Stuart Harrad

Summary

Affiliation: University of Birmingham
Country: UK

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in indoor air and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor air and dust in Birmingham, United Kingdom: implications for human exposure
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 40:4633-8. 2006
  2. ncbi request reprint Calibration of polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers for quantitative measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): factors influencing sampling rates
    Sadegh Hazrati
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Chemosphere 67:448-55. 2007
  3. ncbi request reprint Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in domestic indoor dust from Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Int 34:232-8. 2008
  4. doi request reprint Causes of variability in concentrations and diastereomer patterns of hexabromocyclododecanes in indoor dust
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Environ Int 35:573-9. 2009
  5. doi request reprint Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in dust from cars, homes, and offices in Lagos, Nigeria
    Stuart Harrad
    School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK Electronic address
    Chemosphere 146:346-53. 2016
  6. pmc Exposure to flame retardant chemicals on commercial airplanes
    Joseph G Allen
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Environ Health 12:17. 2013
  7. ncbi request reprint Human dietary intake and excretion of dioxin-like compounds
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Public Health Building, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Environ Monit 5:224-8. 2003
  8. doi request reprint Brominated flame retardants in dust from UK cars--within-vehicle spatial variability, evidence for degradation and exposure implications
    Stuart Harrad
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Chemosphere 82:1240-5. 2011
  9. doi request reprint Dust from U.K. primary school classrooms and daycare centers: the significance of dust as a pathway of exposure of young U.K. children to brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Environ Sci Technol 44:4198-202. 2010
  10. doi request reprint Indoor contamination with hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluoroalkyl compounds: an important exposure pathway for people?
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Environ Sci Technol 44:3221-31. 2010

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. ncbi request reprint Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in indoor air and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor air and dust in Birmingham, United Kingdom: implications for human exposure
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 40:4633-8. 2006
    ..Comparison of UK and Canadian estimates of absolute exposure to sigmaBDE suggest that differences in dust contamination are the likely cause of higher PBDE body burdens in North Americans compared to Europeans...
  2. ncbi request reprint Calibration of polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers for quantitative measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): factors influencing sampling rates
    Sadegh Hazrati
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Chemosphere 67:448-55. 2007
    ..Analysis of wipe samples taken from the inside of the sampler housing, revealed evidence that the housing surface scavenges particle bound PBDEs...
  3. ncbi request reprint Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in domestic indoor dust from Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Int 34:232-8. 2008
    ....
  4. doi request reprint Causes of variability in concentrations and diastereomer patterns of hexabromocyclododecanes in indoor dust
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Environ Int 35:573-9. 2009
    ..Significant negative correlation was observed in one room between concentrations of SigmaHBCDs and dust loading (g dust m(-2) floor), implying "dilution" occurs at higher dust loadings...
  5. doi request reprint Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in dust from cars, homes, and offices in Lagos, Nigeria
    Stuart Harrad
    School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK Electronic address
    Chemosphere 146:346-53. 2016
    ..Contrastingly, concentrations of all target PCBs in offices exceeded significantly those in cars. This study underlines the truly global distribution of indoor contamination with PBDEs and PCBs...
  6. pmc Exposure to flame retardant chemicals on commercial airplanes
    Joseph G Allen
    Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
    Environ Health 12:17. 2013
    ..Flame retardant chemicals are used in materials on airplanes to slow the propagation of fire. These chemicals migrate from their source products and can be found in the dust of airplanes, creating the potential for exposure...
  7. ncbi request reprint Human dietary intake and excretion of dioxin-like compounds
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Public Health Building, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Environ Monit 5:224-8. 2003
    ..Combined, these data imply that excretion rate is dependent on body burden, and that the majority of DLCs in human faeces arise from endogenous excretion...
  8. doi request reprint Brominated flame retardants in dust from UK cars--within-vehicle spatial variability, evidence for degradation and exposure implications
    Stuart Harrad
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Chemosphere 82:1240-5. 2011
    ..Comparison with overall exposure via diet, dust ingestion, and inhalation shows while in-vehicle exposure is a minor contributor to overall exposure to BDE-99, ΣHBCDs, and TBBP-A, it is a significant pathway for BDE-209...
  9. doi request reprint Dust from U.K. primary school classrooms and daycare centers: the significance of dust as a pathway of exposure of young U.K. children to brominated flame retardants and polychlorinated biphenyls
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Environ Sci Technol 44:4198-202. 2010
    ..K. dietary exposure substantially. Moreover, high-end estimates of dust exposure to BDE-99 and BDE-209 (4.3 and 13000 ng/kg bw/day, respectively) exceeded HBLVs of 0.23-0.30 and 7000 ng/kg bw/day respectively...
  10. doi request reprint Indoor contamination with hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluoroalkyl compounds: an important exposure pathway for people?
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    Environ Sci Technol 44:3221-31. 2010
    ....
  11. doi request reprint Current-use brominated flame retardants in water, sediment, and fish from English lakes
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Environ Sci Technol 43:9077-83. 2009
    ..While HBCD chiral signatures are racemic in water and sediment, our data reveal enantiomeric enrichment of (-)alpha-HBCD and (+)gamma-HBCD in fish...
  12. doi request reprint Polychlorinated biphenyls in domestic dust from Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States: implications for human exposure
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Chemosphere 76:232-8. 2009
    ..6-73% in toddlers. While inhalation is the principal indoor pathway under a typical dust ingestion scenario, exposure via dust ingestion exceeds that from either inhalation or diet for a small proportion of North American toddlers...
  13. doi request reprint Concentrations of brominated flame retardants in dust from United Kingdom cars, homes, and offices: causes of variability and implications for human exposure
    Harrad Stuart
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom
    Environ Int 34:1170-5. 2008
    ..Significant negative correlation was observed in one room between concentrations of BDE-47, 99, and 153 and dust loading (g dust m(-2) floor), suggesting "dilution" occurs at higher dust loadings...
  14. doi request reprint Calibration of two passive air sampler configurations for monitoring concentrations of hexabromocyclododecanes in indoor air
    Stuart Harrad
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2 TT, UK
    J Environ Monit 10:527-31. 2008
    ..Deployment of the part-sheltered configuration yielded concentrations approximately 35% lower than those obtained using a high volume sampler, consistent with PUF disk samplers measuring primarily the vapour phase...
  15. ncbi request reprint Dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers using a hybrid bioinorganic catalyst
    Stuart Harrad
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences and School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UKB15 2TT
    J Environ Monit 9:314-8. 2007
    ..Specifically, 10% of PBDE #47 was converted to identifiable lower brominated congeners, predominantly the tribrominated PBDE #17 and the dibrominated PBDE #4, 75% remained intact, while 15% of the starting mass was unaccounted for...
  16. ncbi request reprint Preliminary assessment of U.K. human dietary and inhalation exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 38:2345-50. 2004
    ..1) in omnivorous diet samples than in vegan diet samples, implying that while plant-based foods contribute appreciably, higher exposure occurs via ingestion of animal-based comestibles...
  17. ncbi request reprint Concentrations, sources and temporal trends in atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a major conurbation
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UKB15 2TT
    J Environ Monit 7:722-7. 2005
    ..In particular, retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene) concentrations were especially elevated, indicating it has possible utility as an indicator of wood combustion emissions...
  18. ncbi request reprint Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blood serum from New Zealand
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Chemosphere 66:2019-23. 2007
    ..One donor displayed concentrations that were significantly elevated (i.e. > average +2 standard deviations) above those in others in this study...
  19. ncbi request reprint Chiral signatures of PCB#s 95 and 149 in indoor air, grass, duplicate diets and human faeces
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Chemosphere 63:1368-76. 2006
    ....
  20. ncbi request reprint Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in air and soil on a rural-urban transect across a major UK conurbation
    Stuart Harrad
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 27T, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 40:4548-53. 2006
    ..It is hypothesized that PBDEs volatilize from treated products indoors, before ventilating outdoors, where congener 99 undergoes preferential atmospheric deposition and accumulation in soil...
  21. ncbi request reprint Hexabromocyclododecanes in indoor dust from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States
    Abou Elwafa Abdallah Mohamed
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 42:459-64. 2008
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Personal exposure to HBCDs and its degradation products via ingestion of indoor dust
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Int 35:870-6. 2009
    ..In contrast, although participants spent less time in cars than in offices, car dust makes a higher average contribution (17%) to SigmaHBCDs exposure than office dust (13%)...
  23. ncbi request reprint Hexabromocyclododecanes and tetrabromobisphenol-A in indoor air and dust in Birmingham, U.K: implications for human exposure
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 42:6855-61. 2008
    ..Inhalation appears a minor exposure pathway to both HBCDs and TBBP-A. On average, dust is 33% alpha-, 11% beta-, and 56% gamma-HBCD, while air is 22% alpha-, 11% beta-, and 65% gamma-HBCD...
  24. doi request reprint Perfluoroalkyl compounds in dust from Asian, Australian, European, and North American homes and UK cars, classrooms, and offices
    Emma Goosey
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Environ Int 37:86-92. 2011
    ..Even under high-end exposure scenarios for dust and diet, PFOS and PFOA exposures are well within the European Food Safety Authority tolerable daily intakes...
  25. doi request reprint Modification and calibration of a passive air sampler for monitoring vapor and particulate phase brominated flame retardants in indoor air: application to car interiors
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B152TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 44:3059-65. 2010
    ..No significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between levels of SigmaHBCDs and Sigmatrito hexa- BDEs in cabins and trunks. However, TBBP-A, BDE-209, and SigmaPBDEs concentrations were significantly higher in vehicle cabins...
  26. doi request reprint Perfluoroalkyl substances in UK indoor and outdoor air: spatial and seasonal variation, and implications for human exposure
    Emma Goosey
    School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Environ Int 45:86-90. 2012
    ..The observed variability could not be attributed to changes in room contents, nor to seasonality. Human exposure via inhalation appears a minor pathway...
  27. ncbi request reprint Concentrations and chiral signatures of polychlorinated biphenyls in outdoor and indoor air and soil in a major U.K. conurbation
    Arsalan Jamshidi
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 41:2153-8. 2007
    ..Future reductions in PCB concentrations in outdoor air and ultimately human exposure appear best achieved by action to remove remaining sources of PCBs from existing structures...
  28. doi request reprint Comparative evaluation of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry versus gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of hexabromocyclododecanes and their degradation products in indoor dust
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Chromatogr A 1190:333-41. 2008
    ..This finding suggests that the elimination of HBr is the major degradation pathway for HBCDs in dust...
  29. doi request reprint Chiral signatures show volatilization from soil contributes to polychlorinated biphenyls in grass
    Jennifer Desborough
    School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    Environ Sci Technol 45:7354-7. 2011
    ..05) with increasing height. Combined with the chiral signature data, this suggests the influence of PCB emissions from soil on airborne concentrations decreases with altitude, while that of emissions from the built environment increases...
  30. doi request reprint Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in air and dust from electronic waste storage facilities in Thailand
    Dudsadee Muenhor
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Int 36:690-8. 2010
    ..Reassuringly, estimated exposures to BDE-209 were below the USEPA's reference dose for this congener...
  31. doi request reprint Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in UK human milk: implications for infant exposure and relationship to external exposure
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt Electronic address
    Environ Int 63:130-6. 2014
    ..Predictions compared well with those observed for Σtri-hexa BDEs and BDE-209 in breast milk. ..
  32. ncbi request reprint Causes of variability in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in indoor air
    Sadegh Hazrati
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 40:7584-9. 2006
    ..Although concentrations in warmer months usually exceeded those in colder months, seasonal variability in indoor contamination appears less significant than observed previously for outdoor air...
  33. doi request reprint Concentrations of legacy and emerging flame retardants in air and soil on a transect in the UK West Midlands
    Daniel S Drage
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK National Research Centre for Environmental Toxicology, University of Queensland, 39 Kessels Road, Coopers Plains, Queensland, 4108, Australia Electronic address
    Chemosphere 148:195-203. 2016
    ..BDEs-47 and -99 contributed more to ΣPBDEs in soil samples than air samples, but in both, the predominant congener was BDE-209. BATE was more abundant in air than soil but ATE was abundant in soil but not air. ..
  34. doi request reprint Emerging halogenated flame retardants and hexabromocyclododecanes in food samples from an e-waste processing area in Vietnam
    Fang Tao
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Environ Sci Process Impacts 18:361-70. 2016
    ..Exposure at the site monitored in this study exceeds substantially the estimates of dietary exposure to HBCDs in e-waste processing sites and non-e-waste processing areas elsewhere. ..
  35. doi request reprint Concentrations of "legacy" and novel brominated flame retardants in matched samples of UK kitchen and living room/bedroom dust
    Jiangmeng Kuang
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK Electronic address
    Chemosphere 149:224-30. 2016
    ..With the exception of BDE-28, pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) and DBDPE, these differences were significant (p < 0.05). No specific source was found that could account for the higher concentrations in living rooms/bedrooms...
  36. doi request reprint Gene expression and metabolic responses of HepG2/C3A cells exposed to flame retardants and dust extracts at concentrations relevant to indoor environmental exposures
    Jinkang Zhang
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Chemosphere 144:1996-2003. 2016
    ..g. caused by PAHs or PCBs. ..
  37. doi request reprint Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in English freshwater lakes, 2008-2012
    Congqiao Yang
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Electronic address
    Chemosphere 110:41-7. 2014
    ....
  38. doi request reprint Isotope dilution method for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers using liquid chromatography coupled to negative ionization atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry: validation and application to house dust
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Anal Chem 81:7460-7. 2009
    ..The method also allows the use of (13)C-labeled internal standards, which compensate for instrumental fluctuations and matrix-related ion suppression or enhancement...
  39. ncbi request reprint Chiral PCB signatures in air and soil: implications for atmospheric source apportionment
    Matthew Robson
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Public Health Building, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 38:1662-6. 2004
    ..In contrast, enantioselective degradation of PCB 149 observed in this study is--while consistent with that reported for U.K. lacustrine sediments--in excess of that observed in either the GTA soil study or in U.S. lake sediments...
  40. ncbi request reprint Measurement and modeling of exposure to selected air toxics for health effects studies and verification by biomarkers
    Roy M Harrison
    University of Birmingham, Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, Edgbaston Park Road, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Res Rep Health Eff Inst . 2009
    ..For both VOCs and PAHs, low exposures are correctly classified for the concentrations predicted by the proposed models, but higher exposures were less successfully classified...
  41. doi request reprint Hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in radiometrically dated sediment cores from English lakes, ~1950-present
    Congqiao Yang
    School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK Electronic address
    Sci Total Environ 541:721-8. 2016
    ..Excepting HBCDs, inventories of our target contaminants correlated significantly with local population density, implying substantial urban sources. ..
  42. doi request reprint Within-room and within-building temporal and spatial variations in concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in indoor dust
    Dudsadee Muenhor
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Int 47:23-7. 2012
    ..Possible dilution of PBDE concentrations in dust at higher dust loadings (g dust per m² floor surface) was investigated in a small number of rooms, but no firm evidence of such dilution was evident...
  43. doi request reprint Concentrations of organophosphate esters and brominated flame retardants in German indoor dust samples
    Sandra Brommer
    School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
    J Environ Monit 14:2482-7. 2012
    ..Average concentrations of ΣOPEs were ten times higher in car than in office dust. This is the first study to provide data on a wide range of OPE concentrations in German indoor dust samples...
  44. ncbi request reprint Levels and sources of personal inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds
    Young Min Kim
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 36:5405-10. 2002
    ..ETS, the use of vehicles, and heating (but not cooking) all made appreciable contributions to personal exposure to all target VOCs...
  45. doi request reprint Transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches to investigate the molecular responses of human cell lines exposed to the flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)
    Jinkang Zhang
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Toxicol In Vitro 29:2116-23. 2015
    ....
  46. doi request reprint High-resolution mass spectrometry provides novel insights into products of human metabolism of organophosphate and brominated flame retardants
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK
    Anal Bioanal Chem 407:1871-83. 2015
    ..Furthermore, various hydroxylated, oxidized, and conjugated metabolites of chlorinated phosphorous FRs were identified, leading to the suggestion of α-oxidation as a significant metabolic pathway for these compounds. ..
  47. ncbi request reprint Emerging and Legacy Flame Retardants in UK Indoor Air and Dust: Evidence for Replacement of PBDEs by Emerging Flame Retardants?
    Fang Tao
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 50:13052-13061. 2016
    ..Our results constitute important early evidence that restrictions on PBDEs have increased demand for EFRs in the UK, with the result that human exposure to PBDEs in UK homes and offices has decreased while exposure to EFRs has risen...
  48. doi request reprint Dermal bioaccessibility of flame retardants from indoor dust and the influence of topically applied cosmetics
    Gopal Pawar
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
    J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol . 2016
    ..However, future research may erode the margin of safety for these chemicals.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 6 January 2016; doi:10.1038/jes.2015.84...
  49. doi request reprint Effect of Bromine Substitution on Human Dermal Absorption of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 49:10976-83. 2015
    ..Interestingly, BDE-183 and BDE-209 showed very low dermal absorption, exemplified by a failure to reach the steady state within the 24 h exposure period that was studied...
  50. doi request reprint Evaluation of 3D-human skin equivalents for assessment of human dermal absorption of some brominated flame retardants
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt Electronic address
    Environ Int 84:64-70. 2015
    ..The estimated long lag times (>30 min) suggests that frequent hand washing may reduce human exposure to HBCDs and TBBPA via dermal contact...
  51. doi request reprint Human dietary intake of organohalogen contaminants at e-waste recycling sites in Eastern China
    Iryna Labunska
    Greenpeace Research Laboratories, Innovation Centre Phase 2, Rennes Drive, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4RN, United Kingdom School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom Electronic address
    Environ Int 74:209-20. 2015
    ..2pgTEQ/kgbw/day) that exceed the WHO tolerable daily intake of 1-4pgTEQ/kgbw/day. ..
  52. doi request reprint Human dermal absorption of chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants; implications for human exposure
    Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt Electronic address
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 291:28-37. 2016
    ..More research is required to fully elucidate the toxicological implications of such exposure...
  53. doi request reprint Sources and human exposure implications of concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in dust from UK cars, classrooms, living rooms, and offices
    Sandra Brommer
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Int 83:202-7. 2015
    ....
  54. doi request reprint Concentrations of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Hexabromocyclododecanes and Tetrabromobisphenol-A in Breast Milk from United Kingdom Women Do Not Decrease over Twelve Months of Lactation
    Stuart Harrad
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 49:13899-903. 2015
    ..46 compared to 1.32). This may reflect unidentified differences in exposure of the participants in the two studies. ..
  55. doi request reprint Evaluation of in vitro vs. in vivo methods for assessment of dermal absorption of organic flame retardants: a review
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt Electronic address
    Environ Int 74:13-22. 2015
    ..Finally, a novel approach for studying human dermal absorption of FRs using in vitro three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent models is presented and the challenges facing future dermal absorption studies on FRs are highlighted. ..
  56. doi request reprint Enantioselective biotransformation of hexabromocyclododecane by in vitro rat and trout hepatic sub-cellular fractions
    Mohamed Abou Elwafa Abdallah
    Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, United Kingdom
    Environ Sci Technol 48:2732-40. 2014
    ..The greater enrichment of (-)-α-HBCD in rat than in trout underlines the species-specific differences in HBCD metabolism and the need for caution when extending similar results from animal studies to humans. ..
  57. ncbi request reprint An assessment of toxicity in profundal lake sediment due to deposition of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from the atmosphere
    Brian Rippey
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Northern Ireland BT52 1SA, UK
    Environ Int 34:345-56. 2008
    ....