Nita G Forouhi

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cambridge
Country: UK

Publications

  1. pmc Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence
    Catherine R Stevenson
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK
    BMC Public Health 7:234. 2007
  2. pmc Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin d is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: the Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990-2000
    Nita G Forouhi
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    Diabetes 57:2619-25. 2008
  3. pmc A prospective study of the association between quantity and variety of fruit and vegetable intake and incident type 2 diabetes
    Andrew J Cooper
    MRCEpidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, U K
    Diabetes Care 35:1293-300. 2012
  4. pmc Dietary intakes of individual flavanols and flavonols are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in European populations
    Raul Zamora-Ros
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    J Nutr 144:335-43. 2014
  5. pmc Association between type of dietary fish and seafood intake and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: the European prospective investigation of cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort study
    Pinal S Patel
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    Diabetes Care 32:1857-63. 2009
  6. pmc Associations between exposure to takeaway food outlets, takeaway food consumption, and body weight in Cambridgeshire, UK: population based, cross sectional study
    Thomas Burgoine
    UKCRC Centre for Diet and Activity Research, Medical Research Council MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
    BMJ 348:g1464. 2014
  7. pmc The prospective association between total and type of fish intake and type 2 diabetes in 8 European countries: EPIC-InterAct Study
    Pinal S Patel
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:1445-53. 2012
  8. pmc Dietary energy density predicts the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Study
    Jing Wang
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    Diabetes Care 31:2120-5. 2008
  9. pmc Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction
    Fumiaki Imamura
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK
    Br J Sports Med 50:496-504. 2016
  10. pmc Social relationships and healthful dietary behaviour: evidence from over-50s in the EPIC cohort, UK
    Annalijn I Conklin
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK UK Clinical Research Collaboration Centre for Diet and Activity Research CEDAR, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Soc Sci Med 100:167-75. 2014

Detail Information

Publications44

  1. pmc Diabetes and tuberculosis: the impact of the diabetes epidemic on tuberculosis incidence
    Catherine R Stevenson
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK
    BMC Public Health 7:234. 2007
    ..Diabetes increases the risk of TB. Our aim was to assess the potential impact of diabetes as a risk factor for incident pulmonary tuberculosis, using India as an example...
  2. pmc Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin d is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: the Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990-2000
    Nita G Forouhi
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    Diabetes 57:2619-25. 2008
    ..However, prospective data using the biomarker serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] are limited and therefore examined in the present study...
  3. pmc A prospective study of the association between quantity and variety of fruit and vegetable intake and incident type 2 diabetes
    Andrew J Cooper
    MRCEpidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, U K
    Diabetes Care 35:1293-300. 2012
    ..The current study examined the association of both quantity and variety of F&V intake and risk of T2D...
  4. pmc Dietary intakes of individual flavanols and flavonols are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in European populations
    Raul Zamora-Ros
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    J Nutr 144:335-43. 2014
    ..These results suggest that individual flavonoids have different roles in the etiology of T2D. ..
  5. pmc Association between type of dietary fish and seafood intake and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: the European prospective investigation of cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort study
    Pinal S Patel
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    Diabetes Care 32:1857-63. 2009
    ..To investigate the association between fish and seafood intake and new-onset type 2 diabetes...
  6. pmc Associations between exposure to takeaway food outlets, takeaway food consumption, and body weight in Cambridgeshire, UK: population based, cross sectional study
    Thomas Burgoine
    UKCRC Centre for Diet and Activity Research, Medical Research Council MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
    BMJ 348:g1464. 2014
    ..To examine the association between environmental exposure to takeaway food outlets, takeaway food consumption, and body weight, while accounting for home, work place, and commuting route environments...
  7. pmc The prospective association between total and type of fish intake and type 2 diabetes in 8 European countries: EPIC-InterAct Study
    Pinal S Patel
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Am J Clin Nutr 95:1445-53. 2012
    ..Epidemiologic evidence of an association between fish intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and unresolved...
  8. pmc Dietary energy density predicts the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk Study
    Jing Wang
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    Diabetes Care 31:2120-5. 2008
    ..Our aim was to investigate whether there is an independent association between dietary energy density and incidence of diabetes...
  9. pmc Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction
    Fumiaki Imamura
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK
    Br J Sports Med 50:496-504. 2016
    ....
  10. pmc Social relationships and healthful dietary behaviour: evidence from over-50s in the EPIC cohort, UK
    Annalijn I Conklin
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK UK Clinical Research Collaboration Centre for Diet and Activity Research CEDAR, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Soc Sci Med 100:167-75. 2014
    ..Results highlight the importance of considering living arrangement and/or frequency of social contact when assessing whether widowed, single or lone-living older adults are at risk of lower fruit and vegetable variety. ..
  11. doi request reprint Fatty acids measured in plasma and erythrocyte-membrane phospholipids and derived by food-frequency questionnaire and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes: a pilot study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk c
    Pinal S Patel
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:1214-22. 2010
    ..Epidemiologic evidence for the association between types of fatty acid and risk of type 2 diabetes is inconsistent. This may in part be due to the limitations of fatty acid measurement methods...
  12. pmc Prospective associations and population impact of sweet beverage intake and type 2 diabetes, and effects of substitutions with alternative beverages
    Laura O'Connor
    Medical Research Council MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, PO Box 285, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK
    Diabetologia 58:1474-83. 2015
    ....
  13. pmc Association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and incident type 2 diabetes: a mendelian randomisation study
    Zheng Ye
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 3:35-42. 2015
    ..We aimed to estimate the unconfounded, causal association between 25(OH)D concentration and risk of type 2 diabetes using a mendelian randomisation approach...
  14. pmc Common genetic variants highlight the role of insulin resistance and body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes, independent of obesity
    Robert A Scott
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, U K
    Diabetes 63:4378-87. 2014
    ....
  15. pmc Does neighborhood fast-food outlet exposure amplify inequalities in diet and obesity? A cross-sectional study
    Thomas Burgoine
    UKCRC Centre for Diet and Activity Research CEDAR and Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom and
    Am J Clin Nutr 103:1540-7. 2016
    ..Greater exposures to fast-food outlets and lower levels of education are independently associated with less healthy diets and obesity. Little is known about the interplay between these environmental and individual factors...
  16. pmc Dietary Diversity, Diet Cost, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in the United Kingdom: A Prospective Cohort Study
    Annalijn I Conklin
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 13:e1002085. 2016
    ....
  17. pmc Gender and the double burden of economic and social disadvantages on healthy eating: cross-sectional study of older adults in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort
    Annalijn I Conklin
    UK Clinical Research Collaboration Centre for Diet and Activity Research CEDAR, MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK
    BMC Public Health 15:692. 2015
    ..We examined associations between diverse combinations of economic resources and social relationships, and healthy eating in British older women and men...
  18. pmc The cross-sectional association between snacking behaviour and measures of adiposity: the Fenland Study, UK
    Laura O'Connor
    1MRC Epidemiology Unit, School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
    Br J Nutr 114:1286-93. 2015
    ..Improving snack choices could contribute to anti-obesity public health interventions. ..
  19. pmc Dietary dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: a prospective study using dietary data from a 7-day food diary
    Laura M O'Connor
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Box 285, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK
    Diabetologia 57:909-17. 2014
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the association between total and types of dairy product intake and risk of developing incident type 2 diabetes, using a food diary...
  20. pmc The association between circulating lipoprotein(a) and type 2 diabetes: is it causal?
    Zheng Ye
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U K
    Diabetes 63:332-42. 2014
    ..However, a genetic variant that elevated Lp(a) levels was not associated with risk of T2D, suggesting that elevated Lp(a) levels are not causally associated with a lower risk of T2D. ..
  21. pmc Incidence of type 2 diabetes using proposed HbA1c diagnostic criteria in the european prospective investigation of cancer-norfolk cohort: implications for preventive strategies
    Parinya Chamnan
    MRCEpidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Diabetes Care 34:950-6. 2011
    ..To evaluate the incidence and relative risk of type 2 diabetes defined by the newly proposed HbA(1c) diagnostic criteria in groups categorized by different baseline HbA(1c) levels...
  22. pmc Prospective association of the Mediterranean diet with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality and its population impact in a non-Mediterranean population: the EPIC-Norfolk study
    Tammy Y N Tong
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK
    BMC Med 14:135. 2016
    ..The population attributable fraction (PAF) of adherence to this diet is also unknown...
  23. pmc Association of Multiple Biomarkers of Iron Metabolism and Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Study
    Clara Podmore
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, U K
    Diabetes Care 39:572-81. 2016
    ..We investigated associations of ferritin, transferrin saturation (TSAT), serum iron, and transferrin with T2D incidence to clarify the role of iron in the pathogenesis of T2D...
  24. pmc Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction
    Fumiaki Imamura
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK
    BMJ 351:h3576. 2015
    ....
  25. pmc Serum carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes as potential biomarkers of dietary intake and their relation with incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-Norfolk study
    Pinal S Patel
    From the MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom PSP, AJMC, SB, NJW, and NGF the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom TCO the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, United Kingdom TCO and CKK the University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom GGCK and the Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom AMM, RNL, K TK, and GGCK
    Am J Clin Nutr 100:708-18. 2014
    ..Stable-isotope ratios of carbon (¹³C/¹²C, expressed as δ¹³C) and nitrogen (¹⁵N/¹⁴N, or δ¹⁵N) have been proposed as potential nutritional biomarkers to distinguish between meat, fish, and plant-based foods...
  26. doi request reprint Plasma vitamin C level, fruit and vegetable consumption, and the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus: the European prospective investigation of cancer--Norfolk prospective study
    Anne Helen Harding
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, PO Box 285, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England
    Arch Intern Med 168:1493-9. 2008
    ..This study aims to examine whether fruit and vegetable intake and plasma vitamin C level are associated with the risk of incident type 2 diabetes...
  27. pmc Large-scale association analyses identify new loci influencing glycemic traits and provide insight into the underlying biological pathways
    Robert A Scott
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Genet 44:991-1005. 2012
    ..Functional analysis of these newly discovered loci will further improve our understanding of glycemic control...
  28. pmc No interactions between previously associated 2-hour glucose gene variants and physical activity or BMI on 2-hour glucose levels
    Robert A Scott
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Diabetes 61:1291-6. 2012
    ..It is perhaps unlikely that top loci from genome-wide association studies will exhibit strong subgroup-specific effects, and may not, therefore, make the best candidates for the study of interactions...
  29. doi request reprint Association between birth weight and visceral fat in adults
    Emanuella De Lucia Rolfe
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Clin Nutr 92:347-52. 2010
    ..Several studies reported inverse associations between birth weight and central adiposity in adults. However, few studies investigated the contributions of different abdominal fat compartments...
  30. pmc A genomic approach to therapeutic target validation identifies a glucose-lowering GLP1R variant protective for coronary heart disease
    Robert A Scott
    Medical Research Council MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK
    Sci Transl Med 8:341ra76. 2016
    ..Genetic variants associated with metabolic traits and multiple disease outcomes can be used to validate therapeutic targets at an early stage in the drug development process. ..
  31. pmc Season of birth is associated with birth weight, pubertal timing, adult body size and educational attainment: a UK Biobank study
    Felix R Day
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Box 285 Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK
    Heliyon 1:e00031. 2015
    ..Whilst other mechanisms may contribute to these associations, these findings are consistent with a possible role of in utero vitamin D exposure...
  32. pmc Job-loss and weight gain in British adults: Evidence from two longitudinal studies
    Pablo Monsivais
    Centre for Diet and Activity Research CEDAR, MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Electronic address
    Soc Sci Med 143:223-31. 2015
    ..The mediating behaviours are so far unclear but psychosocial mechanisms and sleep-loss may contribute to the excess weight gain among individuals who become unemployed...
  33. pmc The impact of health behaviours on incident cardiovascular disease in Europeans and South Asians--a prospective analysis in the UK SABRE study
    Anne Eriksen
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 10:e0117364. 2015
    ....
  34. pmc A new tool for converting food frequency questionnaire data into nutrient and food group values: FETA research methods and availability
    Angela A Mulligan
    European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Strangeways Research Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    BMJ Open 4:e004503. 2014
    ..The effect of text matching on intake data was also investigated...
  35. pmc Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain, and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study
    Annalijn I Conklin
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK UK Clinical Research Collaboration Centre for Diet and Activity Research, MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Obesity (Silver Spring) 22:2606-12. 2014
    ..To ascertain prospectively gender-specific associations between types and amounts of financial hardship and weight gain, and investigate potential behavioral mechanisms...
  36. pmc Gene-lifestyle interaction and type 2 diabetes: the EPIC interact case-cohort study
    Claudia Langenberg
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS Med 11:e1001647. 2014
    ..Therefore, we aimed to quantify the combined effects of genetic and lifestyle factors on risk of T2D in order to inform strategies for prevention...
  37. pmc A novel school-based intervention to improve nutrition knowledge in children: cluster randomised controlled trial
    Rajalakshmi R Lakshman
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    BMC Public Health 10:123. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness and acceptability of a novel educational intervention to increase nutrition knowledge among primary school children...
  38. doi request reprint Mapping the availability and accessibility of healthy food in rural and urban New Zealand--Te Wai o Rona: Diabetes Prevention Strategy
    Jing Wang
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, UK
    Public Health Nutr 13:1049-55. 2010
    ..The present study aimed to examine the availability and accessibility of 'healthy' foods in rural and urban New Zealand...
  39. doi request reprint Integrative genomic analysis implicates limited peripheral adipose storage capacity in the pathogenesis of human insulin resistance
    Luca A Lotta
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Genet . 2016
    ..Our findings support the notion that limited storage capacity of peripheral adipose tissue is an important etiological component in insulin-resistant cardiometabolic disease and highlight genes and mechanisms underpinning this link...
  40. pmc Variation in the SLC23A1 gene does not influence cardiometabolic outcomes to the extent expected given its association with L-ascorbic acid
    Kaitlin H Wade
    From the Medical Research Council MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit KHW, DAL, GDS, and NJT and the School of Social and Community Medicine KHW, NGF, SR, DAL, GDS, and NJT, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom the MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom NGF, ZY, and NJW the Division of Community and Health Sciences, St George s University of London, London, United Kingdom DGC and PHW the Robertson Centre for Biostatistics, Glasgow, United Kingdom PJ and AM the Department of Primary Care and Population Health RWM, the Department of Structural and Molecular Biology, University College London KRB, London, United Kingdom RWM the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom SE the British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine SP and NS and General Practice and Primary Care, Division of Community Based Sciences GW, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom and the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD SC
    Am J Clin Nutr 101:202-9. 2015
    ..Observational studies showed that circulating L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is inversely associated with cardiometabolic traits. However, these studies were susceptible to confounding and reverse causation...
  41. ncbi request reprint CVD risk factors and ethnicity--a homogeneous relationship?
    Nita G Forouhi
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK
    Atheroscler Suppl 7:11-9. 2006
    ..Ongoing studies should increase understanding of ethnicity as a potential independent risk factor, thus enabling better identification of treatment targets and selection of therapy in specific populations...
  42. doi request reprint Cross-sectional association between fish consumption and albuminuria: the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk Study
    Chee Tin Christine Lee
    Medical Research Council Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    Am J Kidney Dis 52:876-86. 2008
    ..The aim of this study is to examine the association between fish consumption and albuminuria in individuals with and without diabetes...
  43. pmc Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders
    Marcel den Hoed
    Medical Research Council MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke s Hospital, Cambridge, UK
    Nat Genet 45:621-31. 2013
    ..Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets...
  44. pmc Differential white blood cell count and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional and prospective studies
    Effrossyni Gkrania-Klotsas
    MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 5:e13405. 2010
    ..However, the association has not been systematically investigated...