Yukari C Manabe

Summary

Country: Uganda

Publications

  1. pmc Baseline severe anaemia should not preclude use of zidovudine in antiretroviral-eligible patients in resource-limited settings
    Agnes N Kiragga
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Int AIDS Soc 13:42. 2010
  2. pmc Resurrecting the triple threat: academic social responsibility in the context of global health research
    Yukari C Manabe
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University School of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1420-2. 2009
  3. pmc Clinical predictors and accuracy of empiric tuberculosis treatment among sputum smear-negative HIV-infected adult TB suspects in Uganda
    Lydia Nakiyingi
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 8:e74023. 2013
  4. pmc Predictors and outcomes of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected smear- negative presumptive tuberculosis patients in Uganda
    Lydia Nakiyingi
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Infect Dis 15:62. 2015
  5. doi request reprint Unrecognised tuberculosis at antiretroviral therapy initiation is associated with lower CD4+ T cell recovery
    Sabine M Hermans
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Trop Med Int Health 17:1527-33. 2012
  6. pmc Accuracy of Lipoarabinomannan and Xpert MTB/RIF Testing in Cerebrospinal Fluid To Diagnose Tuberculous Meningitis in an Autopsy Cohort of HIV-Infected Adults
    Janneke A Cox
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Clin Microbiol 53:2667-73. 2015
  7. pmc Is Urinary Lipoarabinomannan the Result of Renal Tuberculosis? Assessment of the Renal Histology in an Autopsy Cohort of Ugandan HIV-Infected Adults
    Janneke A Cox
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 10:e0123323. 2015
  8. pmc Predictors for MTB Culture-Positivity among HIV-Infected Smear-Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients in Uganda: Application of New Tuberculosis Diagnostic Technology
    Lydia Nakiyingi
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Heath Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 10:e0133756. 2015
  9. doi request reprint Predictors and outcomes of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected smear- negative presumptive tuberculosis patients in Uganda
    Lydia Nakiyingi
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Infect Dis 15:812. 2015
  10. pmc Cost-effectiveness of early initiation of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy in Uganda
    Joseph Sempa
    Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Public Health 12:736. 2012

Detail Information

Publications40

  1. pmc Baseline severe anaemia should not preclude use of zidovudine in antiretroviral-eligible patients in resource-limited settings
    Agnes N Kiragga
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Int AIDS Soc 13:42. 2010
    ..Most patients are currently initiated on zidovudine-containing regimens, which can induce anaemia. We investigated the risk factors for early severe anaemia in the first six months of ART initiation...
  2. pmc Resurrecting the triple threat: academic social responsibility in the context of global health research
    Yukari C Manabe
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University School of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda
    Clin Infect Dis 48:1420-2. 2009
    ..Academic researchers who spend clinical time in local health care centers and who teach and mentor students as part of academic social responsibility will build capacity, an investment that will yield dividends for future generations...
  3. pmc Clinical predictors and accuracy of empiric tuberculosis treatment among sputum smear-negative HIV-infected adult TB suspects in Uganda
    Lydia Nakiyingi
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 8:e74023. 2013
    ..We sought to determine the clinical predictors and accuracy of empiric TB treatment initiation in HIV-infected sputum smear-negative TB suspects using sputum culture as a reference standard...
  4. pmc Predictors and outcomes of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected smear- negative presumptive tuberculosis patients in Uganda
    Lydia Nakiyingi
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Infect Dis 15:62. 2015
    ..We describe the predictors and mortality outcome of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected sputum smear-negative presumptive TB patients in a high prevalence HIV/TB setting...
  5. doi request reprint Unrecognised tuberculosis at antiretroviral therapy initiation is associated with lower CD4+ T cell recovery
    Sabine M Hermans
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
    Trop Med Int Health 17:1527-33. 2012
    ..To investigate whether an unrecognised diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) at the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART) influences subsequent CD4+ T cell (CD4) count recovery in an urban HIV clinic in Uganda...
  6. pmc Accuracy of Lipoarabinomannan and Xpert MTB/RIF Testing in Cerebrospinal Fluid To Diagnose Tuberculous Meningitis in an Autopsy Cohort of HIV-Infected Adults
    Janneke A Cox
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    J Clin Microbiol 53:2667-73. 2015
    ..Point-of-care tests have high accuracy in diagnosis of TBM in deceased HIV-infected adults. LAM LFA in CSF is a useful additional diagnostic tool. ..
  7. pmc Is Urinary Lipoarabinomannan the Result of Renal Tuberculosis? Assessment of the Renal Histology in an Autopsy Cohort of Ugandan HIV-Infected Adults
    Janneke A Cox
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 10:e0123323. 2015
    ..To investigate if urinary LAM-positivity is the result of renal TB infection we correlated the outcomes of urinary LAM-antigen testing to renal histology in an autopsy cohort of hospitalized, Ugandan, HIV-infected adults...
  8. pmc Predictors for MTB Culture-Positivity among HIV-Infected Smear-Negative Presumptive Tuberculosis Patients in Uganda: Application of New Tuberculosis Diagnostic Technology
    Lydia Nakiyingi
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Heath Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 10:e0133756. 2015
    ..We sought to determine predictors for MTB culture-positivity among these patients...
  9. doi request reprint Predictors and outcomes of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected smear- negative presumptive tuberculosis patients in Uganda
    Lydia Nakiyingi
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Infect Dis 15:812. 2015
    ..We describe the predictors and mortality outcome of mycobacteremia among HIV-infected sputum smear-negative presumptive TB patients in a high prevalence HIV/TB setting...
  10. pmc Cost-effectiveness of early initiation of first-line combination antiretroviral therapy in Uganda
    Joseph Sempa
    Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Public Health 12:736. 2012
    ..This analysis evaluates the cost-effectiveness of initiating cART at a CD4 count between 250-350 cell/μl (early) versus <250 cell/μl (delayed)...
  11. pmc The effect of standard dose multivitamin supplementation on disease progression in HIV-infected adults initiating HAART: a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial in Uganda
    David Guwatudde
    School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Infect Dis 15:348. 2015
    ..We conducted a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial to determine the effect of one recommended daily allowance (RDA) of MV supplementation on disease progression in patients initiating HAART...
  12. pmc Operational implementation of LED fluorescence microscopy in screening tuberculosis suspects in an urban HIV clinic in Uganda
    Heidi Albert
    Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics FIND, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 8:e72556. 2013
    ..We sought to compare the operational performance of three LED FM methods compared to light microscopy in a cohort of HIV-positive tuberculosis (TB) suspects at an urban clinic in a high TB burden country...
  13. pmc Among patients with sustained viral suppression in a resource-limited setting, CD4 gains are continuous although gender-based differences occur
    Joseph B Sempa
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 8:e73190. 2013
    ..We sought to investigate long-term patterns of immune recovery in Ugandan patients on ART with sustained viral suppression...
  14. pmc Implementation of provider-based electronic medical records and improvement of the quality of data in a large HIV program in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Barbara Castelnuovo
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 7:e51631. 2012
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the rate of errors in the database before and after the introduction of the provider-based EMR...
  15. pmc Regional differences in predictive accuracy of WHO immunologic failure criteria
    Agnes N Kiragga
    College of Health Sciences, Infectious Diseases Institute, Uganda
    AIDS 26:768-70. 2012
    ..Population-specific guidelines should be developed using large African cohorts to identify more specific and sensitive criteria...
  16. pmc Prevention of Early Mortality by Presumptive Tuberculosis Therapy Study: An Open Label, Randomized Controlled Trial
    Yukari C Manabe
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 95:1265-1271. 2016
    ..Improved TB diagnostics sensitive in immunosuppressed patients presenting late to care are urgently needed for more targeted interventions...
  17. pmc Sub-optimal vitamin B-12 levels among ART-naïve HIV-positive individuals in an urban cohort in Uganda
    Aggrey S Semeere
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 7:e40072. 2012
    ..We recommend prospective studies to further clarify the causal relationships of sub-optimal vitamin B-12, and explore the role of vitamin B-12 supplementation in immune recovery...
  18. pmc Integration of HIV and TB services results in improved TB treatment outcomes and earlier prioritized ART initiation in a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda
    Sabine M Hermans
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 60:e29-35. 2012
    ..In December 2008, a separate outdoor-integrated TB/HIV clinic was instituted for attendees of a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda. We sought to evaluate associated TB and HIV treatment outcomes...
  19. pmc High T-cell immune activation and immune exhaustion among individuals with suboptimal CD4 recovery after 4 years of antiretroviral therapy in an African cohort
    Damalie Nakanjako
    Department of Medicine, Makerere University School of Medicine, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Infect Dis 11:43. 2011
    ..The levels of T-cell immune activation and exhaustion after long-term, suppressive ART and their correlation with CD4 T-cell count reconstitution among ART-treated patients in African cohorts have not been extensively evaluated...
  20. pmc Implementation and Operational Research: Impact of Nurse-Targeted Care on HIV Outcomes Among Immunocompromised Persons: A Before-After Study in Uganda
    Agnes N Kiragga
    Research Department, Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Division of Infectious Disease and International Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN Division of Global HIV AIDS DGHA, Center for Global Health CGH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda and Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 72:e32-6. 2016
    ..We sought to evaluate the impact of targeted clinic-based nurse care on antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and retention among severely immunocompromised HIV-infected persons...
  21. pmc Cost-effectiveness of novel algorithms for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals in Uganda
    Maunank Shah
    aJohns Hopkins University School of Medicine bJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA cDepartment of Microbiology dInfectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    AIDS 27:2883-92. 2013
    ..This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of novel diagnostic algorithms utilizing combinations of Xpert and LF-LAM for the detection of active TB among people living with HIV...
  22. pmc Clinical utility of a novel molecular assay in various combination strategies with existing methods for diagnosis of HIV-related tuberculosis in Uganda
    Willy Ssengooba
    Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Department of Global Health and Amsterdam Institute of Global Health and Development, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
    PLoS ONE 9:e107595. 2014
    ..We compared the diagnostic gain of the Xpert add-on strategy with Xpert replacement strategy for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis among HIV-infected adults to inform its implementation...
  23. pmc Rifampicin for continuation phase tuberculosis treatment in Uganda: a cost-effectiveness analysis
    Yukari C Manabe
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 7:e39187. 2012
    ..We compared the impact of a continuation phase using 6HE or 4HR on total cost and expected mortality from the perspective of the Ugandan national health system...
  24. pmc Antiretroviral treatment-associated tuberculosis in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients starting ART
    William Worodria
    Department of Medicine, Mulago Hospital, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P O Box 7051, Kampala, Uganda
    Clin Dev Immunol 2011:758350. 2011
    ..In conclusion, with systematic TB screening (including culture and chest X-ray), the incidence of ART-associated TB is relatively low in settings with high HIV and TB prevalence...
  25. pmc Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults
    Lydia Nakiyingi
    Department of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa and National Health Laboratory Service, South Africa Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ and Department of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston University, Boston, MA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 66:270-9. 2014
    ..Our objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of the TB LAM test for tuberculosis diagnosis...
  26. pmc Antenatal syphilis screening using point-of-care testing in Sub-Saharan African countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis
    Andreas Kuznik
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda Pfizer, New York, New York, United States of America
    PLoS Med 10:e1001545. 2013
    ....
  27. pmc Point-of-care lateral flow assays for tuberculosis and cryptococcal antigenuria predict death in HIV infected adults in Uganda
    Yukari C Manabe
    Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e101459. 2014
    ..We sought to determine if a positive lateral flow assay (LFA) result for urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and cryptococcal antigenuria was associated with mortality...
  28. pmc Comparison of methods for correction of mortality estimates for loss to follow-up after ART initiation: a case of the Infectious Diseases Institute, Uganda
    Agnes N Kiragga
    Infectious Diseases Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 8:e83524. 2013
    ..The objective of this study was to validate methods used to correct mortality estimates for loss-to-follow-up using a cohort with complete death ascertainment...
  29. pmc Developing independent investigators for clinical research relevant for Africa
    Yukari C Manabe
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    Health Res Policy Syst 9:44. 2011
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Tuberculosis treatment default among HIV-TB co-infected patients in urban Uganda
    Sawsan Elbireer
    Makerere University Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda
    Trop Med Int Health 16:981-7. 2011
    ..To identify health facility and patient-specific factors associated with TB treatment default in HIV-infected patients, in a TB clinic on the campus of Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda...
  31. pmc Evaluation of portable point-of-care CD4 counter with high sensitivity for detecting patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy
    Yukari C Manabe
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda
    PLoS ONE 7:e34319. 2012
    ....
  32. pmc The immunopathogenesis of cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: understanding a conundrum
    David B Meya
    aInfectious Disease Institute, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda bDepartment of Medicine, Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Translational Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA cSchool of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda dDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland eMucosal and Vaccine Research Program Colorado MAVRC, University of Colorado Denver fDenver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, Colorado, USA
    Curr Opin Infect Dis 29:10-22. 2016
    ..We review our current understanding of the pathogenesis of this phenomenon, focusing on unifying innate and adaptive immune mechanisms leading to the development of this often fatal syndrome...
  33. pmc Integration of antenatal syphilis screening in an urban HIV clinic: a feasibility study
    Yukari C Manabe
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere College of Health Sciences, PO Box 22418, Mulago Hospital Complex, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Infect Dis 15:15. 2015
    ..Despite global initiatives to increase the proportion of pregnant women screened, implementation has been slow. We sought to investigate the feasibility of adding syphilis screening within an integrated antenatal HIV clinic...
  34. pmc Implementation and operational research: Integrated pre-antiretroviral therapy screening and treatment for tuberculosis and cryptococcal antigenemia
    Lincoln Pac
    Research Department, Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda Ministry of Health, Uganda Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda Department of Medicine, Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Translational Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 68:e69-76. 2015
    ....
  35. doi request reprint Needle autopsy to establish the cause of death in HIV-infected hospitalized adults in Uganda: a comparison to complete autopsy
    Janneke A Cox
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Department of Pathology, Mulago Hospital Complex, Kampala, Uganda Department of Pathology, University Hospital Antwerp, University of Antwerp, Belgium Department of Diagnostic Oncology and Molecular Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Joint Pathology Center, Silver Spring, MD Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD and Faculty of Medicine, University of Antwerp, Belgium
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 67:169-76. 2014
    ..We studied the agreement in cause of death between blind and ultrasound-guided needle autopsy and complete autopsy in HIV-infected patients in Uganda...
  36. pmc Multivitamin supplementation in HIV infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: the protocol for a randomized double blinded placebo controlled efficacy trial
    David Guwatudde
    School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, PO Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Infect Dis 12:304. 2012
    ..We propose to evaluate the efficacy of a single recommended daily allowance (RDA) of micronutrients (including vitamins B-complex, C, and E) in slowing disease progression among HIV-infected adults receiving HAART in Uganda...
  37. pmc Evaluation of WHO Criteria for Viral Failure in Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings
    Barbara Castelnuovo
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University, Mulago Hospital Complex, P O Box 22418, Kampala, Uganda
    AIDS Res Treat 2011:736938. 2011
    ..1% with high viremia eventually needed to be switched to second line (P = .008). Conclusions. The use of at least one repeat measurement rather than a single VL measurement could avert from 60% to 80% of unnecessary switches...
  38. pmc Implementation and effect of intensified case finding on diagnosis of tuberculosis in a large urban HIV clinic in Uganda: a retrospective cohort study
    Sabine Hermans
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, PO Box 22418, Kampala, Uganda
    BMC Public Health 12:674. 2012
    ..We sought to determine the associated effect on TB case detection...
  39. pmc Cost-effectiveness of serum cryptococcal antigen screening to prevent deaths among HIV-infected persons with a CD4+ cell count < or = 100 cells/microL who start HIV therapy in resource-limited settings
    David B Meya
    Infectious Disease Institute, Makerere University, Mulago Hospital Complex, Kampala, Uganda
    Clin Infect Dis 51:448-55. 2010
    ..We sought to define the cost-effectiveness of serum cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) screening to identify persons with subclinical cryptococcosis and the efficacy of preemptive fluconazole therapy...
  40. doi request reprint Cause-specific mortality and the contribution of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the first 3 years after antiretroviral therapy initiation in an urban African cohort
    Barbara Castelnuovo
    Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda
    Clin Infect Dis 49:965-72. 2009
    ....