism. West Midlands Prospective Hypopituitary Study Group
    J W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University of Birmingham, UK
    Lancet 357:425-31. 2001
    ..Age at diagnosis, female sex, and above all, craniopharyngioma were significant independent risk factors. Specific endocrine-axis deficiency, with the exception of untreated gonadotropin deficiency, does not seem to have a role...
  39. ncbi request reprint 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in Cushing's syndrome: explaining the mineralocorticoid excess state of the ectopic adrenocorticotropin syndrome
    P M Stewart
    Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80:3617-20. 1995
    ..The reason for the defective 11 beta HSD activity is unclear, but it may be secondary to substrate saturation, inhibition by other adrenal steroids, or product inhibition...
  40. ncbi request reprint Extrarenal expression of 25-hydroxyvitamin d(3)-1 alpha-hydroxylase
    D Zehnder
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom B15 2TH
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:888-94. 2001
    ..However, the discrete patterns of staining in these tissues emphasizes a possible role for 1 alpha-hydroxylase as an intracrine modulator of vitamin D function in peripheral tissues...
  41. doi request reprint Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leptin in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH): evidence for hypothalamic leptin resistance?
    A K Ball
    Department of Neurology, School of Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70:863-9. 2009
    ..Recent studies have linked obesity with abnormalities in circulating inflammatory and adiposity related cytokines. The aim of this study was to characterize adipokine and inflammatory cytokine profiles in IIH...
  42. ncbi request reprint Corticosteroids, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozymes and the rabbit choroid plexus
    A J Sinclair
    Department of Neuroscience, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 19:614-20. 2007
    ..Expression of 11beta-HSD1 may be fundamental in the regulation of CSF secretion and the local generation of cortisol may represent a pathophysiological mechanism underlying cortisol-dependent neuroendocrine diseases...
  43. ncbi request reprint Abnormal expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human pituitary adenomas: a prereceptor determinant of pituitary cell proliferation
    E H Rabbitt
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, UK
    Oncogene 22:1663-7. 2003
    ..We propose that abnormal expression of 11 beta-HSD2 acts as a proproliferative prereceptor determinant of pituitary cell growth, and may provide a novel target for future tumor therapy...
  44. pmc Local and systemic glucocorticoid metabolism in inflammatory arthritis
    R Hardy
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    Ann Rheum Dis 67:1204-10. 2008
    ..Isolated, primary synovial fibroblasts generate active glucocorticoids through expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1). This enzyme produces cortisol from inactive cortisone (and prednisolone from prednisone)...
  45. ncbi request reprint Regulation of vitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase in a human cortical collecting duct cell line
    R Bland
    Division of Medical Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, England, United Kingdom
    Kidney Int 60:1277-86. 2001
    ..However, more sensitive feedback regulation and immune induction of 1alpha-OHase in the HCD cells suggest a more localized role for 1,25(OH)2D3 production in the distal nephron...
  46. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical localization of type 1 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in human tissues
    M L Ricketts
    Department of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:1325-35. 1998
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Functional expression, characterization, and purification of the catalytic domain of human 11-beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1
    E A Walker
    Division of Medical Sciences and the School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, P. O. Box 363, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT
    J Biol Chem 276:21343-50. 2001
    ....
  48. ncbi request reprint Expression profiling of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 and glucocorticoid-target genes in subcutaneous and omental human preadipocytes
    I J Bujalska
    Division of Medical Sciences, The Medical School, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Mol Endocrinol 37:327-40. 2006
    ..Our results provide insight into the genes involved in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation by cortisol, highlighting the depot specifically in human adipose tissue...
  49. ncbi request reprint Expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue is not increased in human obesity
    J W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom B15 2TH
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:5630-5. 2002
    ..05). Enhanced preadipocyte proliferation within omental adipose tissue as a consequence of decreased 11beta-HSD1 mRNA levels and activity may contribute to increases in visceral adipose tissue mass in obese patients...
  50. ncbi request reprint Molecular basis for the apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome in the Oman population
    M Quinkler
    Division of Medical Sciences, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 217:143-9. 2004
    ..The prevalence of monogenic forms of hypertension such as AME remains uncertain. However, our data suggests AME may be a relevant cause of hypertension in certain ethnic groups, such as the Oman population...
  51. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lowers intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension
    S Rauz
    Academic Unit of Ophthalmology, Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    QJM 96:481-90. 2003
    ....
  52. pmc A novel selective 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor prevents human adipogenesis
    I J Bujalska
    Division of Medical Sciences, The Medical School, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Endocrinol 197:297-307. 2008
    ..Blocking adipogenesis with a novel and specific 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor may represent a novel approach to treat obesity in patients with MS...
  53. ncbi request reprint Ontogeny and sexual dimorphic expression of mouse type 2 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
    J Condon
    Department of Medicine, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, UK
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 127:121-8. 1997
    ....
  54. ncbi request reprint 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, cell proliferation and malignancy
    E H Rabbitt
    Department of Endocrinology, Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Clinical Research, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 85:415-21. 2003
    ..These and other issues are discussed in the present review...
  55. pmc Oestrogen inactivation in the colon: analysis of the expression and regulation of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozymes in normal colon and colonic cancer
    M A English
    Division of Medical Sciences, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, The University of Birmingham, UK
    Br J Cancer 83:550-8. 2000
    ....
  56. ncbi request reprint Weight loss increases 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in human adipose tissue
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom B15 2TH
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2711-6. 2004
    ..Inhibition of 11betaHSD1 may therefore be a novel, therapeutic strategy for insulin sensitization...
  57. ncbi request reprint Prereceptor regulation of glucocorticoid action by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: a novel determinant of cell proliferation
    Elizabeth H Rabbitt
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Clinical Research, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    FASEB J 16:36-44. 2002
    ..Data indicate that differential regulation of 11beta-HSD1 and 2 (rather than GR expression) is a key determinant of cell proliferation. Dysregulated expression of 11beta-HSD2 may be a novel feature of tumorigenesis...
  58. pmc 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle
    Stuart A Morgan
    Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Institute of Biomedical Research, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, U K
    Diabetes 58:2506-15. 2009
    ..We aimed to determine the mechanisms underpinning glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and indentify how 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors improve insulin sensitivity...
  59. ncbi request reprint 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity predicts the effects of glucocorticoids on bone
    Mark S Cooper
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:3874-7. 2003
    ..Measures of 11beta-HSD1 activity may predict individual susceptibility to glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, and these data should facilitate the development of bone-sparing glucocorticoids...
  60. ncbi request reprint Serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase isoform-1 and epithelial sodium channel subunits in human ocular ciliary epithelium
    Saaeha Rauz
    Academic Unit of Ophthalmology, Division of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 44:1643-51. 2003
    ..Sodium transport across the human ocular nonpigmented and pigmented ciliary epithelial bilayer (NPE-PE) is essential for aqueous humor production, but the expression of SGK1 and ENaC subunits remain to be defined...
  61. ncbi request reprint "Cushing's disease of the omentum"--fact or fiction?
    J W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
    J Endocrinol Invest 27:171-4. 2004
  62. ncbi request reprint 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in lean and obese males with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    G Valsamakis
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:4755-61. 2004
    ..Inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 may therefore represent a therapeutic strategy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity...
  63. ncbi request reprint Tissue-specific Cushing's syndrome uncovers a new target in treating the metabolic syndrome--11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1
    Paul M Stewart
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, Medical School, University of Birmingham
    Clin Med 5:142-6. 2005
  64. pmc Lack of hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase impairs lipid mobilization from mouse adipose tissue
    Iwona J Bujalska
    Division of medical Sciences Medicine, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 149:2584-91. 2008
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Cortisol metabolism in hypertension
    Fabian Hammer
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Institute of Biomedical Research, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 20:337-53. 2006
    ..Thus, metabolism and action in many peripheral tissues might contribute to the pathophysiology of human hypertension...
  66. ncbi request reprint 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: a tissue-specific regulator of glucocorticoid response
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Endocrinology, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TH, UK
    Endocr Rev 25:831-66. 2004
    ..Therapeutic inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 reductase activity in patients with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, as well as in glaucoma and osteoporosis, remains an exciting prospect...
  67. pmc Novel H6PDH mutations in two girls with premature adrenarche: 'apparent' and 'true' CRD can be differentiated by urinary steroid profiling
    G G Lavery
    CEDAM Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Institute of Biomedical Research, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Eur J Endocrinol 168:K19-26. 2013
    ..Inactivating mutations in HSD11B1 cause true cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD). Both ACRD and CRD present with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and adrenal hyperandrogenism...
  68. ncbi request reprint Expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF), its receptor, and related oncoprotein (erbB-2) in human pituitary tumors and response to EGF in vitro
    S S Chaidarun
    Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 135:2012-21. 1994
    ....
  69. ncbi request reprint Growth hormone and pituitary radiotherapy, but not serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations, predict excess mortality in patients with acromegaly
    J Ayuk
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:1613-7. 2004
    ..The sole use of IGF-I as a marker for effective treatment of acromegaly is not justified by this data. This study also highlights the potential deleterious effect of radiotherapy...
  70. ncbi request reprint Reduced placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 mRNA levels in human pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction: an analysis of possible mechanisms
    C L McTernan
    Division of Medical Sciences, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom B15 2TH
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4979-83. 2001
    ..These data highlight the important role of 11beta-HSD2 in regulating fetal growth, a known factor in determining fetal morbidity but also the subsequent development of cardiovascular disease in adulthood...
  71. ncbi request reprint Radiotherapy for non-function pituitary tumours
    N J Gittoes
    Department of Medicine, University Hospital Trust, Birmingham, UK
    Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 48:331-7. 1998
    ..We have therefore determined whether the recurrence rate for NFTs is significantly lower in patients treated with post-operative RT compared with that observed in patients not treated with RT...
  72. ncbi request reprint Cortisol metabolism and the role of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
    J W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, B15 2TH, UK
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 15:61-78. 2001
    ..Modulation of enzyme activity may offer a novel therapeutic approach to treating human disease while circumventing the consequences of systemic glucocorticoid excess or deficiency...
  73. ncbi request reprint Characterization of human trophoblast as a mineralocorticoid target tissue
    P M Driver
    Division of Medical Sciences and Fetal Medicine, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Mol Hum Reprod 9:793-8. 2003
    ..Placental 11beta-HSD2 may protect the MR in a fashion analogous to classical mineralocorticoid tissues to modulate trophoblast sodium transport...
  74. ncbi request reprint Conventional pituitary irradiation is effective in lowering serum growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I in patients with acromegaly
    P J Jenkins
    Department of Endocrinology, St Bartholomew s Hospital, London EC1A 7BE, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:1239-45. 2006
    ..There has been recent controversy as to the effectiveness of conventional pituitary irradiation in reducing circulating GH levels to less than 2.5 ng/ml and/or normalization of serum IGF-I...
  75. doi request reprint Increased 5 alpha-reductase activity and adrenocortical drive in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
    Dimitra A Vassiliadi
    Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:3558-66. 2009
    ..Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and susceptibility to the metabolic syndrome. Altered peripheral cortisol metabolism has been reported in PCOS, but also in simple obesity...
  76. ncbi request reprint Long-term safety and efficacy of depot long-acting somatostatin analogs for the treatment of acromegaly
    John Ayuk
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:4142-6. 2002
    ....
  77. doi request reprint The corticosteroid metabolic profile of the mouse
    C H L Shackleton
    Institute of Biomedical Research, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Steroids 73:1066-76. 2008
    ..Quantitatively less steroid is excreted in urine than in feces by this species but urine analysis is more straightforward and the hepatic metabolites are less subject to microbial degradation than if feces was analyzed...
  78. pmc Health status of adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia: a cohort study of 203 patients
    Wiebke Arlt
    Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:5110-21. 2010
    ..No consensus exists for management of adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to a paucity of data from cohorts of meaningful size...
  79. ncbi request reprint The pathophysiology of circulating corticotropin-releasing hormone-binding protein levels in the human
    P J Trainer
    Department of Endocrinology, St Bartholomew s Hospital, West Smithfield, London, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:1611-4. 1998
    ..The ability of glucocorticoids and exogenous CRH to lower plasma CRH-BP levels and of CRH-BP to modulate the bioactivity of circulating CRH suggest that the protein may be an important regulator of circulating CRH or related ligands...
  80. doi request reprint Adrenal suppression in bronchiectasis and the impact of inhaled corticosteroids
    J Holme
    Dept of Endocrinology, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Eur Respir J 32:1047-52. 2008
    ..Impairment of the cortisol response to stimulation is associated with poorer health status...
  81. pmc Characterisation of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in human orbital adipose tissue: a comparison with subcutaneous and omental fat
    Iwona J Bujalska
    Department of Endocrinology, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Endocrinol 192:279-88. 2007
    ..OF harbours a large CD68+ population. These characteristics define an orbital microenvironment that has the potential to respond to sight-threatening orbital inflammatory disease...
  82. pmc Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) remains a pre-eminent discovery tool in clinical steroid investigations even in the era of fast liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)
    Nils Krone
    Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, School for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 121:496-504. 2010
    ..Our work has led us to develop a simplified graphical representation of quantitative urinary steroid hormone profiles and diagnostic ratios...
  83. doi request reprint Targeting the pre-receptor metabolism of cortisol as a novel therapy in obesity and diabetes
    Laura L Gathercole
    School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 122:21-7. 2010
    ..So far studies have primarily been carried out in rodents, with results showing improvements in metabolic profile. Data are now beginning to emerge from human studies and the results are promising...
  84. ncbi request reprint Hypertension and the cortisol-cortisone shuttle
    Marcus Quinkler
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:2384-92. 2003
    ..At a prereceptor level, 11 beta-HSD2 plays a key role in normal physiology in the corticosteroid regulation of sodium homeostasis and pathophysiology of hypertension...
  85. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoid modulation of insulin signaling in human subcutaneous adipose tissue
    Laura L Gathercole
    Institute of Biomedical Research, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:4332-9. 2007
    ..Glucocorticoid (GC) excess is characterized by central obesity, insulin resistance, and in some cases, type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of GC upon insulin signaling in human adipose tissue has not been fully explored...
  86. ncbi request reprint Glucocorticoid regulation of p450 aromatase activity in human adipose tissue: gender and site differences
    Philip G McTernan
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TH
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1327-36. 2002
    ..The observed site-, gender-, and menopausal-specific differences in the glucocorticoid regulation of this enzyme may contribute to the gender- and menopausal-specific patterns of fat distribution...
  87. ncbi request reprint Hypoglycemia with enhanced hepatic glycogen synthesis in recombinant mice lacking hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
    Gareth G Lavery
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 148:6100-6. 2007
    ..We therefore postulate that increased glycogen synthesis may reflect increased flux of glucose-6-phosphate (H6PDH substrate) through to glycogen in the absence of H6PDH mediated metabolism...
  88. doi request reprint NMR-based metabolomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and serum in neurological diseases--a diagnostic tool?
    Alexandra J Sinclair
    Academic Unit of Ophthalmology, School of Immunity and Inflammation, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    NMR Biomed 23:123-32. 2010
    ..Metabolomics may, therefore, have the potential to be developed into a clinically useful diagnostic tool. The identification of disease-unique metabolites may also impart information on disease pathology...
  89. doi request reprint Mortality following pituitary radiotherapy
    John Ayuk
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
    Pituitary 12:35-9. 2009
    ..Questions remain unanswered, and the use of conventional external beam radiotherapy in the management of pituitary disease must involve a critical risk-benefit analysis in each case...
  90. ncbi request reprint Modulation of glucocorticoid action and the treatment of type-2 diabetes
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 21:607-19. 2007
    ..The key test for both of these research strategies is whether they will translate into clinical studies, and results from these trials are now eagerly awaited...
  91. ncbi request reprint Inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in vivo limits glucocorticoid exposure to human adipose tissue and decreases lipolysis
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    M R C P, Institute of Biomedical Research, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92:857-64. 2007
    ..In liver and adipose tissue, 11beta-HSD1 converts endogenous, inactive cortisone to active cortisol but also catalyzes the bioactivation of the synthetic prednisone to prednisolone...
  92. ncbi request reprint Integration of the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of exercise
    Anton J M Wagenmakers
    Exercise Metabolism and Biochemistry Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, UK
    Essays Biochem 42:193-210. 2006
    ....
  93. doi request reprint Exploring the pathogenesis of IIH: an inflammatory perspective
    Alexandra J Sinclair
    Academic Unit of Ophthalmology, School of Immunology, Infection and Inflammation, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Neuroimmunol 201:212-20. 2008
    ..Obesity is also related to dysregulation of cortisol production by the pre-receptor enzyme, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and we speculate that this may have a role in the pathogenesis of obesity and raised ICP seen in IIH...
  94. pmc Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance are associated with increased adipose 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression and elevated hepatic 5alpha-reductase activity
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, U K
    Diabetes 57:2652-60. 2008
    ....
  95. ncbi request reprint Congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by mutant P450 oxidoreductase and human androgen synthesis: analytical study
    Wiebke Arlt
    Division of Medical Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, Medical School, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Lancet 363:2128-35. 2004
    ..We aimed to investigate the underlying molecular basis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined P450C17 and P450C21 deficiency in affected children...
  96. doi request reprint Effect of spironolactone on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with early stage chronic kidney disease
    Nicola C Edwards
    Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Birmingham and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Am J Cardiol 106:1505-11. 2010
    ..8 to 102.4], p <0.01) and attenuated an increase in aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen observed with placebo. In conclusion, spironolactone improves markers of regional LV systolic and diastolic function in early CKD...
  97. ncbi request reprint Dissociation of serum dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in septic shock
    Wiebke Arlt
    Medical Research Council Senior Clinical Fellow, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Institute of Biomedical Research, Room 233, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:2548-54. 2006
    ..However, experimental sepsis in rodents leads to down-regulation of DHEA sulfotransferase, which inactivates DHEA to DHEAS, theoretically resulting in higher DHEA levels...
  98. ncbi request reprint Androgen generation in adipose tissue in women with simple obesity--a site-specific role for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5
    Marcus Quinkler
    Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, United Kingdom
    J Endocrinol 183:331-42. 2004
    ..Thus, human adipose tissue is capable of active androgen synthesis catalysed by 17beta-HSD5, and increased expression in obesity may contribute to circulating androgen excess...
  99. doi request reprint Adipophilin distribution and colocalization with lipid droplets in skeletal muscle
    Christopher S Shaw
    Exercise Metabolism Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Histochem Cell Biol 131:575-81. 2009
    ..In conclusion, this study indicates that the IMCL pool is heterogeneous, as the majority but not all IMCL contain adipophilin...
  100. ncbi request reprint Mechanisms of disease: Selective inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 as a novel treatment for the metabolic syndrome
    Jeremy W Tomlinson
    Institute of Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, UK
    Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 1:92-9. 2005
    ..Here we review the published data and the rationale for treatment in humans, as well as discussing potential problems and adverse effects of future selective 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors...