- Pain and stress in the human fetusR P Smith
Department of Maternal and Fetal Medicine, Centre for Fetal Care, Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Imperial College School of Medicine, Queen Charlotte s and Chelsea Hospital, Goldhawk Rd, W6 0XG, London, UK
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 92:161-5. 2000..During open fetal surgery, maternal general anaesthesia provides fetal anaesthesia. However, in closed procedures, fetal analgesia presents difficulties. The optimal drug, dose, and route of administration remain to be determined...