Wolfram Schultz

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cambridge
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Explicit neural signals reflecting reward uncertainty
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:3801-11. 2008
  2. doi request reprint Reward functions of the basal ganglia
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3DY, UK
    J Neural Transm (Vienna) 123:679-93. 2016
  3. pmc Updating dopamine reward signals
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 23:229-38. 2013
  4. doi request reprint Neuronal signals for reward risk in frontal cortex
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1239:109-17. 2011
  5. ncbi request reprint Getting formal with dopamine and reward
    Wolfram Schultz
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700, Fribourg, Switzerland
    Neuron 36:241-63. 2002
  6. doi request reprint Subjective neuronal coding of reward: temporal value discounting and risk
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 31:2124-35. 2010
  7. pmc Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    Behav Brain Funct 6:24. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Potential vulnerabilities of neuronal reward, risk, and decision mechanisms to addictive drugs
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB23DY, UK
    Neuron 69:603-17. 2011
  9. pmc Introduction. Neuroeconomics: the promise and the profit
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:3767-9. 2008
  10. ncbi request reprint Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Neurosci 30:259-88. 2007

Detail Information

Publications65

  1. pmc Explicit neural signals reflecting reward uncertainty
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:3801-11. 2008
    ..The brain can use the uncertainty signals to assess the uncertainty of rewards, influence learning, modulate the value of uncertain rewards and make appropriate behavioural choices between only partly known options...
  2. doi request reprint Reward functions of the basal ganglia
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3DY, UK
    J Neural Transm (Vienna) 123:679-93. 2016
    ..These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. ..
  3. pmc Updating dopamine reward signals
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 23:229-38. 2013
    ..The signal is homogeneous in terms of time course but heterogeneous in many other aspects. It is essential for synaptic plasticity and a range of behavioural learning situations...
  4. doi request reprint Neuronal signals for reward risk in frontal cortex
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Ann N Y Acad Sci 1239:109-17. 2011
    ..These neurophysiological mechanisms of reward risk on economic decisions inform and validate theories of economic decision making under uncertainty...
  5. ncbi request reprint Getting formal with dopamine and reward
    Wolfram Schultz
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700, Fribourg, Switzerland
    Neuron 36:241-63. 2002
    ..Addictive psychostimulant drugs may exert their action by amplifying the dopamine reward signal...
  6. doi request reprint Subjective neuronal coding of reward: temporal value discounting and risk
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 31:2124-35. 2010
    ..However, these data do not rule out that other neurons or brain structures may code reward according to its objective value and risk...
  7. pmc Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    Behav Brain Funct 6:24. 2010
    ..This review provides an updated overview about the basic signals of dopamine neurons to environmental stimuli...
  8. doi request reprint Potential vulnerabilities of neuronal reward, risk, and decision mechanisms to addictive drugs
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB23DY, UK
    Neuron 69:603-17. 2011
    ..Malfunctioning adaptive reward coding may lead to overvaluation of drug rewards. Many of these malfunctions may result in inadequate neuronal decision mechanisms and lead to choices biased toward drug rewards...
  9. pmc Introduction. Neuroeconomics: the promise and the profit
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363:3767-9. 2008
    ..Perhaps we can even learn why some decisions are apparently paradoxical or pathological. The knowledge could be used to create situations that avoid suboptimal decisions and harm...
  10. ncbi request reprint Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Neurosci 30:259-88. 2007
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Behavioral dopamine signals
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Trends Neurosci 30:203-10. 2007
    ....
  12. ncbi request reprint Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, CB2 3DY United Kingdom
    Annu Rev Psychol 57:87-115. 2006
    ..The neural activity can be related to basic theoretical terms of reward and uncertainty, such as contiguity, contingency, prediction error, magnitude, probability, expected value, and variance...
  13. ncbi request reprint Changes in behavior-related neuronal activity in the striatum during learning
    Wolfram Schultz
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Trends Neurosci 26:321-8. 2003
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:139-47. 2004
    ....
  15. pmc Neuronal distortions of reward probability without choice
    Philippe N Tobler
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:11703-11. 2008
    ..Input of the distorted probability estimations to decision-making mechanisms are likely to contribute to well known inconsistencies in preferences formalized in theories of behavioral economics...
  16. ncbi request reprint Adaptive coding of reward value by dopamine neurons
    Philippe N Tobler
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK, and Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 307:1642-5. 2005
    ..Responses shifted relative to the expected reward value, and the gain adjusted to the variance of reward value. In this way, dopamine neurons maintained their reward sensitivity over a large range of reward values...
  17. pmc Adaptation of reward sensitivity in orbitofrontal neurons
    Shunsuke Kobayashi
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 30:534-44. 2010
    ..The observed neuronal adaptation would optimize discrimination and contribute to the efficient coding of a large variety of potential rewards by neurons with limited dynamic range...
  18. pmc Risk prediction error coding in orbitofrontal neurons
    Martin O'Neill
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 33:15810-4. 2013
    ..A group of orbitofrontal neurons displayed a risk signal that tracked the discrepancy between current and predicted risk. Such neuronal signals may be involved in the updating of risk information. ..
  19. pmc Reward value coding distinct from risk attitude-related uncertainty coding in human reward systems
    Philippe N Tobler
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    J Neurophysiol 97:1621-32. 2007
    ..These data demonstrate the distinct coding in key reward structures of the two basic and crucial decision parameters, expected value, and uncertainty...
  20. ncbi request reprint Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons
    Christopher D Fiorillo
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, CH 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Science 299:1898-902. 2003
    ..The coding of uncertainty suggests a possible role for dopamine signals in attention-based learning and risk-taking behavior...
  21. doi request reprint Appetitive and aversive taste conditioning in a computer game influences real-world decision making and subsequent activation in insular cortex
    Jonathan A McCabe
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 29:1046-51. 2009
    ....
  22. ncbi request reprint Coding of predicted reward omission by dopamine neurons in a conditioned inhibition paradigm
    Philippe N Tobler
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 23:10402-10. 2003
    ..The neuronal responses appear to reflect reward prediction errors, thus suggesting an extension of the correspondence between learning theory and activity of single dopamine neurons to the prediction of nonreward...
  23. pmc Neural correlates of value, risk, and risk aversion contributing to decision making under risk
    George I Christopoulos
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    J Neurosci 29:12574-83. 2009
    ..More generally, these biological data contribute to the validity of the theoretical decision parameters for actual decisions under risk...
  24. pmc Responses of amygdala neurons to positive reward-predicting stimuli depend on background reward (contingency) rather than stimulus-reward pairing (contiguity)
    Maria A Bermudez
    Dept of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Neurophysiol 103:1158-70. 2010
    ....
  25. pmc A neuronal reward inequity signal in primate striatum
    Raymundo Báez-Mendoza
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    J Neurophysiol 115:68-79. 2016
    ..The neuronal activities are likely to contribute crucial reward information to neuronal mechanisms involved in social interactions. ..
  26. pmc Activity of striatal neurons reflects social action and own reward
    Raymundo Báez-Mendoza
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:16634-9. 2013
    ..These findings demonstrate a role of striatal neurons in identifying the social actor and own reward in a social setting. These processes may provide basic building blocks underlying the brain's function in social interactions. ..
  27. pmc Influence of reward delays on responses of dopamine neurons
    Shunsuke Kobayashi
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB23DY, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 28:7837-46. 2008
    ..These dopamine reward value signals might serve as useful inputs for brain mechanisms involved in economic choices between delayed rewards...
  28. pmc Short-term temporal discounting of reward value in human ventral striatum
    Lucy Gregorios-Pippas
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Neurophysiol 101:1507-23. 2009
    ..Comparisons with electrophysiological animal data suggest that ventral striatal reward discounting may involve dopaminergic and orbitofrontal inputs...
  29. pmc Components and characteristics of the dopamine reward utility signal
    William R Stauffer
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    J Comp Neurol 524:1699-711. 2016
    ..Thus, the dopamine reward signal is fast, highly sensitive and appropriate for driving and updating economic decisions...
  30. pmc Sensitivity to temporal reward structure in amygdala neurons
    Maria A Bermudez
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Curr Biol 22:1839-44. 2012
    ..The data demonstrate an active involvement of amygdala neurons in timing processes that are crucial for reward function...
  31. doi request reprint Coding of reward risk by orbitofrontal neurons is mostly distinct from coding of reward value
    Martin O'Neill
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB23DY, UK
    Neuron 68:789-800. 2010
    ..Furthermore, a small but statistically significant fraction of risk responses also coded reward value. These risk signals may provide physiological correlates for the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in risk processing...
  32. pmc Risk-dependent reward value signal in human prefrontal cortex
    Philippe N Tobler
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:7185-90. 2009
    ..These results demonstrate an aggregate risk and value signal in the prefrontal cortex that would be compatible with basic assumptions underlying the mean-variance approach to utility...
  33. ncbi request reprint Learning-related human brain activations reflecting individual finances
    Philippe N Tobler
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Neuron 54:167-75. 2007
    ..The inverse relationship of behavioral and neuronal learning speed with personal finances is compatible with the general concept of decreasing marginal utility with increasing wealth...
  34. ncbi request reprint Relative reward processing in primate striatum
    Howard C Cromwell
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland
    Exp Brain Res 162:520-5. 2005
    ..The observed changes may provide a neural basis for the known shifts in valuation of rewarding outcomes relative to known references...
  35. pmc Reward magnitude coding in primate amygdala neurons
    Maria A Bermudez
    Dept of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Univ of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3DY, UK
    J Neurophysiol 104:3424-32. 2010
    ..These data suggest parametric reward value coding in the amygdala as a characteristic component of its function in reinforcement learning and economic decision making...
  36. pmc Human neural learning depends on reward prediction errors in the blocking paradigm
    Philippe N Tobler
    Department of Anatomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    J Neurophysiol 95:301-10. 2006
    ..These data suggest that learning in primary reward structures in the human brain correlates with prediction errors in a manner that complies with principles of formal learning theory...
  37. pmc Dopamine reward prediction error coding
    Wolfram Schultz
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Dialogues Clin Neurosci 18:23-32. 2016
    ..The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware. ..
  38. pmc Dopamine Neuron-Specific Optogenetic Stimulation in Rhesus Macaques
    William R Stauffer
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK Electronic address
    Cell 166:1564-1571.e6. 2016
    ..Together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of effective and selective stimulation of dopamine neurons in non-human primates and a resource that could be applied to other cell types in the monkey brain...
  39. pmc Dopamine prediction error responses integrate subjective value from different reward dimensions
    Armin Lak
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:2343-8. 2014
    ..This prediction error response could provide a direct updating signal for economic values. ..
  40. pmc BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards
    Krishna P Miyapuram
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Cambridge, CB23DY, UK
    Neuroimage 59:1692-9. 2012
    ..Graded activation in midbrain was observed to stimuli predicting increasing hypothetical rewards. The results demonstrate the efficacy of using hypothetical monetary rewards in fMRI studies...
  41. pmc Neural mechanisms of observational learning
    Christopher J Burke
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:14431-6. 2010
    ..In a functional MRI experiment, we found that brain activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex respectively corresponded to these two distinct observational learning signals...
  42. pmc Prediction of economic choice by primate amygdala neurons
    Fabian Grabenhorst
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:18950-5. 2012
    ..These findings suggest that the amygdala might play an active role in economic decisions. Current views of amygdala function should be extended to incorporate a role in decision-making beyond valuation...
  43. pmc Operant conditioning of primate prefrontal neurons
    Shunsuke Kobayashi
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB23DY, UK
    J Neurophysiol 103:1843-55. 2010
    ..These data demonstrate a remarkable capacity of prefrontal neurons to adapt to specific operant requirements at the single-neuron level...
  44. pmc Partial Adaptation of Obtained and Observed Value Signals Preserves Information about Gains and Losses
    Christopher J Burke
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom, Laboratory for Social and Neural Systems Research, Department of Economics, University of Zurich, 8006 Zurich, Switzerland, and
    J Neurosci 36:10016-25. 2016
    ..Thus, although neural areas rescale their responses to outcomes for efficient coding, they adapt incompletely and keep track of the longer-term incentives available in the environment...
  45. pmc Economic choices reveal probability distortion in macaque monkeys
    William R Stauffer
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 35:3146-54. 2015
    ..Together, these results suggest that probability distortion may reflect evolutionarily preserved neuronal processing. ..
  46. ncbi request reprint Effects of expectations for different reward magnitudes on neuronal activity in primate striatum
    Howard C Cromwell
    Institute of Physiology, University of Fribourg, Switzerland
    J Neurophysiol 89:2823-38. 2003
    ..Overall, these data support the idea that the striatum utilizes expectancies that contain precise information concerning the predicted, forthcoming level of reward in directing general behavioral reactions...
  47. pmc Dopamine neurons learn relative chosen value from probabilistic rewards
    Armin Lak
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    elife 5:. 2016
    ..These results show that dopamine neurons acquire predictive value signals from the frequency of experienced rewards. This flexible and fast signal reflects a specific decision variable and could update neuronal decision mechanisms...
  48. pmc Primate amygdala neurons evaluate the progress of self-defined economic choice sequences
    Fabian Grabenhorst
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    elife 5:. 2016
    ..Such progress signals seem essential for aligning stepwise choices with internal plans. Their presence in amygdala neurons may inform understanding of human conditions with amygdala dysfunction and deregulated reward pursuit...
  49. pmc A dynamic code for economic object valuation in prefrontal cortex neurons
    Ken Ichiro Tsutsui
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Nat Commun 7:12554. 2016
    ..These findings suggest a dynamic single-neuron and population value code in DLPFC that advances from reward experiences to economic object values and future choices. ..
  50. pmc Planning activity for internally generated reward goals in monkey amygdala neurons
    Istvan Hernadi
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Neurosci 18:461-9. 2015
    ..The existence of neuronal planning activity in the amygdala suggests that this structure is important in guiding behavior toward internally generated, distant goals. ..
  51. pmc Dopamine reward prediction error responses reflect marginal utility
    William R Stauffer
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK Electronic address
    Curr Biol 24:2491-500. 2014
    ..Accordingly, neuronal reward responses coding utility should robustly reflect this nonlinearity...
  52. pmc Performance error-related activity in monkey striatum during social interactions
    Raymundo Báez-Mendoza
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3DY, UK
    Sci Rep 6:37199. 2016
    ..These signals might be important for social coordination, observational learning and adjusting to an ever-changing social landscape...
  53. pmc Neural Basis for Economic Saving Strategies in Human Amygdala-Prefrontal Reward Circuits
    Leopold Zangemeister
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3DY, UK Electronic address
    Curr Biol 26:3004-3013. 2016
    ..Our findings identify candidate neural mechanisms for economic saving in amygdala and prefrontal cortex and suggest a novel planning function for the human amygdala in directing strategic behavior toward self-determined future rewards...
  54. pmc Utility functions predict variance and skewness risk preferences in monkeys
    Wilfried Genest
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113:8402-7. 2016
    ..This result implies a representation of utility in monkeys that accounts for both variance-risk and skewness-risk preferences. ..
  55. pmc Adaptive Prediction Error Coding in the Human Midbrain and Striatum Facilitates Behavioral Adaptation and Learning Efficiency
    Kelly M J Diederen
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Robinson Way, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, United Kingdom Electronic address
    Neuron 90:1127-38. 2016
    ..Crucially, increased SN/VTA and ventral striatal adaptation was related to improved task performance. These results suggest that adaptive coding facilitates behavioral adaptation and supports efficient learning. ..
  56. pmc Choice mechanisms for past, temporally extended outcomes
    Martin D Vestergaard
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK
    Proc Biol Sci 282:. 2015
    ..These results demonstrate how focusing on immediate gains is less beneficial than considering longer perspectives. ..
  57. pmc Economic risk coding by single neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex
    Martin O'Neill
    Department of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK Electronic address
    J Physiol Paris 109:70-7. 2015
    ..These biological risk signals are essential for processing and updating risky information in the environment to contribute to efficient decision making and adaptive behaviour...
  58. pmc Timing in reward and decision processes
    Maria A Bermudez
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 369:20120468. 2014
    ..Together these data suggest that internal timing processes have several well characterized effects on neuronal reward processing. ..
  59. pmc Reward contexts extend dopamine signals to unrewarded stimuli
    Shunsuke Kobayashi
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3DY, UK Electronic address
    Curr Biol 24:56-62. 2014
    ..Agents would encounter more and miss less reward, resulting in survival advantage and enhanced evolutionary fitness...
  60. pmc The human brain encodes event frequencies while forming subjective beliefs
    Mathieu D'Acremont
    Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    J Neurosci 33:10887-97. 2013
    ..Overall this study reveals the coexistence in the brain of an experience-based system of inference and a knowledge-based system of inference. ..
  61. pmc Striatal BOLD Response Reflects the Impact of Herd Information on Financial Decisions
    Christopher J Burke
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge Cambridge, UK
    Front Hum Neurosci 4:48. 2010
    ..These findings lend weight to the notion that the ventral striatum is involved in the processing of complex social aspects of decision making and identify a possible neural basis for herd behavior...
  62. doi request reprint Dissociating the role of the orbitofrontal cortex and the striatum in the computation of goal values and prediction errors
    Todd A Hare
    Division of Humanities and Social Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125, USA
    J Neurosci 28:5623-30. 2008
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Influences of rewarding and aversive outcomes on activity in macaque lateral prefrontal cortex
    Shunsuke Kobayashi
    Brain Science Research Center, Tamagawa University Research Institute, Machida, Tokyo 194 0041, Japan
    Neuron 51:861-70. 2006
    ..Our results demonstrate that information about positive and negative reinforcers is processed differentially in prefrontal cortex, which could contribute to the role of this structure in goal-directed behavior...
  64. ncbi request reprint Rewarding properties of visual stimuli
    Katharina Blatter
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Basel, CH 4025 Basel, Switzerland
    Exp Brain Res 168:541-6. 2006
    ..These observations would allow similar forms of visual rewards to be used for neurophysiological investigations of mechanisms related to non-vegetative rewards...