A L Fowden

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cambridge
Country: UK

Publications

  1. doi request reprint The placenta and intrauterine programming
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:439-50. 2008
  2. pmc Developmental regulation of glucogenesis in the sheep fetus during late gestation
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 508:937-47. 1998
  3. ncbi request reprint Pancreatic alpha cell function in the fetal foal during late gestation
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Exp Physiol 84:697-705. 1999
  4. ncbi request reprint Regulation of glucogenesis by thyroid hormones in fetal sheep during late gestation
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Endocrinol 170:461-9. 2001
  5. pmc Fetal cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrine responses to acute hypoxaemia during and following maternal treatment with dexamethasone in sheep
    J K Jellyman
    The Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 567:673-88. 2005
  6. ncbi request reprint Development of baroreflex and endocrine responses to hypotensive stress in newborn foals and lambs
    S J O'Connor
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB23EG, UK
    Pflugers Arch 450:298-306. 2005
  7. pmc Adrenocortical responsiveness is blunted in twin relative to singleton ovine fetuses
    D S Gardner
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK
    J Physiol 557:1021-32. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Effects of dexamethasone on the glucogenic capacity of fetal, pregnant, and non-pregnant adult sheep
    K L Franko
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    J Endocrinol 192:67-73. 2007
  9. ncbi request reprint Postnatal insulin secretion and sensitivity after manipulation of fetal growth by embryo transfer in the horse
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, UK
    J Endocrinol 181:459-67. 2004
  10. pmc Hindlimb glucose and lactate metabolism during umbilical cord compression and acute hypoxemia in the late-gestation ovine fetus
    D S Gardner
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284:R954-64. 2003

Detail Information

Publications77

  1. doi request reprint The placenta and intrauterine programming
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Neuroendocrinol 20:439-50. 2008
    ....
  2. pmc Developmental regulation of glucogenesis in the sheep fetus during late gestation
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 508:937-47. 1998
    ..They also suggest that cortisol enhances the capacity for glucogenesis in utero, while catecholamines actually activate glucose production in sheep fetuses close to term...
  3. ncbi request reprint Pancreatic alpha cell function in the fetal foal during late gestation
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Exp Physiol 84:697-705. 1999
    ..These observations indicate that equine pancreatic alpha cells are functional in utero but that they are unresponsive to variations in glycaemia until after birth...
  4. ncbi request reprint Regulation of glucogenesis by thyroid hormones in fetal sheep during late gestation
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Endocrinol 170:461-9. 2001
    ....
  5. pmc Fetal cardiovascular, metabolic and endocrine responses to acute hypoxaemia during and following maternal treatment with dexamethasone in sheep
    J K Jellyman
    The Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 567:673-88. 2005
    ..Furthermore, dexamethasone-induced alterations to these defences depended on whether the hypoxaemic challenge occurred during or following maternal dexamethasone treatment...
  6. ncbi request reprint Development of baroreflex and endocrine responses to hypotensive stress in newborn foals and lambs
    S J O'Connor
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB23EG, UK
    Pflugers Arch 450:298-306. 2005
    ..The aims of this study were to compare and contrast the development of the cardiac baroreflex and endocrine responses to acute hypotensive stress in healthy newborn pony foals and lambs during the first two weeks of postnatal life...
  7. pmc Adrenocortical responsiveness is blunted in twin relative to singleton ovine fetuses
    D S Gardner
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, UK
    J Physiol 557:1021-32. 2004
    ....
  8. ncbi request reprint Effects of dexamethasone on the glucogenic capacity of fetal, pregnant, and non-pregnant adult sheep
    K L Franko
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    J Endocrinol 192:67-73. 2007
    ..These findings show that maternal dexamethasone treatment increases the glucogenic capacity of both the mother and fetus and has major implications for glucose availability both before and after birth...
  9. ncbi request reprint Postnatal insulin secretion and sensitivity after manipulation of fetal growth by embryo transfer in the horse
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, UK
    J Endocrinol 181:459-67. 2004
    ..More specifically, it is overgrowth, not growth retardation in utero that alters equine beta cell function in the immediate neonatal period...
  10. pmc Hindlimb glucose and lactate metabolism during umbilical cord compression and acute hypoxemia in the late-gestation ovine fetus
    D S Gardner
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 284:R954-64. 2003
    ..hypoxia..
  11. pmc Dietary composition programmes placental phenotype in mice
    P M Coan
    Centre for Trophoblast Research, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 589:3659-70. 2011
    ..This has important implications for the intrauterine programming of life expectancy...
  12. pmc Adrenal glands are essential for activation of glucogenesis during undernutrition in fetal sheep near term
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing St, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, UK
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300:E94-102. 2011
    ..They may also be involved in regulating insulin sensitivity in utero...
  13. pmc Ontogenic and nutritionally induced changes in fetal metabolism in the horse
    A L Fowden
    Departments of Physiology and Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 528:209-19. 2000
    ..Different species therefore adopt different strategies in meeting the nutritional demands of the growing fetus during the second half of gestation...
  14. ncbi request reprint Functional significance and cortisol dependence of the gross morphology of ovine placentomes during late gestation
    J W Ward
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, United Kingdom
    Biol Reprod 74:137-45. 2006
    ..These findings have important implications for the placental control of fetal growth and development, particularly during adverse intrauterine conditions...
  15. ncbi request reprint Control of ovine hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor I by thyroid hormones in utero
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 278:E1166-74. 2000
    ....
  16. ncbi request reprint The effects of pregnancy on the cardiovascular response to acute systemic isocapnic hypoxia in conscious sheep
    J K Jellyman
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    BJOG 112:889-96. 2005
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that pregnancy affects the cardiovascular responses to hypoxia by altering the outputs of the peripheral components of the stress system and independent of changes in P(a)CO(2)...
  17. ncbi request reprint Maturation of pancreatic beta-cell function in the fetal horse during late gestation
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Endocrinol 186:467-73. 2005
    ..Primarily, these prepartum maturational changes were in the mechanisms of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which would enable the beta cells to regulate glycaemia at the higher glucose levels observed postnatally...
  18. pmc Adaptations in placental nutrient transfer capacity to meet fetal growth demands depend on placental size in mice
    P M Coan
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 586:4567-76. 2008
    ..Thus, this adaptability in placental phenotype provides a functional reserve capacity for maximizing fetal growth during late gestation when placental growth is compromised...
  19. ncbi request reprint Ontogeny of pulmonary and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme in pigs
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    Mol Cell Endocrinol 185:127-33. 2001
    ..Renal ACE increased between 10-12 weeks and 10-12 months. Postnatal changes in tissue ACE may have consequences for cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal function in pigs...
  20. ncbi request reprint Effects of thyroid hormones on pulmonary and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme concentrations in fetal sheep near term
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Endocrinol 173:143-50. 2002
    ..In addition, the prepartum rise in plasma T(3) appears to mediate, in part, the maturational effect of cortisol on pulmonary ACE concentration...
  21. pmc Control of growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I expression by cortisol in ovine fetal skeletal muscle
    J Li
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 541:581-9. 2002
    ..These observations have important implications for muscle development both before and after birth, particularly during conditions which alter intrauterine cortisol exposure...
  22. doi request reprint Effects of maternal dietary manipulation during different periods of pregnancy on hepatic glucogenic capacity in fetal and pregnant rats near term
    K L Franko
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB23EG, UK
    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 19:555-62. 2009
    ..However, whether these abnormalities are present before birth remain unknown...
  23. pmc Adaptations in placental phenotype support fetal growth during undernutrition of pregnant mice
    P M Coan
    Centre for Trophoblast Research, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 588:527-38. 2010
    ..Consequently, placental phenotype is responsive to environmental conditions and may help predict the risk of adult disease programmed in utero...
  24. pmc A novel method for controlled and reversible long term compression of the umbilical cord in fetal sheep
    D S Gardner
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 535:217-29. 2001
    ....
  25. doi request reprint Placental-specific Igf2 deficiency alters developmental adaptations to undernutrition in mice
    A N Sferruzzi-Perri
    Centre for Trophoblast Research, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 152:3202-12. 2011
    ..Therefore, Igf2P0 plays important roles in adapting placental nutrient transfer capacity during UN, via actions directly on the placenta and/or indirectly through the mother...
  26. ncbi request reprint The effects of maternal health and body condition on the endocrine responses of neonatal foals
    J C Ousey
    University of Cambridge, Department of Veterinary Medicine Equine Fertility Unit, Mertoun Paddocks, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 9BH, UK
    Equine Vet J 40:673-9. 2008
    ..Chronic and acute alterations in maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy alter pancreatic and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in the offspring, before and after birth. Little is known about these effects...
  27. pmc Role of cortisol in the ontogenic control of pulmonary and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme in fetal sheep near term
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 526:409-16. 2000
    ..4. Therefore, these findings suggest that the ontogenic rise in ACE concentration observed in the lungs of the sheep fetus near term is induced, at least in part, by the prepartum cortisol surge...
  28. pmc Programming placental nutrient transport capacity
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 572:5-15. 2006
    ....
  29. pmc The effects of birth weight and postnatal growth patterns on fat depth and plasma leptin concentrations in juvenile and adult pigs
    K R Poore
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, UK
    J Physiol 558:295-304. 2004
    ..This study demonstrates sex-specific effects of low birth weight on postnatal growth and body fatness and on plasma leptin concentrations in pigs...
  30. ncbi request reprint Cortisol influences the ontogeny of both alpha- and beta-subunits of the cardiac sodium channel in fetal sheep
    A I Fahmi
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Cambridge CB2 1QW, UK
    J Endocrinol 180:449-55. 2004
    ..These findings could have implications for the aetiology of sudden infant death syndrome and for the intrauterine programming of adult cardiovascular disease...
  31. ncbi request reprint Effects of pituitary hormone deficiency on growth and glucose metabolism of the sheep fetus
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Physiology Building, Downing Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 148:4812-20. 2007
    ..They also suggest that fetal metabolism is altered when gestational length is extended...
  32. ncbi request reprint Developmental changes in plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme concentration in fetal and neonatal lambs
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Reprod Fertil Dev 10:393-8. 1998
    ..Therefore, in the sheep fetus, plasma ACE increased towards term in association with the prepartum cortisol surge. Developmental changes in ACE activity may be partly responsible for the ontogenic rise in fetal blood pressure...
  33. ncbi request reprint Developmental changes in pulmonary and renal angiotensin-converting enzyme concentration in fetal and neonatal horses
    S J O'Connor
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    Reprod Fertil Dev 14:413-7. 2002
    ..Therefore, premature delivery in this species may interrupt the onset of ACE production in the fetal lungs and circumvent the normal maturation of the renin-angiotensin system...
  34. doi request reprint Differential effects of prenatal stress and glucocorticoid administration on postnatal growth and glucose metabolism in rats
    K L Franko
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Endocrinol 204:319-29. 2010
    ..Dex and saline treatments of pregnant rats have differential sex-linked effects on the growth and glucose metabolism of their offspring, which indicates that the programming actions of natural and synthetic glucocorticoids may differ...
  35. ncbi request reprint The effect of a reversible period of adverse intrauterine conditions during late gestation on fetal and placental weight and placentome distribution in sheep
    D S Gardner
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    Placenta 23:459-66. 2002
    ..The data suggest that a temporary, reversible period of adverse intrauterine conditions occurring late in gestation in sheep has persisting effects upon the placenta, mean placentome weight and placentome distribution...
  36. pmc Effect of cortisol on blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin system in fetal sheep during late gestation
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG
    J Physiol 526:167-76. 2000
    ..These findings show that, in the sheep fetus during late gestation, the RAS becomes more important in the maintenance of resting blood pressure when plasma cortisol concentration is elevated, whether endogenously or exogenously...
  37. ncbi request reprint The effects of cortisol on the binucleate cell population in the ovine placenta during late gestation
    J W Ward
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    Placenta 23:451-8. 2002
    ..These findings show that cortisol regulates the BNC population in ovine placenta during late gestation. They also have important implications for the production of PL and PAG during ovine pregnancy...
  38. ncbi request reprint Development of insulin and proinsulin secretion in newborn pony foals
    N B Holdstock
    Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 OES, UK
    J Endocrinol 181:469-76. 2004
    ..They also suggest that newborn foals may be insulin resistant on the first day after birth...
  39. doi request reprint Glucocorticoid overexposure in neonatal life alters pancreatic beta-cell function in newborn foals
    J K Jellyman
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Anim Sci 91:104-10. 2013
    ..05). Hence, this is the first study to show altered pancreatic β-cell function after ACTH-induced glucocorticoid overexposure during early postnatal life in foals...
  40. doi request reprint Environmental regulation of placental phenotype: implications for fetal growth
    O R Vaughan
    Centre for Trophoblast Research, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    Reprod Fertil Dev 24:80-96. 2011
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in pony foals after neonatal ACTH-induced glucocorticoid overexposure
    J K Jellyman
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, UK
    Equine Vet J Suppl . 2012
    ..The effects of overexposure to glucocorticoids during early life of the foal on the subsequent HPA programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are unknown...
  42. pmc Effects of prevailing hypoxaemia, acidaemia or hypoglycaemia upon the cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic responses to acute hypoxaemia in the ovine fetus
    D S Gardner
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 540:351-66. 2002
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint Insulin sensitivity in juvenile and adult Large White pigs of low and high birthweight
    K R Poore
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Diabetologia 47:340-8. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to examine sensitivity to insulin in juvenile (3-month-old) and adult (12-month-old) pigs of low and high birthweight...
  44. pmc Disproportional effects of Igf2 knockout on placental morphology and diffusional exchange characteristics in the mouse
    P M Coan
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Physiol 586:5023-32. 2008
    ..Thus, placental phenotype depends on the degree of Igf2 gene ablation and the interplay between placental and fetal Igf2 in the mouse...
  45. pmc Ovine feto-placental metabolism
    J W Ward
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 554:529-41. 2004
    ..These observations have important implications for fetal growth both in late gestation and during adverse intrauterine conditions, which raise fetal cortisol levels earlier in gestation...
  46. pmc Placental efficiency and adaptation: endocrine regulation
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Physiology Building, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 587:3459-72. 2009
    ..This review examines placental efficiency as a means of altering fetal growth, the morphological and functional adaptations that influence placental efficiency and the endocrine regulation of these processes...
  47. doi request reprint Imprinted genes and the epigenetic regulation of placental phenotype
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Downing Street, Cambridge CB23EG, United Kingdom
    Prog Biophys Mol Biol 106:281-8. 2011
    ..These genes, therefore, have a major role in the epigenetic regulation of placental phenotype with long term consequences for the developmental programming of adult health and disease...
  48. pmc The effect of birth weight on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis function in juvenile and adult pigs
    K R Poore
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 547:107-16. 2003
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that impaired fetal and early postnatal growth are associated with altered HPA axis function in later life...
  49. ncbi request reprint Nutrient transfer across the equine placenta: correlation of structure and function
    F B P Wooding
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB2 3EG, UK
    Equine Vet J 38:175-83. 2006
  50. ncbi request reprint Ontogeny of uteroplacental progestagen production in pregnant mares during the second half of gestation
    J C Ousey
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, United Kingdom
    Biol Reprod 69:540-8. 2003
    ..These findings demonstrate that uteroplacental progestagen production changes during the second half of gestation, which may have important implications for the maintenance of pregnancy and the onset of labor in the mare...
  51. ncbi request reprint Plasma leptin concentration in fetal sheep during late gestation: ontogeny and effect of glucocorticoids
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, United Kingdom
    Endocrinology 143:1166-73. 2002
    ..Furthermore, fetal treatment with exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids increases circulating leptin concentration in utero...
  52. ncbi request reprint Role of angiotensin II in the pressor response to cortisol in fetal sheep during late gestation
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    Exp Physiol 89:323-9. 2004
    ..Thereafter, Ang II, via the AT(1) receptor, may mediate, in part, the hypertensive effects of cortisol in utero...
  53. pmc The effects of birth weight on basal cardiovascular function in pigs at 3 months of age
    K R Poore
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Physiol 539:969-78. 2002
    ..These data show that basal MAP in 3-month-old pigs is negatively associated with BW and positively correlated to disproportionate size at birth. This effect was associated with an increase in basal plasma noradrenaline concentrations...
  54. doi request reprint The Endocrinology of equine parturition
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge
    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 116:393-403. 2008
    ..However, further studies are required to establish the causes and consequences of the rise and fall in maternal progestagens and the extent to which initiation of equine labour depends on the fetal HPA axis...
  55. ncbi request reprint Endocrine mechanisms of intrauterine programming
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    Reproduction 127:515-26. 2004
    ..Endocrine changes may, therefore, be both the cause and the consequence of intrauterine programming...
  56. ncbi request reprint Effects of birth weight, sex and neonatal glucocorticoid overexposure on glucose-insulin dynamics in young adult horses
    O A Valenzuela
    1Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Dev Orig Health Dis . 2016
    ..These findings show that glucose-insulin dynamics in young adult horses are sexually dimorphic and determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors acting during early life...
  57. doi request reprint Neonatal glucocorticoid overexposure programs pituitary-adrenal function in ponies
    J K Jellyman
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Electronic address
    Domest Anim Endocrinol 50:45-9. 2015
    ..05). Neonatal cortisol overexposure induced by neonatal ACTH treatment, therefore, alters functioning of the HPA axis in adult ponies. ..
  58. ncbi request reprint Pancreatic endocrine function in newborn pony foals after induced or spontaneous delivery at term
    N B Holdstock
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, UK
    Equine Vet J Suppl 44:30-7. 2012
    ..During the switch from parenteral to enteral nutrition at birth, endocrine glands such as the pancreas must assume a glucoregulatory role for the first time if the neonate is to survive the transition to extrauterine life...
  59. doi request reprint Review: The placenta and developmental programming: balancing fetal nutrient demands with maternal resource allocation
    G J Burton
    Centre for Trophoblast Research, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    Placenta 33:S23-7. 2012
    ..Hence, it ameliorates the effects of environmental cues that would otherwise lead to more extensive developmental programming. The P0 transcript of Igf2 appears to be a strong candidate as a mediator of these adaptations in the mouse...
  60. ncbi request reprint Developmental programming of the ovine placenta
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl 67:41-57. 2010
    ..Thus, the placental epigenome provides both a memory of environmental conditions experienced during development and an index of the future well being of the offspring...
  61. pmc Hypoxia, AMPK activation and uterine artery vasoreactivity
    K L Skeffington
    Centre for Trophoblast Research, Department of Physiology Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    J Physiol 594:1357-69. 2016
    ..AMPK activation may be playing an adaptive role by limiting cellular energy depletion and helping to maintain utero-placental blood flow in hypoxic pregnancy...
  62. doi request reprint Thyroid hormones in fetal growth and prepartum maturation
    A J Forhead
    Department of PhysiologyDevelopment and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Physiology Building, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UKDepartment of Biological and Medical SciencesOxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UKDepartment of PhysiologyDevelopment and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Physiology Building, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UKDepartment of Biological and Medical SciencesOxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK
    J Endocrinol 221:R87-R103. 2014
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in pony foals after neonatal ACTH-induced glucocorticoid overexposure
    J K Jellyman
    Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, UK
    Equine Vet J 44:38-42. 2012
    ..The effects of overexposure to glucocorticoids during early life of the foal on the subsequent HPA programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are unknown...
  64. ncbi request reprint Influence of maternal size on placental, fetal and postnatal growth in the horse. I. Development in utero
    W R Allen
    University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine Equine Fertility Unit, Mertoun Paddocks, Woodditton Road, Newmarket CB8 9BH, UK
    Reproduction 123:445-53. 2002
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Localisation of glucose transport in the ruminant placenta: implications for sequential use of transporter isoforms
    F B P Wooding
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, UK
    Placenta 26:626-40. 2005
    ..It is suggested that this arrangement is designed to support the high glucose utilisation by the multilayered placenta in the ruminant...
  66. ncbi request reprint Regulation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity in ovine placenta by fetal cortisol
    K A Clarke
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EG, UK
    J Endocrinol 172:527-34. 2002
    ..These findings have important implications, not only for glucocorticoid exposure in utero, but also for the local actions of cortisol within the placental tissues that are involved in initiating parturition in the sheep...
  67. ncbi request reprint Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, Cambridge, UK
    Horm Res 65:50-8. 2006
    ....
  68. ncbi request reprint Thyroid hormones and the mRNA of the GH receptor and IGFs in skeletal muscle of fetal sheep
    A J Forhead
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, United Kingdom
    Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282:E80-6. 2002
    ..These findings show, in the sheep fetus, that thyroid hormones may influence the growth and development of skeletal muscle via changes in the local activity of the somatotrophic axis...
  69. ncbi request reprint Intra-uterine programming of the endocrine pancreas
    A L Fowden
    Department of Physiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Br Med Bull 60:123-42. 2001
    ....
  70. ncbi request reprint A structural and immunological study of chorionic gonadotrophin production by equine trophoblast girdle and cup cells
    F B Wooding
    The Physiological Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, UK
    Placenta 22:749-67. 2001
    ....
  71. pmc The sodium channel beta-subunit SCN3b modulates the kinetics of SCN5a and is expressed heterogeneously in sheep heart
    A I Fahmi
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Downing Site, Cambridge CB2 1QW, UK
    J Physiol 537:693-700. 2001
    ....
  72. ncbi request reprint Effects of manipulating intrauterine growth on post natal adrenocortical development and other parameters of maturity in neonatal foals
    J C Ousey
    Beaufort Cottage Stables, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 8JS, UK
    Equine Vet J 36:616-21. 2004
    ..Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) impairs post natal adaptive responses and is associated with increased adrenocortical activity in many species...
  73. ncbi request reprint The effect of birth weight on glucose tolerance in pigs at 3 and 12 months of age
    K R Poore
    Centre for Fetal Origins of Adult Disease, University of Southampton, Princess Anne Hospital, Level F MP 887, Southampton, SO16 5YA, UK
    Diabetologia 45:1247-54. 2002
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the effect of birth weight on glucose tolerance in juvenile and adult pigs...
  74. pmc Increased uncoupling protein-2 mRNA abundance and glucocorticoid action in adipose tissue in the sheep fetus during late gestation is dependent on plasma cortisol and triiodothyronine
    M G Gnanalingham
    Centre for Reproduction and Early Life, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    J Physiol 567:283-92. 2005
    ..In conclusion, plasma cortisol and T3 are both required for the late gestation rise in UCP2 mRNA and differentially regulate glucocorticoid action in fetal adipose tissue in the sheep during late gestation...
  75. ncbi request reprint Influence of cortisol on adipose tissue development in the fetal sheep during late gestation
    A Mostyn
    Academic Division of Child Health, School of Human Development, Queen s Medical Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK
    J Endocrinol 176:23-30. 2003
    ..It remains to be established whether effects on UCP1 protein are directly regulated by cortisol alone or mediated by other anabolic fetal hormones such as triiodothyronine...
  76. pmc Placental-specific insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) regulates the diffusional exchange characteristics of the mouse placenta
    C P Sibley
    Academic Unit of Child Health, Medical School, University of Manchester, St Mary s Hospital, Manchester M13 OJH, United Kingdom
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:8204-8. 2004
    ..This provides a mechanism for the role of imprinted genes in controlling placental nutrient supply and fetal growth. Altered placental Igf2 could be a cause of idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction in the human...
  77. ncbi request reprint Developmental expression analysis of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms reveals new insights into their essential functions in cardiac and skeletal muscles
    P White
    Developmental Genetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK
    FASEB J 15:1367-76. 2001
    ..These findings suggest that events disrupting normal developmental profiles of TR isoforms may impair optimal function of cardiac and skeletal muscles...