Rajinder Singh

Summary

Affiliation: University of Leicester
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Detection of phosphodiester adducts formed by the reaction of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with 2'-deoxynucleotides using collision-induced dissociation electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry
    Margaret Gaskell
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:5014-27. 2007
  2. doi request reprint Detection of acetaldehyde derived N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine in human leukocyte DNA following alcohol consumption
    Rajinder Singh
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, UK
    Mutat Res 737:8-11. 2012
  3. ncbi request reprint Lobe-specific increases in malondialdehyde DNA adduct formation in the livers of mice following infection with Helicobacter hepaticus
    R Singh
    Medical Research Council, Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, University of Leicester, PO Box 138, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK
    Carcinogenesis 22:1281-7. 2001
  4. ncbi request reprint Detection and quantitation of benzo[a]pyrene-derived DNA adducts in mouse liver by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: comparison with 32P-postlabeling
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocenter, University of Leicester, UK
    Chem Res Toxicol 19:868-78. 2006
  5. pmc Detection and quantitation of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine adducts in DNA using online column-switching liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 878:2155-62. 2010
  6. doi request reprint Simultaneous determination of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyadenosine in DNA using online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
    Rajinder Singh
    Biocentre, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:151-60. 2009
  7. ncbi request reprint Effects of environmental air pollution on endogenous oxidative DNA damage in humans
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Mutat Res 620:71-82. 2007
  8. ncbi request reprint The relationship between biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts, antioxidant status and genetic susceptibility following exposure to environmental air pollution in humans
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH UK
    Mutat Res 620:83-92. 2007
  9. doi request reprint Evaluation of the DNA damaging potential of cannabis cigarette smoke by the determination of acetaldehyde derived N2-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
    Chem Res Toxicol 22:1181-8. 2009
  10. doi request reprint Development of a targeted adductomic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts using online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 24:2329-40. 2010

Detail Information

Publications43

  1. pmc Detection of phosphodiester adducts formed by the reaction of benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with 2'-deoxynucleotides using collision-induced dissociation electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry
    Margaret Gaskell
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
    Nucleic Acids Res 35:5014-27. 2007
    ..In conclusion, this investigation provides the first direct evidence for the formation of phosphodiester adducts by B[a]PDE following reaction with 2'-deoxynucleotides...
  2. doi request reprint Detection of acetaldehyde derived N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine in human leukocyte DNA following alcohol consumption
    Rajinder Singh
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, UK
    Mutat Res 737:8-11. 2012
    ..In conclusion, alcohol consumption that could be encountered under social drinking conditions, does not significantly alter the levels of the acetaldehyde derived DNA adduct, N(2)-ethyl-dG in human leukocyte DNA from healthy individuals...
  3. ncbi request reprint Lobe-specific increases in malondialdehyde DNA adduct formation in the livers of mice following infection with Helicobacter hepaticus
    R Singh
    Medical Research Council, Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, University of Leicester, PO Box 138, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK
    Carcinogenesis 22:1281-7. 2001
    ..In conclusion, these results suggest that M1dG occurs as a result of oxidative stress associated with H. hepaticus infection of mice, and may contribute to liver carcinogenesis in this model...
  4. ncbi request reprint Detection and quantitation of benzo[a]pyrene-derived DNA adducts in mouse liver by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: comparison with 32P-postlabeling
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocenter, University of Leicester, UK
    Chem Res Toxicol 19:868-78. 2006
    ..The LC-MS/MS method allowed the more precise quantitation of DNA adduct levels that were structurally characterized, in addition to a reduction in the time taken to perform the analysis when compared with the (32)P-postlabeling method...
  5. pmc Detection and quantitation of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine adducts in DNA using online column-switching liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 878:2155-62. 2010
    ....
  6. doi request reprint Simultaneous determination of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyadenosine in DNA using online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
    Rajinder Singh
    Biocentre, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:151-60. 2009
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Effects of environmental air pollution on endogenous oxidative DNA damage in humans
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Mutat Res 620:71-82. 2007
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint The relationship between biomarkers of oxidative DNA damage, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts, antioxidant status and genetic susceptibility following exposure to environmental air pollution in humans
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH UK
    Mutat Res 620:83-92. 2007
    ..This effect was not observed for individuals carrying the null variant...
  9. doi request reprint Evaluation of the DNA damaging potential of cannabis cigarette smoke by the determination of acetaldehyde derived N2-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
    Chem Res Toxicol 22:1181-8. 2009
    ..In conclusion, these results provide evidence for the DNA damaging potential of cannabis smoke, implying that the consumption of cannabis cigarettes may be detrimental to human health with the possibility to initiate cancer development...
  10. doi request reprint Development of a targeted adductomic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts using online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 24:2329-40. 2010
    ..However, for improved sensitivity of detection optimised SRM transitions relating to the PAH moiety product ions are required for certain PAH DNA adducts for the development of targeted DNA adductomic methods...
  11. ncbi request reprint Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: the future of DNA adduct detection
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Carcinogenesis 27:178-96. 2006
    ..In this review we will highlight the merits as well as discuss the progress made by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry as a method for DNA adduct detection...
  12. ncbi request reprint Detection of DNA damage derived from a direct acting ethylating agent present in cigarette smoke by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocenter, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
    Chem Res Toxicol 18:249-56. 2005
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint An improved liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA samples using immunoaffinity column purification
    Rajinder Singh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, UK
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 17:126-34. 2003
    ..8 +/- 1.2 8-oxodG per 10(6) unmodified nucleotides (n = 5) using 5 microg of digested DNA. The limit of detection of the microbore LC/MS/MS MRM for 8-oxodG was determined to be 25 fmol on-column with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3.5...
  14. ncbi request reprint Molecular epidemiology studies of carcinogenic environmental pollutants. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental pollution on exogenous and oxidative DNA damage
    Peter B Farmer
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Mutat Res 544:397-402. 2003
    ..Repair ability was also measured by the Comet assay. In vitro systems are being evaluated to characterise the genotoxicity of the organic compounds adsorbed to air particles...
  15. doi request reprint Determination of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine and creatinine in murine and human urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: application to chemoprevention studies
    Friederike Teichert
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, UK
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:258-66. 2009
    ..In conclusion, the LC/MS/MS SRM methods described here are ideally suited for the accurate determination of 8-oxodG and creatinine in urine samples from both clinical and pre-clinical studies...
  16. doi request reprint Analysis of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-purine-2'-deoxyribonucleosides by LC-MS/MS and improved ELISA
    Mark D Evans
    Department of Cancer, Radiation and Oxidative Stress Section, Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Free Radic Res 42:831-40. 2008
    ..Urinary 8-oxodA is either not present or below the limit of detection of the instrumentation...
  17. doi request reprint Non-invasive assessment of oxidatively damaged DNA: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine
    Vilas Mistry
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Radiation and Oxidative Stress Group, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Methods Mol Biol 682:279-89. 2011
    ..Subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry provides the advantages of sensitivity, internal standardisation, and robust peak identification, and is widely considered to be the "gold standard"...
  18. doi request reprint Determination of 5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine in genomic DNA using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection
    Jatinderpal Sandhu
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE17RH, UK
    J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877:1957-61. 2009
    ..The percentage 5-MedC level determined for commercially available calf thymus DNA was 6.26%, for HeLa cell DNA was 3.02% and for rat liver DNA was 3.55%...
  19. doi request reprint Analysis of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
    Mark D Evans
    Radiation and Oxidative Stress Group, Department of Cancer Studies, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Methods Mol Biol 610:341-51. 2010
    ..Subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has the advantages of sensitivity, internal standardisation and robust peak identification...
  20. ncbi request reprint Androgen manipulation alters oxidative DNA adduct levels in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells grown in vitro and in vivo
    Sanjeev Pathak
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    Cancer Lett 261:74-83. 2008
    ..001 by Mann-Whitney Test) in flutamide-treated animals compared to controls. The changes demonstrated suggest that oxidative DNA adducts may serve as biomarkers of the efficacy of androgen manipulation in chemoprevention trials...
  21. doi request reprint Toward consensus in the analysis of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine as a noninvasive biomarker of oxidative stress
    Mark D Evans
    Department of Cancer Studies, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    FASEB J 24:1249-60. 2010
    ..D., Olinski, R., Loft, S., Cooke, M. S. Toward consensus in the analysis of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine as a noninvasive biomarker of oxidative stress...
  22. ncbi request reprint Evidence that oxidative stress is a risk factor for the development of squamous cell carcinoma in renal transplant patients
    Marcus S Cooke
    Radiation and Oxidative Stress Group, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 43:1328-34. 2007
    ..02). These results demonstrate, for the first time, that a subpopulation of renal transplant patients is under greater oxidative burden, and it is this population that is particularly predisposed to skin cancer...
  23. ncbi request reprint Detection of O6-carboxymethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA following reaction of nitric oxide with glycine and in human blood DNA using a quantitative immunoslot blot assay
    Belinda C Cupid
    MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, University of Leicester, P O Box 138, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    Chem Res Toxicol 17:294-300. 2004
    ..These studies provide further evidence that nitrosated amino acids may be risk factors for gastrointestinal tract cancers...
  24. doi request reprint Evaluation of urinary ribonucleoside profiling for clinical biomarker discovery using constant neutral loss scanning liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry
    Friederike Teichert
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
    Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 25:2071-82. 2011
    ..Should such a protocol not be feasible, biological intra-day and inter-day variation must be considered and accounted for in the data interpretation...
  25. doi request reprint Use of DNA adducts to identify human health risk from exposure to hazardous environmental pollutants: the increasing role of mass spectrometry in assessing biologically effective doses of genotoxic carcinogens
    Peter B Farmer
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom
    Mutat Res 659:68-76. 2008
    ..phosphotriester adducts that are not repaired efficiently) seems important areas for the future assessment of the effects of human exposure to environmental genotoxins, together with studies of dose-response relationships at low doses...
  26. pmc Notch3 and HEY-1 as prognostic biomarkers in pancreatic adenocarcinoma
    Christopher D Mann
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester, Leicestershire, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 7:e51119. 2012
    ..A peptide fragment of Notch3 was detected in plasma from patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer, but due to wide inter-individual variation, mean levels were not significantly different compared to age-matched controls...
  27. doi request reprint Nucleotide excision repair of oxidised genomic DNA is not a source of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine
    Mark D Evans
    Oxidative Stress Group, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom Electronic address
    Free Radic Biol Med 99:385-391. 2016
    ..On the basis of the above, urinary 8-oxodGuo is most accurately defined as a non-invasive biomarker of oxidative stress, derived from oxidatively generated damage to 2'-deoxyguanosine...
  28. pmc Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 are essential for normal T-cell development and genomic stability in mice
    Oliver M Dovey
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Blood 121:1335-44. 2013
    ..Tumor cells become aneuploid, express increased levels of c-Myc and show elevated levels of the DNA damage marker, γH2AX. These data demonstrate a crucial role for HDAC1/2 in T-cell development and the maintenance of genomic stability...
  29. ncbi request reprint Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methodology for the analysis of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine in saliva and urine
    Marcus S Cooke
    Radiation and Oxidative Stress Group, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, Robert Kilpatrick Clinical Sciences Building, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE2 7LX, UK
    Free Radic Biol Med 41:1829-36. 2006
    ..Ongoing investigation in our laboratories aims to identify the basis of the discrepancy between ELISA and LC-MS/MS...
  30. doi request reprint Sulfate metabolites provide an intracellular pool for resveratrol generation and induce autophagy with senescence
    Ketan R Patel
    Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester LE2 7LX, UK
    Sci Transl Med 5:205ra133. 2013
    ..At doses considered to be safe in humans, resveratrol generated via this route may be of greater importance than the unmetabolized form. ..
  31. pmc DNMTs are required for delayed genome instability caused by radiation
    Christine A Armstrong
    Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Epigenetics 7:892-902. 2012
    ..We propose that DNMTS may contribute to the acquirement of radio-resistance in stem-like cells...
  32. pmc Acute exposure of mice to high-dose ultrafine carbon black decreases susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia
    Ananth Tellabati
    Department of Infection Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK
    Part Fibre Toxicol 7:30. 2010
    ..We therefore aimed to use a mouse model to test the hypothesis that high levels of carbon loading of AM in vivo increases susceptibility to pneumococcal pneumonia...
  33. ncbi request reprint Pilot study of oral silibinin, a putative chemopreventive agent, in colorectal cancer patients: silibinin levels in plasma, colorectum, and liver and their pharmacodynamic consequences
    Carmen Hoh
    Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Department of Cancer Studies, University of Leicester, United Kingdom
    Clin Cancer Res 12:2944-50. 2006
    ..The high silibinin levels achieved in the human colorectal mucosa after consumption of safe silibinin doses support its further exploration as a potential human colorectal cancer chemopreventive agent...
  34. ncbi request reprint Detection of malondialdehyde DNA adducts in human colorectal mucosa: relationship with diet and the presence of adenomas
    Chiara Leuratti
    Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11:267-73. 2002
    ..061). When levels of adducts were compared in individuals with and without adenomas, there was a trend for higher levels in individuals presenting with adenomas especially in the highest category of M(1)-dG adducts (P < 0.005)...
  35. doi request reprint Metabolic activation of benzo[a]pyrene in vitro by hepatic cytochrome P450 contrasts with detoxification in vivo: experiments with hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice
    Volker M Arlt
    Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG, UK
    Carcinogenesis 29:656-65. 2008
    ..7- to 2.6-fold) relative to WT mice. These data reveal an apparent paradox, whereby hepatic CYP enzymes appear to be more important for detoxification of BaP in vivo, despite being involved in its metabolic activation in vitro...
  36. ncbi request reprint Characterisation of Ercc1 deficiency in the liver and in conditional Ercc1-deficient primary hepatocytes in vitro
    Kristina Kirschner
    Sir Alastair Currie Cancer Research UK Laboratories, Molecular Medicine Centre, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Scotland, UK
    DNA Repair (Amst) 6:304-16. 2007
    ....
  37. ncbi request reprint Effects of hemodialysis, dialyser type and iron infusion on oxidative stress in uremic patients
    Christoph Müller
    Department of Chemistry, Division of Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany
    Free Radic Res 38:1093-100. 2004
    ..005). Our results show an increased oxidative damage in HD-patients, compared to healthy volunteers. Significant influences were found for the dialyser membrane type and iron infusion...
  38. ncbi request reprint Effects of diet on biomarkers of exposure and effects, and on oxidative damage
    Sara Raimondi
    Fondazione Policlinico, Milano, Italy
    Mutat Res 620:93-102. 2007
    ..The recent consumption of smoked or fried food was associated with an increase in total DNA adducts levels...
  39. ncbi request reprint Effects of metabolic genotypes on intermediary biomarkers in subjects exposed to PAHS: results from the EXPAH study
    Seymour Garte
    University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA
    Mutat Res 620:7-15. 2007
    ..that conferred significant resistance to the DNA damaging effects of benzo[a]pyrene, measured as the level of a benzo[a]pyrene-like adduct per unit of benzo[a]pyrene exposed...
  40. ncbi request reprint Multiple squamous cell carcinomas of esophagus
    Rakesh Kochhar
    Department of Gastroenterology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh 160 012
    Indian J Gastroenterol 22:228-30. 2003
    ..They developed a second squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus more than 4 1/2 years after external radiation for a primary squamous cell carcinoma at a different site in the esophagus...
  41. ncbi request reprint Constituents of Pterocarpus marsupium: an ayurvedic crude drug
    Rakesh Maurya
    Medicinal Chemistry Division, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226 001, India
    Phytochemistry 65:915-20. 2004
    ..The structure has been established using spectroscopic data...
  42. doi request reprint An efficient method for the synthesis of nitropiperidones
    José Luis García Ruano
    Departamento de Quimica Organica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    J Org Chem 73:1150-3. 2008
    ..A very simple experimental procedure involving mild conditions and only one chromatographic purification are the main features of the process...
  43. ncbi request reprint Open partial nephrectomy: outcomes from two UK centres
    Eleanor R Ray
    Department of Pathology, Guy s Hospital, London, UK
    BJU Int 97:1211-5. 2006
    ..Current knowledge of the effectiveness of OPN is limited by the fact that published data are almost exclusively derived from a very few centres of established world renown...