Christer Halldin

Summary

Affiliation: Karolinska Institutet
Country: Sweden

Publications

  1. pmc In vivo TSPO imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis: a brain PET study with [18F]FEDAA1106
    Akihiro Takano
    Center for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE 171 77, Sweden
    EJNMMI Res 3:30. 2013
  2. pmc Synthesis and evaluation of 2-chloro N-[(S)-{(S)-1-[11 C]methylpiperidin-2-yl} (phenyl)methyl]3-trifluoromethyl-benzamide ([11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734) as a PET radioligand for glycine transporter 1
    Takeshi Fuchigami
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska University Hospital, R5 02, Stockholm 171 76, Sweden
    EJNMMI Res 2:37. 2012
  3. pmc Decreased defluorination using the novel beta-cell imaging agent [18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 in pigs examined by PET
    Mahabuba Jahan
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Building R5 U1, Karolinska University Hospital, SE 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    EJNMMI Res 1:33. 2011
  4. pmc Kinetic analysis and test-retest variability of the radioligand [11C](R)-PK11195 binding to TSPO in the human brain - a PET study in control subjects
    Aurelija Jucaite
    AstraZeneca Global Clinical Development, Södertälje 151 85, Sweden
    EJNMMI Res 2:15. 2012
  5. ncbi request reprint Imaging the norepinephrine transporter with positron emission tomography: initial human studies with (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2
    Akihiro Takano
    Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 35:153-7. 2008
  6. ncbi request reprint Dopamine D2 receptor binding in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia examined with raclopride-C11 and positron emission tomography
    Mirjam Talvik
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital R4, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychiatry Res 148:165-73. 2006
  7. doi request reprint In vitro autoradiography and in vivo evaluation in cynomolgus monkey of [18F]FE-PE2I, a new dopamine transporter PET radioligand
    Andrea Varrone
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 63:871-80. 2009
  8. ncbi request reprint Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the norepinephrine transporter radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2: a human whole-body PET study
    Akihiro Takano
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 35:630-6. 2008
  9. ncbi request reprint A comparison of recent parametric neuroreceptor mapping approaches based on measurements with the high affinity PET radioligands [11C]FLB 457 and [11C]WAY 100635
    Zsolt Cselényi
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 32:1690-708. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint Effect of amphetamine on dopamine D2 receptor binding in nonhuman primate brain: a comparison of the agonist radioligand [11C]MNPA and antagonist [11C]raclopride
    Nicholas Seneca
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 59:260-9. 2006

Detail Information

Publications97

  1. pmc In vivo TSPO imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis: a brain PET study with [18F]FEDAA1106
    Akihiro Takano
    Center for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm SE 171 77, Sweden
    EJNMMI Res 3:30. 2013
    ..18F]FEDAA1106 is a recently developed PET radioligand for the in vivo quantification of TSPO. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the diagnostic usefulness of [18F]FEDAA1106 in patients with MS...
  2. pmc Synthesis and evaluation of 2-chloro N-[(S)-{(S)-1-[11 C]methylpiperidin-2-yl} (phenyl)methyl]3-trifluoromethyl-benzamide ([11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734) as a PET radioligand for glycine transporter 1
    Takeshi Fuchigami
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska University Hospital, R5 02, Stockholm 171 76, Sweden
    EJNMMI Res 2:37. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the potential of 2-chloro N-[(S)-{(S)-1-[11 C]methylpiperidin-2-yl} (phenyl)methyl] 3-trifluoromethyl-benzamide ([11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734) as a PET imaging agent for GlyT1...
  3. pmc Decreased defluorination using the novel beta-cell imaging agent [18F]FE-DTBZ-d4 in pigs examined by PET
    Mahabuba Jahan
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Building R5 U1, Karolinska University Hospital, SE 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    EJNMMI Res 1:33. 2011
    ..This study describes a novel deuterated radioligand [18F]fluoroethyl [FE]-DTBZ-d4, aimed to increase the stability against in vivo defluorination previously observed for [18F]FE-DTBZ...
  4. pmc Kinetic analysis and test-retest variability of the radioligand [11C](R)-PK11195 binding to TSPO in the human brain - a PET study in control subjects
    Aurelija Jucaite
    AstraZeneca Global Clinical Development, Södertälje 151 85, Sweden
    EJNMMI Res 2:15. 2012
    ..In the present test-retest study, we examine the characteristics of [11C](R)-PK11195 binding in detail, using the classical compartment analysis with a metabolite-corrected arterial input function...
  5. ncbi request reprint Imaging the norepinephrine transporter with positron emission tomography: initial human studies with (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2
    Akihiro Takano
    Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 35:153-7. 2008
    ..A monkey occupancy study with the radioligand indicated that (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) can be useful for quantitative PET analysis. In this preliminary study, regional distributions in the living human brain were evaluated...
  6. ncbi request reprint Dopamine D2 receptor binding in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia examined with raclopride-C11 and positron emission tomography
    Mirjam Talvik
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital R4, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychiatry Res 148:165-73. 2006
    ....
  7. doi request reprint In vitro autoradiography and in vivo evaluation in cynomolgus monkey of [18F]FE-PE2I, a new dopamine transporter PET radioligand
    Andrea Varrone
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 63:871-80. 2009
    ..The potential influence of the two radiometabolites on PET quantification requires further evaluation...
  8. ncbi request reprint Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the norepinephrine transporter radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2: a human whole-body PET study
    Akihiro Takano
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 35:630-6. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to provide dosimetry estimates for (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) based on human whole-body PET measurements...
  9. ncbi request reprint A comparison of recent parametric neuroreceptor mapping approaches based on measurements with the high affinity PET radioligands [11C]FLB 457 and [11C]WAY 100635
    Zsolt Cselényi
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 32:1690-708. 2006
    ..Furthermore, the results support the use of receptor parametric imaging in applied studies in basic or clinical research...
  10. ncbi request reprint Effect of amphetamine on dopamine D2 receptor binding in nonhuman primate brain: a comparison of the agonist radioligand [11C]MNPA and antagonist [11C]raclopride
    Nicholas Seneca
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 59:260-9. 2006
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint Sex differences in the serotonin 1A receptor and serotonin transporter binding in the human brain measured by PET
    Hristina Jovanovic
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 39:1408-19. 2008
    ..The result of the present study may help in understanding sex differences in drug treatment responses to drugs affecting the serotonin system...
  12. doi request reprint Brain uptake and distribution of the dopamine D3 /D2 receptor partial agonist [11 C]cariprazine: an in vivo positron emission tomography study in nonhuman primates
    Miklos Toth
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centrum for Psychiatry Research, S 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 67:258-64. 2013
    ..Furthermore, in PET imaging [(11) C]cariprazine can effectively visualize dopamine D(3)/D(2) receptors in the nonhuman primate brain...
  13. doi request reprint Fluorine-18 labeling of three novel D-peptides by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[18F]fluorobenzoate and preliminary examination by postmortem whole-hemisphere human brain autoradiography
    Mahabuba Jahan
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska University Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Biol 39:315-23. 2012
    ....
  14. ncbi request reprint Synthesis and positron emission tomography evaluation of three norepinephrine transporter radioligands: [C-11]desipramine, [C-11]talopram and [C-11]talsupram
    Magnus Schou
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176, Stockholm, Sweden
    Mol Imaging Biol 8:1-8. 2006
    ..These metabolites were all more polar than their parent radioligand. The data show that these radioligands are inferior to existing radioligands for the study of brain NET with PET in vivo...
  15. ncbi request reprint Reduced midbrain dopamine transporter binding in male adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: association between striatal dopamine markers and motor hyperactivity
    Aurelija Jucaite
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Biol Psychiatry 57:229-38. 2005
    ..The purpose of our study was to examine dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in adolescents with ADHD and to search for its relationship with cognitive functions as well as locomotor hyperactivity...
  16. doi request reprint Advancement in PET quantification using 3D-OP-OSEM point spread function reconstruction with the HRRT
    Andrea Varrone
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section and Stockholm Brain Institute, R5 02, Karolinska Hospital, 17176, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 36:1639-50. 2009
    ..This study assessed the quantitative improvements provided by the implementation of the PSF modelling in the reconstruction of the PET data using the High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT)...
  17. ncbi request reprint Atomoxetine occupies the norepinephrine transporter in a dose-dependent fashion: a PET study in nonhuman primate brain using (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2
    Nicholas Seneca
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 188:119-27. 2006
    ..Previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies had failed to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring a dose-dependent and saturable NET occupancy in human brain using [11C]MeNER...
  18. ncbi request reprint Whole-body biodistribution, radiation dosimetry estimates for the PET norepinephrine transporter probe (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 in non-human primates
    Nicholas Seneca
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Commun 26:695-700. 2005
    ..In this work, we quantified the biodistribution over time and radiation exposure to multiple organs with (S,S)-[F]FMeNER-D2...
  19. ncbi request reprint Lack of effect of reserpine-induced dopamine depletion on the binding of the dopamine-D3 selective radioligand, [11C]RGH-1756
    Judit Sovago
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, SE 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain Res Bull 67:219-24. 2005
    ....
  20. doi request reprint Serotonin transporter genotype is associated with cognitive performance but not regional 5-HT1A receptor binding in humans
    Jacqueline Borg
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry and Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 12:783-92. 2009
    ....
  21. doi request reprint 5-HT(1A) receptor and 5-HTT binding during the menstrual cycle in healthy women examined with [(11)C] WAY100635 and [(11)C] MADAM PET
    Hristina Jovanovic
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychiatry Res 172:31-7. 2009
    ..The finding however does not preclude that gonadal hormones differentially influence central serotonin system inwomen and men, which might contribute to gender differences in serotonin-associated disorders...
  22. doi request reprint PET studies of D2-receptor binding in striatal and extrastriatal brain regions: Biochemical support in vivo for separate dopaminergic systems in humans
    Simon Cervenka
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm Brain Institute Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 64:478-85. 2010
    ..These preliminary results encourage approaches searching for individual patterns of receptor binding across the whole brain volume in clinical studies on the dopamine system...
  23. doi request reprint Associations between dopamine D2-receptor binding and cognitive performance indicate functional compartmentalization of the human striatum
    Simon Cervenka
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
    Neuroimage 40:1287-95. 2008
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint [(11)C]MADAM, a new serotonin transporter radioligand characterized in the monkey brain by PET
    Christer Halldin
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 58:173-83. 2005
    ..The present characterization of binding in the monkey brain suggests that [(11)C]MADAM is a potential PET radioligand for quantitative studies of 5-HTT binding in the human brain...
  25. doi request reprint The norepinephrine transporter (NET) radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 shows significant decreases in NET density in the human brain in Alzheimer's disease: a post-mortem autoradiographic study
    Balazs Gulyas
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurochem Int 56:789-98. 2010
    ....
  26. doi request reprint Radiosynthesis and evaluation of new α1-adrenoceptor antagonists as PET radioligands for brain imaging
    Anu J Airaksinen
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Biol 40:747-54. 2013
    ..Our aim was to develop an α1-adrenoceptor specific PET radioligand for brain imaging...
  27. ncbi request reprint Specific in vivo binding to the norepinephrine transporter demonstrated with the PET radioligand, (S,S)-[11C]MeNER
    Magnus Schou
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Biol 30:707-14. 2003
    ..Labeled metabolites of [(11)C]MeNER were all more polar. (S,S)-[(11)C]MeNER is a good lead compound in the search for a selective radioligand for quantitation of NET in the human brain in vivo...
  28. doi request reprint Evolution of microglial activation in ischaemic core and peri-infarct regions after stroke: a PET study with the TSPO molecular imaging biomarker [((11))C]vinpocetine
    Balazs Gulyas
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neurol Sci 320:110-7. 2012
    ..The findings indicate an increased microglial activation in the peri-stroke region for several weeks after the insult...
  29. doi request reprint Age-related diurnal effect on D2 receptor binding: a preliminary PET study
    Simon Cervenka
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 11:671-8. 2008
    ..The findings, if replicated, have direct relevance for applied PET studies and could also prove relevant with regard to age effects on dopamine-related behaviour such as arousal and cognitive performance...
  30. pmc Evaluation of [11C]PipISB and [18F]PipISB in monkey as candidate radioligands for imaging brain cannabinoid type-1 receptors in vivo
    Sjoerd J Finnema
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 63:22-30. 2009
    ..Hence, [11C]3 and [18F]3 showed high CB1 receptor-specific binding in monkey brain in vivo and merit further investigation as prospective PET radioligands in humans...
  31. pmc Investigation of the metabolites of (S,S)-[(11)C]MeNER in humans, monkeys and rats
    Magnus Schou
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Mol Imaging Biol 11:23-30. 2009
    ..In view of further assessment of the suitability of (S,S)-[(11)C]MeNER as a NET radioligand, its metabolism and the identity of the in vivo radiometabolites of (S,S)-[(11)C]MeNER are of great interest...
  32. ncbi request reprint Quantification of 11C-MADAM binding to the serotonin transporter in the human brain
    Johan Lundberg
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Nucl Med 46:1505-15. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study in humans was to examine the suitability and potential of (11)C-MADAM for quantitative PET studies of 5-HTT in applied clinical studies on the pathophysiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders...
  33. ncbi request reprint Quantitative analyses of regional [11C]PE2I binding to the dopamine transporter in the human brain: a PET study
    Aurelija Jucaite
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 33:657-68. 2006
    ..The aims of the present PET study were to quantify regional [(11)C]PE2I binding to DAT in the human brain and to compare quantitative methods with regard to suitability for applied clinical studies...
  34. doi request reprint 5-HTT and 5-HT(1A) receptor occupancy of the novel substance vortioxetine (Lu AA21004). A PET study in control subjects
    Per Stenkrona
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Building R5, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 23:1190-8. 2013
    ..Based on the literature and the present [¹¹C]MADAM binding data, a dose of 20-30 mg Lu AA21004 is suggested to give clinically relevant occupancy of the 5-HTT...
  35. ncbi request reprint Positron emission tomographic evaluation of the putative dopamine-D3 receptor ligand, [11C]RGH-1756 in the monkey brain
    Judit Sovago
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Psychiatry Section, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurochem Int 45:609-17. 2004
    ..Alternatively, the results may support the hypothesis that the dopamine-D3 receptors are indeed occupied to a high extent by dopamine in vivo and thus not available for radioligand binding...
  36. doi request reprint In vivo imaging of the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) with [18F]FEDAA1106 and PET does not show increased binding in Alzheimer's disease patients
    Andrea Varrone
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 40:921-31. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to quantify in vivo binding of [(18)F]FEDAA1106 to TSPO in control subjects and AD patients...
  37. doi request reprint Palladium mediated ¹¹C-cyanation and characterization in the non-human primate brain of the novel mGluR5 radioligand [¹¹C]AZD9272
    Jan D Andersson
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Biol 40:547-53. 2013
    ....
  38. doi request reprint In vivo evaluation in cynomolgus monkey brain and metabolism of [¹⁸F]fluorodeprenyl: a new MAO-B pet radioligand
    Sangram Nag
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 66:323-30. 2012
    ..These results suggest that [¹⁸F]fluorodeprenyl is a potential PET radioligand for visualization of MAO-B activity...
  39. ncbi request reprint Post-mortem human brain autoradiography of the norepinephrine transporter using (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2
    Magnus Schou
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 15:517-20. 2005
    ..The NET-selectivity of binding was confirmed by co-incubation with desipramine. The dual NET/SERT inhibitor duloxetine also inhibited specific binding, whereas PE2I or citalopram had no evident effect...
  40. pmc Quantitative analysis of [11C]AZ10419369 binding to 5-HT1B receptors in human brain
    Katarina Varnas
    Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 31:113-23. 2011
    ..The findings support the use of reference tissue models in applied clinical studies with [(11)C]AZ10419369...
  41. doi request reprint Dopamine D(2/3) receptor occupancy of apomorphine in the nonhuman primate brain--a comparative PET study with [11C]raclopride and [11C]MNPA
    Sjoerd J Finnema
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 63:378-89. 2009
    ..50 mg/kg and 31 ng/ml for [11C]MNPA. The present observations do not support the existence of two affinity states in vivo. It might thus be speculated that all D(2/3) receptors are in the high affinity state at in vivo conditions...
  42. doi request reprint Dose-dependent binding of AZD3783 to brain 5-HT1B receptors in non-human primates and human subjects: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]AZ10419369
    Katarina Varnas
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 213:533-45. 2011
    ..AZD3783 is a recently developed, orally bioavailable 5-HT(1B) receptor antagonist with potential antidepressant properties...
  43. doi request reprint Modulation of striatal dopamine D1 binding by cognitive processing
    Sari Karlsson
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Gavlegatan 16, SE 113 30 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 48:398-404. 2009
    ....
  44. doi request reprint Synthesis of three novel fluorine-18 labeled analogues of L-deprenyl for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B)
    Sangram Nag
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Med Chem 54:7023-9. 2011
    ..2 ± 0.04%ID/g after 2 min post injection. In conclusion, compound 4c is a specific inhibitor of MAO-B with high initial brain uptake in mice and is, therefore, a candidate for further investigation in PET...
  45. ncbi request reprint Synthesis of 11C-labelled (R)-OHDMI and CFMME and their evaluation as candidate radioligands for imaging central norepinephrine transporters with PET
    Magnus Schou
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Bioorg Med Chem 15:616-25. 2007
    ....
  46. ncbi request reprint [(11)C]PE2I: a highly selective radioligand for PET examination of the dopamine transporter in monkey and human brain
    Christer Halldin
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30:1220-30. 2003
    ..The present characterisation of binding in monkey and man suggests that [(11)C]PE2I is a suitable PET radioligand for quantitative regional examination of DAT in man...
  47. ncbi request reprint A PET study on regional coexpression of 5-HT1A receptors and 5-HTT in the human brain
    Johan Lundberg
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 195:425-33. 2007
    ..Several lines of evidence suggest inter-dependency between the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and the 5HT1A receptor, two recognised targets for the treatment of anxiety and depression...
  48. ncbi request reprint PET evaluation of novel radiofluorinated reboxetine analogs as norepinephrine transporter probes in the monkey brain
    Magnus Schou
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 53:57-67. 2004
    ....
  49. doi request reprint Effect of a single dose of escitalopram on serotonin concentration in the non-human and human primate brain
    Magdalena Nord
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Center for Psychiatric Research, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 16:1577-86. 2013
    ..Thus, the findings in the present study might aid in understanding the mechanism of SSRIs' delayed onset of clinical effect...
  50. doi request reprint Simplified quantification and whole-body distribution of [18F]FE-PE2I in nonhuman primates: prediction for human studies
    Andrea Varrone
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, SE 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Biol 39:295-303. 2012
    ..18)F]FE-PE2I is a promising dopamine transporter (DAT) radioligand. In nonhuman primates, we examined the accuracy of simplified quantification methods and the estimates of radiation dose of [(18)F]FE-PE2I...
  51. ncbi request reprint Autoradiographic distribution of serotonin transporters and receptor subtypes in human brain
    Katarina Varnas
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Hum Brain Mapp 22:246-60. 2004
    ..The qualitative and quantitative information reported in this study might provide important complements to in vivo neuroimaging studies of the 5-HT system...
  52. doi request reprint Age and disease related changes in the translocator protein (TSPO) system in the human brain: positron emission tomography measurements with [11C]vinpocetine
    Balazs Gulyas
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centrum for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 56:1111-21. 2011
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint [11C]vinpocetine: a prospective peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand for primate PET studies
    Balazs Gulyas
    Karolinska Institute, Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    J Neurol Sci 229:219-23. 2005
    ....
  54. doi request reprint Kinetic analysis and quantification of the dopamine transporter in the nonhuman primate brain with 11C-PE2I and 18F-FE-PE2I
    Andrea Varrone
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Nucl Med 52:132-9. 2011
    ....
  55. ncbi request reprint The role of the striatal dopamine transporter in cognitive aging
    Nina Erixon-Lindroth
    Department of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, Box 6401, S 113 82 Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychiatry Res 138:1-12. 2005
    ..The findings were discussed relative to the view that the frontostriatal network is critically involved in multiple cognitive functions...
  56. doi request reprint Development of a PET radioligand for the central 5-HT1B receptor: radiosynthesis and characterization in cynomolgus monkeys of eight radiolabeled compounds
    Jan D Andersson
    Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Biol 38:261-72. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to develop a radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the 5-HT(1B) receptor in the primate brain in vivo...
  57. doi request reprint Synthesis, radiolabeling and preliminary in vivo evaluation of [18F]FE-PE2I, a new probe for the dopamine transporter
    Magnus Schou
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 19:4843-5. 2009
    ..18)F]6 is a potential radioligand for imaging DATs in the human brain with PET...
  58. pmc [11C]cyclopropyl-FLB 457: a PET radioligand for low densities of dopamine D2 receptors
    Anu J Airaksinen
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Bioorg Med Chem 16:6467-73. 2008
    ..Pre-treatment with raclopride (1 mg/kg as tartrate) caused high reduction of binding in extrastriatal regions, including cerebellum. [(11)C]4 is a promising radioligand for imaging D(2) receptors in low density regions in brain...
  59. ncbi request reprint Differentiation of extrastriatal dopamine D2 receptor density and affinity in the human brain using PET
    Hans Olsson
    Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 22:794-803. 2004
    ..In such studies, the mass of FLB 457 has to be less than 0.5 microg injected to avoid a mass effect of the radioligand itself...
  60. doi request reprint Radiolabeling of the cannabinoid receptor agonist AZD1940 with carbon-11 and PET microdosing in non-human primate
    Magnus Schou
    AstraZeneca Translational Sciences Centre, PET CoE, Dept of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, SE 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Biol 40:410-4. 2013
    ..As part of the preclinical evaluation of AZD1940, a microdosing study with positron emission tomography (PET) was conducted to assess brain exposure...
  61. ncbi request reprint New alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists derived from the antipsychotic sertindole - carbon-11 labelling and pet examination of brain uptake in the cynomolgus monkey
    Thomas Balle
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Biol 31:327-36. 2004
    ..These observations support the view that efflux by P-glycoprotein can be of quantitative importance for the total brain-uptake of some PET radioligands...
  62. pmc Low background and high contrast PET imaging of amyloid-β with [11C]AZD2995 and [11C]AZD2184 in Alzheimer's disease patients
    Anton Forsberg
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 40:580-93. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate AZD2995 side by side with AZD2184 as novel PET radioligands for imaging of amyloid-β in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
  63. doi request reprint Improved mapping and quantification of serotonin transporter availability in the human brainstem with the HRRT
    Martin Schain
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, R5 02, SE 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 40:228-37. 2013
    ..This study examined the potential to evaluate radioligand binding in brainstem nuclei, and assessed the effect of improved resolution on the outcome measures...
  64. pmc Comparison of D₂ dopamine receptor occupancy after oral administration of quetiapine fumarate immediate-release and extended-release formulations in healthy subjects
    Magdalena Nord
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 14:1357-66. 2011
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Joint explorative analysis of neuroreceptor subsystems in the human brain: application to receptor-transporter correlation using PET data
    Zsolt Cselényi
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurochem Int 45:773-81. 2004
    ..These parameter-specific multi-receptor maps can usefully guide the researchers in their endeavour to formulate models of multi-receptor interactions and changes in the human brain...
  66. doi request reprint Quantitative PET analyses of regional [11C]PE2I binding to the dopamine transporter--application to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy
    Ikuo Odano
    Psychiatric Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 59:3582-93. 2012
    ..The reference tissue models should be applied with better understanding of the biochemical nature of the radioligand and the reliability of these approaches...
  67. ncbi request reprint PET analysis of the 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist ACP-103 in human brain
    Anna Lena Nordstrom
    Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 11:163-71. 2008
    ..In conclusion, administration of ACP-103 to healthy volunteers was found to be safe and well tolerated, and single oral doses as low as 10 mg were found to fully saturate 5-HT2A receptors in human brain as determined by PET...
  68. doi request reprint Imaging of the striatal and extrastriatal dopamine transporter with (18)F-LBT-999: quantification, biodistribution, and radiation dosimetry in nonhuman primates
    Andrea Varrone
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Nucl Med 52:1313-21. 2011
    ..2.1]octane-2-carboxylate ((18)F-LBT-999) in nonhuman primates...
  69. doi request reprint Association between striatal and extrastriatal dopamine D2-receptor binding and social desirability
    Simon Cervenka
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 50:323-8. 2010
    ..Taken together with previous evidence on D2-receptor binding and social behaviour, a role for dopaminergic neurotransmission in regulating displays of dominance vs. submissive behaviour is proposed...
  70. ncbi request reprint Clozapine binds preferentially to cortical D1-like dopamine receptors in the primate brain: a PET study
    Yuan Hwa Chou
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, S171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 185:29-35. 2006
    ..Previous positron emission tomography studies have demonstrated that the atypical antipsychotic clozapine occupies D1-like dopamine receptors in the striatum in clozapine-treated patients...
  71. ncbi request reprint A PET study of 5-HT1A receptors at different phases of the menstrual cycle in women with premenstrual dysphoria
    Hristina Jovanovic
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychiatry Res 148:185-93. 2006
    ..The study principally provides new support, in vivo, for a serotonergic dysregulation in women with PMDD...
  72. ncbi request reprint A preliminary PET evaluation of the new dopamine D2 receptor agonist [11C]MNPA in cynomolgus monkey
    Sjoerd J Finnema
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Biol 32:353-60. 2005
    ....
  73. doi request reprint Extrastriatal dopamine D(2) receptor binding in Huntington's disease
    Mouna Esmaeilzadeh
    PET Centre, Stockholm Brain Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Hum Brain Mapp 32:1626-36. 2011
    ..Hence, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D(2) receptors extrinsic to the striatum are well preserved in early to mid stage patients with HD. This observation may have implication for the development of therapy for HD...
  74. doi request reprint Activated MAO-B in the brain of Alzheimer patients, demonstrated by [11C]-L-deprenyl using whole hemisphere autoradiography
    Balazs Gulyas
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurochem Int 58:60-8. 2011
    ....
  75. doi request reprint [18F]flumazenil binding to central benzodiazepine receptor studies by PET--quantitative analysis and comparisons with [11C]flumazenil
    Ikuo Odano
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 45:891-902. 2009
    ..The present analysis supports the use of pons as reference region in simplified protocols without arterial blood sampling. [(18)F]flumazenil should thus be an excellent choice for applied studies at centers not having a cyclotron...
  76. ncbi request reprint Decreased thalamic D2/D3 receptor binding in drug-naive patients with schizophrenia: a PET study with [11C]FLB 457
    Mirjam Talvik
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Psychiatric Centre, Karolinska Hospital, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 6:361-70. 2003
    ..The preliminary finding of low thalamic D2/D3 BP in patients strengthens the hypothesis that the thalamus is a key region in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia...
  77. doi request reprint Distribution and binding of 18F-labeled and 125I-labeled analogues of ACI-80, a prospective molecular imaging biomarker of disease: a whole hemisphere post mortem autoradiography study in human brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease patients
    Balazs Gulyas
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurochem Int 60:153-62. 2012
    ..Further studies are warranted to explore the usefulness of the (18)F-labeled analogues as in vivo molecular imaging biomarkers in diagnostic PET studies...
  78. doi request reprint Biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) radioligand [18F]FEDAA1106: a human whole-body PET study
    Akihiro Takano
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 38:2058-65. 2011
    ..TSPO imaging is expected to be useful for the clinical evaluation of neuroinflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to provide dosimetry estimates for [(18)F]FEDAA1106 based on human whole-body PET measurements...
  79. doi request reprint Mapping of the norepinephrine transporter in the human brain using PET with (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2
    Akihiro Takano
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm, Sweden
    Neuroimage 42:474-82. 2008
    ..This study indicated that (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) combined with a template method provides detailed information on the distribution of NET in vivo and that functional ROIs on the template would be useful in further clinical studies...
  80. doi request reprint A fully automated one-pot synthesis of [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635 for clinical PET applications
    Raisa N Krasikova
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Appl Radiat Isot 67:73-8. 2009
    ..In average, (906+/-525)MBq (n=94) of (I) was obtained from 40 min bombardment at 50 microA beam current within 50 min synthesis time. The specific radioactivity (SA) at the time of injection was (50.5+/-29.3)GBq/mumol (n=94)...
  81. ncbi request reprint PET measurement of serotonin transporter occupancy: a comparison of escitalopram and citalopram
    Johan Lundberg
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 10:777-85. 2007
    ..05). The small but significant difference in occupancy and K(i),(app) found between R,S-citalopram and S-citalopram suggests that not only S-citalopram but also R-citalopram to some degree occupies the 5-HTT in the human brain in vivo...
  82. doi request reprint Comparative evaluations of norepinephrine transporter radioligands with reference tissue models in rhesus monkeys: (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 and (S,S)-[11C]MeNER
    Akihiro Takano
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 36:1885-91. 2009
    ..Although two norepinephrine transporter (NET) radioligands, (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) and (S,S)-[(11)C]MeNER, have been reported to have different characteristics, there has not been a direct comparative study in vivo...
  83. ncbi request reprint PET study of D(1) dopamine receptor binding in neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia
    Per Karlsson
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karlinska Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Am J Psychiatry 159:761-7. 2002
    ..The objective of the present PET study was to compare D(1) receptor binding in first-admission, neuroleptic-naive patients with schizophrenia and in healthy subjects...
  84. doi request reprint Radiosynthesis of the candidate beta-amyloid radioligand [(11)C]AZD2184: Positron emission tomography examination and metabolite analysis in cynomolgus monkeys
    Jan D Andersson
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 64:733-41. 2010
    ..On the basis of the labeling chemistry and the results of the biological evaluation, we conclude that [(11)C]5 should be useful for routine clinical studies...
  85. doi request reprint NET occupancy by clomipramine and its active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine, in non-human primates in vivo
    Akihiro Takano
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 216:279-86. 2011
    ..However, the NET occupancy of clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine has not fully been evaluated in vivo...
  86. ncbi request reprint Distribution of 5-HT4 receptors in the postmortem human brain--an autoradiographic study using [125I]SB 207710
    Katarina Varnas
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Hospital, S 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 13:228-34. 2003
    ....
  87. ncbi request reprint Low striatal and extra-striatal D2 receptor occupancy during treatment with the atypical antipsychotic sertindole
    Svante Nyberg
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 162:37-41. 2002
    ..Clinical trials have shown antipsychotic efficacy and very few extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) with sertindole at 20 mg/day...
  88. ncbi request reprint Occupancy of 5-HT1A receptors by clozapine in the primate brain: a PET study
    Yuan Hwa Chou
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 166:234-40. 2003
    ....
  89. doi request reprint A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) syst
    Balazs Gulyas
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Psychiatry Section, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Neurochem Int 54:28-36. 2009
    ....
  90. ncbi request reprint Saturation of striatal D(2) dopamine receptors by clozapine
    Svante Nyberg
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 5:11-6. 2002
    ..The findings further support our previous findings of low D2 dopamine receptor occupancy in patients treated with standard doses of clozapine...
  91. ncbi request reprint Cerebral uptake of [ethyl-11C]vinpocetine and 1-[11C]ethanol in cynomolgous monkeys: a comparative preclinical PET study
    Balazs Gulyas
    Psychiatry Section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
    Nucl Med Biol 29:753-9. 2002
    ....
  92. ncbi request reprint Measurement of serotonin transporter binding with PET and [11C]MADAM: a test-retest reproducibility study
    Johan Lundberg
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
    Synapse 60:256-63. 2006
    ..96 and 0.51 in the raphe nuclei and averaged bilateral regions. [(11)C]MADAM was shown to have good to excellent reliability in measurements of 5-HTT binding in brain regions of interest in research on psychiatric disorders...
  93. doi request reprint Saturated norepinephrine transporter occupancy by atomoxetine relevant to clinical doses: a rhesus monkey study with (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D (2)
    Akihiro Takano
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, S 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 36:1308-14. 2009
    ..It may therefore be difficult to translate the results to the clinical situations. In the present study, the detailed change of NET occupancy was investigated among a wider range of doses in a more advanced manner...
  94. ncbi request reprint Support for dopaminergic hypoactivity in restless legs syndrome: a PET study on D2-receptor binding
    Simon Cervenka
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
    Brain 129:2017-28. 2006
    ..The results do not support variations in dopamine D2-receptor availability as a correlate to the diurnal rhythm of RLS symptoms...
  95. ncbi request reprint Positron emission tomographic analysis of dose-dependent NAD-299 binding to 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A receptors in the human brain
    Bengt Andree
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 167:37-45. 2003
    ..NAD-299 (generic name robalzotan) is a new potential antidepressant with high affinity and selectivity for the 5-HT(1A) receptor...
  96. doi request reprint Molecular imaging of the dopamine transporter
    Andrea Varrone
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
    J Nucl Med 51:1331-4. 2010
    ..Several radioligands are available for DAT imaging with SPECT and PET. This review summarizes the main SPECT and PET radioligands and the main applications of DAT imaging in neuropsychiatric disorders...
  97. ncbi request reprint Search for correlations between serotonin 5-HT1A receptor expression and cognitive functions--a strategy in translational psychopharmacology
    Jacqueline Borg
    Section of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 185:389-94. 2006
    ..Animal studies and studies of human aging have suggested that the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor may serve as a biomarker for cognitive functioning and a target for pharmacological treatment of cognitive deficits...