Lars Olof Wahlund

Summary

Affiliation: Karolinska Institutet
Country: Sweden

Publications

  1. pmc Alzheimer's disease biomarker discovery using in silico literature mining and clinical validation
    Ines Greco
    King s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    J Transl Med 10:217. 2012
  2. ncbi request reprint Evidence-based evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool in dementia workup
    Lars Olof Wahlund
    Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Top Magn Reson Imaging 16:427-37. 2005
  3. ncbi request reprint Omega-3 supplementation in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms
    Yvonne Freund-Levi
    Department of NVS, Section of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 23:161-9. 2008
  4. ncbi request reprint Clinical findings in nondemented mutation carriers predisposed to Alzheimer's disease: a model of mild cognitive impairment
    Ove Almkvist
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics and Experimental Geriatrics, Department of Neurotec, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 179:77-82. 2003
  5. ncbi request reprint Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in 174 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: OmegAD study: a randomized double-blind trial
    Yvonne Freund-Levi
    Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Section of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm
    Arch Neurol 63:1402-8. 2006
  6. doi request reprint Effects on transthyretin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by DHA-rich n - 3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study
    Gerd Faxén-Irving
    Department of NVS, Section of Clinical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Alzheimers Dis 36:1-6. 2013
  7. pmc Reduced prostaglandin F2 alpha release from blood mononuclear leukocytes after oral supplementation of omega3 fatty acids: the OmegAD study
    Inger Vedin
    Department of Medicine, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Lipid Res 51:1179-85. 2010
  8. doi request reprint Comparison between visual assessment of MTA and hippocampal volumes in an elderly, non-demented population
    Lena Cavallin
    CLINTEC, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Radiol 53:573-9. 2012
  9. doi request reprint Different multivariate techniques for automated classification of MRI data in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment
    Carlos Aguilar
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychiatry Res 212:89-98. 2013
  10. doi request reprint Omega-3 fatty acids enhance phagocytosis of Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid-β42 by human microglia and decrease inflammatory markers
    Erik Hjorth
    Division of Neurodegeneration, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Alzheimers Dis 35:697-713. 2013

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Alzheimer's disease biomarker discovery using in silico literature mining and clinical validation
    Ines Greco
    King s College London, Institute of Psychiatry, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK
    J Transl Med 10:217. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to use a novel in silico approach to discover a set of candidate biomarkers for AD...
  2. ncbi request reprint Evidence-based evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic tool in dementia workup
    Lars Olof Wahlund
    Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Top Magn Reson Imaging 16:427-37. 2005
    ..A great interest has been put in whether atrophy in the medial temporal lobe can serve as an early diagnostic marker for Alzheimer disease...
  3. ncbi request reprint Omega-3 supplementation in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: effects on neuropsychiatric symptoms
    Yvonne Freund-Levi
    Department of NVS, Section of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 23:161-9. 2008
    ..An association with APOEomega4 carriers and neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD has also been suggested...
  4. ncbi request reprint Clinical findings in nondemented mutation carriers predisposed to Alzheimer's disease: a model of mild cognitive impairment
    Ove Almkvist
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics and Experimental Geriatrics, Department of Neurotec, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 179:77-82. 2003
    ..In conclusion, clinical examinations of relatively young individuals carrying an AD mutation did not reveal any marked abnormalities before the clinical onset of dementia...
  5. ncbi request reprint Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in 174 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: OmegAD study: a randomized double-blind trial
    Yvonne Freund-Levi
    Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Section of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm
    Arch Neurol 63:1402-8. 2006
    ..Epidemiologic and animal studies have suggested that dietary fish or fish oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids, for example, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, may prevent Alzheimer disease (AD)...
  6. doi request reprint Effects on transthyretin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by DHA-rich n - 3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study
    Gerd Faxén-Irving
    Department of NVS, Section of Clinical Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Alzheimers Dis 36:1-6. 2013
    ..172, p = 0.028). Thus, n - 3 FA treatment appeared to increase plasma-TTR in patients with AD. Since TTR may influence Aβ deposition in the brain, the results warrant further exploration...
  7. pmc Reduced prostaglandin F2 alpha release from blood mononuclear leukocytes after oral supplementation of omega3 fatty acids: the OmegAD study
    Inger Vedin
    Department of Medicine, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Lipid Res 51:1179-85. 2010
    ..The stimulus-specific PGF(2alpha) release from PBMC after 6 months of oral supplementation with the DHA-rich fish oil might be one event related to reduced inflammatory reactions associated with omega-3 fatty acid intake...
  8. doi request reprint Comparison between visual assessment of MTA and hippocampal volumes in an elderly, non-demented population
    Lena Cavallin
    CLINTEC, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Radiol 53:573-9. 2012
    ..Since hippocampal volume decreases with time even in normal aging there is also a need to study the normal age differences of medial temporal lobe atrophy...
  9. doi request reprint Different multivariate techniques for automated classification of MRI data in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment
    Carlos Aguilar
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychiatry Res 212:89-98. 2013
    ..The value of the multivariate models derived from the classification of AD vs. CTL was shown to be robust and efficient in the identification of MCI converters...
  10. doi request reprint Omega-3 fatty acids enhance phagocytosis of Alzheimer's disease-related amyloid-β42 by human microglia and decrease inflammatory markers
    Erik Hjorth
    Division of Neurodegeneration, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Alzheimers Dis 35:697-713. 2013
    ..DHA and EPA can be beneficial in AD by enhancing removal of Aβ42, increasing neurotrophin production, decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and by inducing a shift in phenotype away from pro-inflammatory M1 activation...
  11. ncbi request reprint A temporal lobe factor in verb fluency
    Per Ostberg
    Section for Clinical Geriatrics, Neurotec Department, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Cortex 43:607-15. 2007
    ..Although temporal lobe structures have not usually been implicated in verb processing, early temporal pathology thus appears to contribute to impaired verb fluency in cognitive decline...
  12. pmc Cingulate cortex hypoperfusion predicts Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment
    Chaorui Huang
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Occupational Therapy and Elderly Care Research NEUROTEC, Divison of Geriatric Medicine, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden
    BMC Neurol 2:9. 2002
    ..Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used to study the heterogeneity of MCI and to look for predictors of future development of AD...
  13. doi request reprint AddNeuroMed and ADNI: similar patterns of Alzheimer's atrophy and automated MRI classification accuracy in Europe and North America
    Eric Westman
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 58:818-28. 2011
    ..This demonstrates that the methods used are robust and that large data sets can be combined if MRI imaging protocols are carefully aligned...
  14. ncbi request reprint Reduced neuronal efficacy in progressive mild cognitive impairment: a prospective fMRI study on visuospatial processing
    Patrizia Vannini
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychiatry Res 156:43-57. 2007
    ..Increased parietal activation in PMCI could reflect a reduced neuronal efficacy due to accumulating AD pathology and might predict future clinical decline in patients with MCI...
  15. pmc Effects of DHA-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation on gene expression in blood mononuclear leukocytes: the OmegAD study
    Inger Vedin
    Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 7:e35425. 2012
    ..Hence, our aim was to determine the effects of 6 mo of dietary supplementation with an n-3 FA preparation rich in DHA on global gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
  16. pmc Sensitivity and specificity of medial temporal lobe visual ratings and multivariate regional MRI classification in Alzheimer's disease
    Eric Westman
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 6:e22506. 2011
    ..2) To assess how well the three techniques perform when predicting future conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD...
  17. doi request reprint Quantitative validation of a visual rating scale for frontal atrophy: associations with clinical status, APOE e4, CSF biomarkers and cognition
    Daniel Ferreira
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, 5th Floor, SE 141 86, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur Radiol 26:2597-610. 2016
    ..To validate a visual rating scale of frontal atrophy with quantitative imaging and study its association with clinical status, APOE ε4, CSF biomarkers, and cognition...
  18. doi request reprint Plasma Fatty Acid Profiles in Relation to Cognition and Gender in Alzheimer's Disease Patients During Oral Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation: The OmegAD Study
    Maria Eriksdotter
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society NVS, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Stockholm
    J Alzheimers Dis 48:805-12. 2015
    ..However, the relationship between changes of plasma ω3 FA levels and cognitive performance, as well as effects of gender, are poorly known...
  19. pmc The Effect of Age Correction on Multivariate Classification in Alzheimer's Disease, with a Focus on the Characteristics of Incorrectly and Correctly Classified Subjects
    Farshad Falahati
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Novum, plan 5, 141 57, Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Topogr 29:296-307. 2016
    ..Age-related brain atrophy may have a more important association with these factors than previously believed...
  20. doi request reprint Encapsulated cell biodelivery of nerve growth factor to the Basal forebrain in patients with Alzheimer's disease
    Maria Eriksdotter-Jonhagen
    Departments of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden maria eriksdotter jonhagen ki se
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 33:18-28. 2012
    ..Here we report the results of a first-in-man study of encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery of NGF to the basal forebrain of AD patients with the primary objective to explore safety and tolerability...
  21. doi request reprint Cut the coda: early fluency intervals predict diagnoses
    Sven Erik Fernaeus
    Section for Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Cortex 44:161-9. 2008
    ....
  22. doi request reprint Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation effects on weight and appetite in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the omega-3 Alzheimer's disease study
    Gerd Faxén Irving
    Department of Neurobiology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University, Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Am Geriatr Soc 57:11-7. 2009
    ..To study the effects of omega (Omega)-3 fatty acid (FA) supplements on weight and appetite in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) in relation to inflammatory biomarkers and apolipoprotein E epsilon4 (APOEepsilon4)...
  23. ncbi request reprint Cerebral microbleeds topography and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in cognitive impairment
    Sara Shams
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab . 2016
    ..001). Our findings show that cerebral microbleed distribution is associated with different patterns of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, supporting different pathogenesis of deep/infratentorial and lobar cerebral microbleeds...
  24. doi request reprint Effects of supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study
    Yvonne Freund-Levi
    Section of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society NVS, Karolinska Institutet and Department of Geriatrics Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden
    J Alzheimers Dis 42:823-31. 2014
    ..Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) found in fish and fish oil have several biological properties that may be beneficial in AD. However, they may also auto-oxidize and induce in vivo lipid peroxidation...
  25. pmc Ratio of Aβ42/P-tau181p in CSF is associated with aberrant default mode network in AD
    Xiaozhen Li
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Sci Rep 3:1339. 2013
    ..This finding implicates that the brain functional connectivity within DMN is affected by pathological changes at early stage in AD. This may provide a better understanding of AD pathology progression and improve AD diagnosis...
  26. ncbi request reprint A critical discussion of the role of neuroimaging in mild cognitive impairment
    Henrike Wolf
    Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden
    Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 179:52-76. 2003
    ..Particular attention is drawn to the possible value of neuroimaging modalities in the prediction and early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  27. ncbi request reprint Mild cognitive impairment: experience from a memory clinic
    Lars Olof Wahlund
    Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Neurol Scand Suppl 179:21-4. 2003
    ..We conclude that MCI is a heterogeneous concept and that the outcome at follow-up is dependent on which population is studied and how MCI has been defined...
  28. ncbi request reprint Impaired verb fluency: a sign of mild cognitive impairment
    Per Ostberg
    Section for Clinical Geriatrics, Neurotec Department, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Lang 95:273-9. 2005
    ..One possibility is that the verb fluency deficit in Mild Cognitive Impairment results from degenerative processes known to occur in the parahippocampal region...
  29. doi request reprint Mixed brain lesions mediate the association between cardiovascular risk burden and cognitive decline in old age: A population-based study
    Rui Wang
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society NVS, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden Electronic address
    Alzheimers Dement . 2016
    ..The underlying pathological mechanisms linking cardiovascular burden to cognitive decline remain unclear...
  30. pmc Targeted delivery of nerve growth factor to the cholinergic basal forebrain of Alzheimer's disease patients: application of a second-generation encapsulated cell biodelivery device
    Helga Eyjolfsdottir
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden
    Alzheimers Res Ther 8:30. 2016
    ..We report our results from a third-dose cohort of patients receiving second-generation NGF-ECB implants with improved NGF secretion...
  31. doi request reprint The neural correlates of self-paced finger tapping in bipolar depression with motor retardation
    Benny Liberg
    1 Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Neuropsychiatr 25:43-51. 2013
    ....
  32. doi request reprint Changes in CSF cholinergic biomarkers in response to cell therapy with NGF in patients with Alzheimer's disease
    Azadeh Karami
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Geriatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Alzheimers Dement 11:1316-28. 2015
    ..The purpose of this study was to see if EC-NGF therapy will alter CSF levels of cholinergic biomarkers, ChAT, and acetylcholinesterase...
  33. pmc Effects of n-3 FA supplementation on the release of proresolving lipid mediators by blood mononuclear cells: the OmegAD study
    Xiuzhe Wang
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, SE 141 57, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200025, Shanghai, China
    J Lipid Res 56:674-81. 2015
    ..We conclude that supplementation with n-3 PUFAs for 6 months prevented a reduction in SPMs released from PBMCs of AD patients, which was associated with changes in cognitive function. ..
  34. pmc Associations between white matter microstructure and cognitive performance in old and very old age
    Erika J Laukka
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden
    PLoS ONE 8:e81419. 2013
    ..The observed pattern of results suggests that microstructural white matter integrity may be especially important to perceptual speed among very old adults...
  35. ncbi request reprint The significance of thyroid-stimulating hormone and homocysteine in the development of Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment: a 6-year follow-up study
    Sylvia Annerbo
    Geriatric Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Occupational Therapy and Elderly Care, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 21:182-8. 2006
    ..This may have clinical implications with regard to monitoring TSH levels and thyroxin substitution in MCI patients...
  36. ncbi request reprint Age related changes in brain metabolites observed by 1H MRS in APP/PS1 mice
    Johanna Oberg
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurobiol Aging 29:1423-33. 2008
    ..First differences in metabolite content were readily seen at 2.5 months, when volume defects in tg mice were present, but no amyloid plaques...
  37. doi request reprint Articulatory agility in cognitive decline
    Per Ostberg
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Folia Phoniatr Logop 61:269-74. 2009
    ..However, data from maximum performance tests of motor speech function in AD and related disorders are virtually nonexistent. The aim of this study was to make such data available...
  38. doi request reprint Thinner cortex in the frontal lobes in mentally disordered offenders
    Katarina Howner
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychiatry Res 203:126-31. 2012
    ..However, whether thinner temporal cortex is a cause or a consequence of the antisocial behaviour is still unknown...
  39. ncbi request reprint Are the CSF levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol a sensitive biomarker for mild cognitive impairment?
    Valerio Leoni
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurosci Lett 397:83-7. 2006
    ..In patients with AD, the percentages of those with increased levels of 24OHC, tau and phospho tau were similar (55-67%). In this pilot study, we discuss the possibility that 24OHC may be a sensitive test for MCI...
  40. doi request reprint Acceleration of hippocampal atrophy in a non-demented elderly population: the SNAC-K study
    Yi Zhang
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Radiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int Psychogeriatr 22:14-25. 2010
    ..The aim is to study the aging atrophy speed and acceleration of brain atrophy in a cross-sectional database, to identify the age at which acceleration of hippocampal atrophy starts in non-demented elderly persons...
  41. doi request reprint Combining MRI and MRS to distinguish between Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls
    Eric Westman
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Section of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Alzheimers Dis 22:171-81. 2010
    ..The OPLS method shows strong potential for discriminating between Alzheimer's disease and controls...
  42. doi request reprint Automated CT-based segmentation and quantification of total intracranial volume
    Carlos Aguilar
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society NVS, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institute, Novum, Blickagången 6, 14157, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur Radiol 25:3151-60. 2015
    ..To develop an algorithm to segment and obtain an estimate of total intracranial volume (tICV) from computed tomography (CT) images...
  43. doi request reprint Medial temporal lobe atrophy and depressive symptoms in elderly patients with and without Alzheimer disease
    Daniela Enache
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Psychiatry, Bucharest, Romania
    J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 28:40-8. 2015
    ..To determine whether depressive symptoms are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy in older people with and without Alzheimer disease (AD)...
  44. doi request reprint The dimensionality of between-person differences in white matter microstructure in old age
    Martin Lövdén
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Gavlegatan 16, Stockholm, Sweden
    Hum Brain Mapp 34:1386-98. 2013
    ..These findings highlight the need for future research to examine whether relations between white matter microstructure and diverse outcomes are specific or general...
  45. ncbi request reprint Carbamazepine treatment recovered low N-acetylaspartate+N-acetylaspartylglutamate (tNAA) levels in the megencephaly mouse BALB/cByJ-Kv1.1(mceph/mceph)
    Eric Westman
    Department of Neurobiology, Health Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurobiol Dis 26:221-8. 2007
    ..Furthermore, CBZ treatment recovered tCho and tNAA levels in mceph/mceph. Thus, distinct differences in MRS spectra between mceph/mceph and wt mice were depicted and treatment effects of CBZ were monitored using MRS...
  46. ncbi request reprint Effect of divided attention on gait in subjects with and without cognitive impairment
    Anna F Pettersson
    Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Physical Therapy, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 20:58-62. 2007
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Prognostic significance of white matter changes in a memory clinic population
    Lena Bronge
    Institution of KARO, Department of Radiology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, SE 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychiatry Res 122:199-206. 2003
    ..In conclusion, the presence of WMC in cognitively impaired patients had no effect on the progression rate of dementia, as measured by MMSE decline...
  48. pmc Hippocampal shape analysis in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration subtypes
    Olof Lindberg
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Alzheimers Dis 30:355-65. 2012
    ..Finally, AD displayed most atrophy in left hippocampal body with relative sparing of the hippocampal head. Consistent with neuropathological studies, most atrophic deformation was found in CA1 and subiculum areas in FTLD and AD...
  49. doi request reprint Overtime reliability of medial temporal lobe atrophy rating in a clinical setting
    Lena Cavallin
    CLINTEC Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Acta Radiol 53:318-23. 2012
    ..Visual assessment of MTA is easy to perform but the reliability of MTA rating over time has not been studied...
  50. doi request reprint Multivariate analysis of MRI data for Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls
    Eric Westman
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 54:1178-87. 2011
    ..Combining the different MRI measures together resulted in a significantly better classification than using them separately. OPLS also shows potential for predicting conversion from MCI to AD...
  51. pmc Disrupted Network Topology in Patients with Stable and Progressive Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease
    Joana B Pereira
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Cereb Cortex 26:3476-93. 2016
    ..These findings suggest that the prodromal and clinical stages of AD are associated with an abnormal network topology. ..
  52. pmc Imaging biomarkers of dementia: recommended visual rating scales with teaching cases
    Lars Olof Wahlund
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Insights Imaging . 2016
    ..The radiologist should relate visual ratings to the clinical assessment and other biomarkers to assist the clinician in the diagnostic decision...
  53. doi request reprint Electroencephalography Is a Good Complement to Currently Established Dementia Biomarkers
    Daniel Ferreira
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 42:80-92. 2016
    ..We tested the diagnostic value of qEEG-SPR in comparison to cognition, structural imaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers...
  54. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid profiles with increasing number of cerebral microbleeds in a continuum of cognitive impairment
    Sara Shams
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Division of Medical Imaging and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Radiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 36:621-8. 2016
    ..05). Aβ42 is the routine CSF-biomarker mainly associated with CMBs in cognitive impairment, and there is an accumulative effect with increasing number of CMBs. ..
  55. doi request reprint Aberrant cerebral network topology and mild cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease
    Joana B Pereira
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Hum Brain Mapp 36:2980-95. 2015
    ..These changes are likely to signal further cognitive decline and provide support to the role of aberrant network topology in cognitive impairment in patients with early PD...
  56. doi request reprint Brain changes in Alzheimer's disease patients with implanted encapsulated cells releasing nerve growth factor
    Daniel Ferreira
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Alzheimers Dis 43:1059-72. 2015
    ..These results together with previous evidence supports the idea that encapsulated biodelivery of NGF might have the potential to become a new treatment strategy for AD with both symptomatic and disease-modifying effects. ..
  57. doi request reprint Structural brain changes associated with depressive symptoms in the elderly with Alzheimer's disease
    Aleksandra Lebedeva
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 85:930-5. 2014
    ..To examine neuroanatomical changes associated with depressive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the relationship between brain structure and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers in depressed and non-depressed patients...
  58. doi request reprint Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on inflammatory markers in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma in Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study
    Yvonne Freund-Levi
    Department NVS, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 27:481-90. 2009
    ..omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs) found in dietary fish or fish oils are anti-inflammatory agents that may influence Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  59. doi request reprint Late reaction times identify MCI
    Sven Erik Fernaeus
    Department of Neurobiology, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Care Sciences and Society, Stockholm, Sweden
    Scand J Psychol 54:283-5. 2013
    ..The results were interpreted as impaired sustained attention among a large part of the MCI group, and the study shows the importance of taking into account all available data resulting from this type of test...
  60. ncbi request reprint Voxel- and VOI-based analysis of SPECT CBF in relation to clinical and psychological heterogeneity of mild cognitive impairment
    Chaorui Huang
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Occupational Therapy and Elderly Care Research, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 19:1137-44. 2003
    ..Combined SPECT investigation and neuropsychological testing might predict the future development of dementia in patients with MCI...
  61. pmc Is the subcallosal medial prefrontal cortex a common site of atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration?
    Olof Lindberg
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden
    Front Aging Neurosci 4:32. 2012
    ..Atrophy of the SMPC may thus be affected by either initial temporal or initial frontal atrophy, making it a common site of frontal atrophy in the dementia subtypes investigated...
  62. doi request reprint Failure to modulate neural response to increased task demand in mild Alzheimer's disease: fMRI study of visuospatial processing
    Patrizia Vannini
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurobiol Dis 31:287-97. 2008
    ..These results confirm deficits in visuospatial abilities, which occur early in AD, and offer new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying this impairment...
  63. doi request reprint Memory factors in Rey AVLT: Implications for early staging of cognitive decline
    Sven Erik Fernaeus
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Section for Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden
    Scand J Psychol 55:546-53. 2014
    ..The main conclusion is that serial position data from word list testing reflect specific memory capacities which vary with levels of cognitive impairment. ..
  64. doi request reprint Word sequence production in cognitive decline: forward ever, backward never
    Per Ostberg
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Health Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Instituter, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden
    Logoped Phoniatr Vocol 33:126-35. 2008
    ..Backward production had significant diagnostic classificatory power. We conclude that word sequence production yields data relevant to the diagnosis of dementia with a minimum of time and expense...
  65. doi request reprint Motor imagery in bipolar depression with slowed movement
    Benny Liberg
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Diagnostic Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Department NVS, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Division of Radiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Energy and Engineering, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
    J Nerv Ment Dis 201:885-93. 2013
    ..In addition, limbic and prefrontal regions associated with self-reference and the default mode network were altered during motor imagery in bipolar depression with motor retardation. ..
  66. ncbi request reprint Postmortem MRI and histopathology of white matter changes in Alzheimer brains. A quantitative, comparative study
    Lena Bronge
    Institutions of KARO, Department of Radiology, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 13:205-12. 2002
    ..The lesions not identified with MRI represented, however, only minor changes with lower intensity of myelin staining and with an accentuation of the distance between fibres but with preserved axonal network and glial cell density...
  67. doi request reprint The use of MRI, CT and lumbar puncture in dementia diagnostics: data from the SveDem Registry
    Farshad Falahati
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 39:81-91. 2015
    ....
  68. pmc In vivo 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect metabolic changes in APP/PS1 mice after donepezil treatment
    Eric Westman
    Department of Neurobiology, Health Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    BMC Neurosci 10:33. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate if multivariate data analysis could detect changes in the pattern of the metabolic profile after donepezil treatment...
  69. doi request reprint Regional vulnerability of hippocampal subfields to aging measured by structural and diffusion MRI
    Joana B Pereira
    Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, University of Barcelona, Spain Institute of Biomedical Research August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Hippocampus 24:403-14. 2014
    ..These results indicate that age has an effect both on volume and diffusion tensor imaging measures in different subfields, suggesting they provide complementary information on age-related processes in the hippocampus...
  70. ncbi request reprint Diagnostic imaging devices in Alzheimer's disease
    Vesna Jelic
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, NVS Department, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Hudddinge, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
    Expert Rev Med Devices 4:475-87. 2007
    ....
  71. doi request reprint Multispectral MRI segmentation of age related white matter changes using a cascade of support vector machines
    Soheil Damangir
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neurol Sci 322:211-6. 2012
    ..This is a completely competitive and fast automatic segmentation framework, capable of using different input sequences, without changes or restrictions of the image analysis algorithm...
  72. ncbi request reprint Task demand modulations of visuospatial processing measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging
    Patrizia Vannini
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Neurotec Department, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge University Hospital, 14186, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 21:58-68. 2004
    ..The brain regions that are most specialized for the execution of the visuospatial task can be assessed by relating the imposed task demand to the functional activation measured...
  73. ncbi request reprint Incidence, clinical features and subtypes of delirium in elderly patients treated for hip fractures
    Franklin Santana Santos
    Neurotec Department, Huddinge Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 20:231-7. 2005
    ..To describe the incidence, risk factors and clinical features (subtypes) of delirium during the postoperative period after hip fracture surgery in elderly patients...
  74. doi request reprint Galantamine versus risperidone treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with probable dementia: an open randomized trial
    Yvonne Freund-Levi
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society NVS, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Electronic address
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 22:341-8. 2014
    ..To examine the effects of galantamine and risperidone on neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia (NPSD) and global function...
  75. doi request reprint Cognitive decline is mediated by gray matter changes during middle age
    Daniel Ferreira
    Faculty of Psychology, University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Section of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurobiol Aging 35:1086-94. 2014
    ..To define the early stages of the aging process may allow early detection of pathologic changes and therapeutic interventions. ..
  76. pmc Clinical and neuropathological features of the arctic APP gene mutation causing early-onset Alzheimer disease
    Hans Basun
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden
    Arch Neurol 65:499-505. 2008
    ..Most of these mutations may also cause cognitive impairment, but the Arctic APP mutation is the only known intra-beta-amyloid mutation to date causing the more typical clinical picture of Alzheimer disease...
  77. pmc Differential impact of cerebral white matter changes, diabetes, hypertension and stroke on cognitive performance among non-disabled elderly. The LADIS study
    Ana Verdelho
    Neurology Department, Centro de Estudos Egas Moniz, Santa Maria Hospital, Lisbon, Portugal
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 78:1325-30. 2007
    ..Our aim was to study the influence of vascular risk factors and ARWMC on the neuropsychological performance of an independent elderly population, to see if vascular risk factors impair cognition in addition to the effects of ARWMC...
  78. ncbi request reprint The predementia diagnosis of Alzheimer disease
    Giovanni B Frisoni
    Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 18:51-3. 2004
  79. ncbi request reprint Medial temporal lobe atrophy on MRI predicts dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment
    Esther S C Korf
    Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Center, Vrije Universiteit Medical Centre, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Neurology 63:94-100. 2004
    ..Although detailed volumetric MRI assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) can predict dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), it is not easily applied to routine clinical practice...
  80. ncbi request reprint Structural correlates of mild cognitive impairment
    Henrike Wolf
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    Neurobiol Aging 25:913-24. 2004
    ..Widespread brain atrophy may be the step to determine the transition from MCI to dementia. Brain volume reserve effects appear to be involved in both of these steps...
  81. ncbi request reprint Effects of docosahexaenoic acid-rich n-3 fatty acid supplementation on cytokine release from blood mononuclear leukocytes: the OmegAD study
    Inger Vedin
    Department of Medicine and the Division of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism Research, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden
    Am J Clin Nutr 87:1616-22. 2008
    ..Whereas most studies have explored the effects of predominantly EPA-based n-3 FAs preparations, few have addressed the effects of n-3 FAs preparations with DHA as the main FA...
  82. ncbi request reprint Development of a neuropsychological battery for the Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly Study (LADIS): experience and baseline data
    Sofia Madureira
    Servico de Neurologia, Centro de Estudos Egas Moniz, Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisboa, Portugal
    Neuroepidemiology 27:101-16. 2006
    ..In the LADIS population baseline data, older age and lower educational levels negatively influence neuropsychological performance...
  83. ncbi request reprint Relationship between periventricular and deep white matter lesions and depressive symptoms in older people. The LADIS Study
    Mani S Krishnan
    Institute for Ageing and Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 21:983-9. 2006
    ..However, it remains controversial as to whether PVL, DWML, or both are most strongly associated with depression and this was the aim of the current study...
  84. doi request reprint Progression of white matter hyperintensities and incidence of new lacunes over a 3-year period: the Leukoaraiosis and Disability study
    Alida A Gouw
    Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center and Image Analysis Center, Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Stroke 39:1414-20. 2008
    ..We studied the natural course of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and lacunes, the main MRI representatives of small vessel disease, over time and evaluated possible predictors for their development...
  85. ncbi request reprint The diagnosis of Alzheimer disease before it is Alzheimer dementia
    Giovanni B Frisoni
    Arch Neurol 60:1023; author reply 1023-4. 2003
  86. ncbi request reprint Intracranial volume in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia: evidence for brain reserve?
    Henrike Wolf
    Department of Neurotec, Section of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska Institute, Huddinge University Hospital, S141 86 Huddinge, Sweden
    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 19:995-1007. 2004
    ..The total intracranial volume (ICV) served as an estimate of the maximum attained brain volume in life...
  87. ncbi request reprint Impact of age-related cerebral white matter changes on the transition to disability -- the LADIS study: rationale, design and methodology
    Leonardo Pantoni
    Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
    Neuroepidemiology 24:51-62. 2005
    ..The study results may also help to standardize, on an international basis, tools and criteria to identify early stages of disability...
  88. ncbi request reprint Increased sensitivity in mapping task demand in visuospatial processing using reaction-time-dependent hemodynamic response predictors in rapid event-related fMRI
    Christoph Lehmann
    Department of Psychiatric Neurophysiology, University Hospital of Clinical Psychiatry, Waldau, CH 3000 Bern 60, Switzerland
    Neuroimage 31:505-12. 2006
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint White matter hyperintensities rather than lacunar infarcts are associated with depressive symptoms in older people: the LADIS study
    John T O'Brien
    Institute for Ageing and Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
    Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14:834-41. 2006
    ..This study investigates the relationship between location and burden of WMH and lacunes on depressive features in older people...
  90. ncbi request reprint The relation between homocysteine levels and development of Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment patients
    Sylvia Annerbo
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics B56, Department of Neurotec, Karolinska University Hospital, SE 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 20:209-14. 2005
    ..However, our findings tentatively suggest a possible protective effect of low/normal Hcy levels on dementia conversion in MCI patients...
  91. ncbi request reprint Age, hypertension, and lacunar stroke are the major determinants of the severity of age-related white matter changes. The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability in the Elderly) Study
    Anna Maria Basile
    Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy, and Department of Neurology, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris, France
    Cerebrovasc Dis 21:315-22. 2006
    ..We sought whether such a trend existed in the association of vascular risk factors or comorbidities with the severity of ARWMC aiming particularly at further elucidating the relative roles of hypertension and stroke in this regard...
  92. ncbi request reprint The normal equilibrium between CSF and plasma amyloid beta levels is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease
    Vilmantas Giedraitis
    Department of Public Health Geriatrics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    Neurosci Lett 427:127-31. 2007
    ..Our findings suggest that the normal equilibrium between CSF and plasma Abeta may be disrupted with the initiation of amyloid deposition in the brain...
  93. ncbi request reprint [Life-long mental exercise can prevent Alzheimer disease]
    Lars Olof Wahlund
    Sektionen för klinisk geriatrik, NEUROTEC Institutionen, Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Huddinge
    Lakartidningen 103:912-3. 2006
  94. ncbi request reprint The relationship between head size and intracranial volume in elderly subjects
    Henrike Wolf
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany
    Brain Res 973:74-80. 2003
    ..To study the relationship between parenchymal head volume (PHV) and intracranial volume (ICV), and to compare the ability of these two measurements to reflect the association between maximum mature brain volume and late-life cognition...
  95. doi request reprint Structural and quantitative comparison of cerebrospinal fluid glycoproteins in Alzheimer's disease patients and healthy individuals
    Carina Sihlbom
    Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, 440, SE 405 30 Goteborg, Sweden
    Neurochem Res 33:1332-40. 2008
    ..Protein expression levels of alpha1-antitrypsin were decreased, while the protein levels of apolipoprotein E and clusterin were increased in AD. No specific glycoform could be specifically assigned to AD...
  96. ncbi request reprint Neurochemical aftermath of amateur boxing
    Henrik Zetterberg
    Department of Experimental Neuroscience, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goteborg University, Goteborg, Sweden
    Arch Neurol 63:1277-80. 2006
    ..Little solid information is available on the possible risks for neuronal injury in amateur boxing...
  97. ncbi request reprint Standardizing frontotemporal dementia: the problem of polysemy
    Lars Olof Wahlund
    Arch Neurol 59:1203-4; author reply 1204. 2002
  98. ncbi request reprint [There is a need to reform dementia care. Resources are not used optimally--time for evidence-based care]
    Jan Marcusson
    Geriatriska kliniken, Universitetssjukhuset i Linköping
    Lakartidningen 103:1022-4, 1027-8. 2006
  99. ncbi request reprint White matter lesions and soluble interleukin-1 receptor type II in CSF from demented and non-demented subjects
    Lena Bronge
    Department of Radiology, Huddinge University Hospital, S 141 86 Huddinge, Sweden
    Neurochem Int 41:217-22. 2002
    ..In conclusion, sIL-1RII levels in CSF are not correlated to magnetic resonance imaging WMLs in patients with dementia disorders or in healthy subjects...
  100. ncbi request reprint [Progressive aphasia. New data on an old phenomenon]
    Per Ostberg
    Geriatriska kliniken, Huddinge Universitetssjukhus, Stockholm
    Lakartidningen 99:1941-4. 2002
    ..For this reason (among others), Pick disease or Pick complex is still a useful and convenient label for progressive aphasias and other clinical manifestations of non-AD lobar atrophy...
  101. ncbi request reprint Activity level and balance in subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease
    Anna F Pettersson
    Geriatric Clinic Huddinge University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden
    Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 13:213-6. 2002
    ..This study shows that motor performance is affected already at mild stages of Alzheimer's disease and also that functional performance other than gait may also be impaired...