Heather J Zar

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cape Town
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Failure of chemoprophylaxis with standard antituberculosis agents in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases
    Darryl B Sneag
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:1142-6. 2007
  2. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine--a health priority
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatric Pulmonology and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 98:463-7. 2008
  3. doi request reprint Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: new advances
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 8:277-88. 2010
  4. doi request reprint A randomized controlled trial of intermittent compared with daily cotrimoxazole preventive therapy in HIV-infected children
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 24:2225-32. 2010
  5. pmc Aetiology of childhood pneumonia in a well vaccinated South African birth cohort: a nested case-control study of the Drakenstein Child Health Study
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Heath, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Lancet Respir Med 4:463-72. 2016
  6. doi request reprint Childhood pneumonia - the Drakenstein Child Health Study
    Heather Jessica Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 106:642-3. 2016
  7. doi request reprint Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in African children in a primary care setting by use of Xpert MTB/RIF on respiratory specimens: a prospective study
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Lancet Glob Health 1:e97-104. 2013
  8. pmc Pneumonia in low and middle income countries: progress and challenges
    H J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Childrens Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Thorax 68:1052-6. 2013
  9. pmc Incremental value of T-SPOT.TB for diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in children in a high-burden setting: a multivariable analysis
    Daphne I Ling
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Thorax 68:860-6. 2013
  10. doi request reprint Challenges in treating pediatric asthma in developing countries
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Drugs 14:353-9. 2012

Detail Information

Publications89

  1. ncbi request reprint Failure of chemoprophylaxis with standard antituberculosis agents in child contacts of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases
    Darryl B Sneag
    Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY, USA
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:1142-6. 2007
    ..Current guidelines of World Health Organization suggest that isoniazid (INH), the standard first-line chemoprophylaxis, be used for those exposed to MDR-TB...
  2. ncbi request reprint Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine--a health priority
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatric Pulmonology and School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 98:463-7. 2008
    ..Widespread availability and vaccination with PCV is urgently needed for all children under 2 years of age in South Africa. In addition, the use of PCV for all HIV-infected children under 9 years should be prioritised...
  3. doi request reprint Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children: new advances
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 8:277-88. 2010
    ..Greater efforts to obtain a microbiologic diagnosis should be made in children, even in primary care settings. Further research to develop a more accurate, cost-effective and simple diagnostic test for childhood TB is urgently needed...
  4. doi request reprint A randomized controlled trial of intermittent compared with daily cotrimoxazole preventive therapy in HIV-infected children
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 24:2225-32. 2010
    ..We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of intermittent CPT compared with daily CPT in HIV-infected children over a 5-year period...
  5. pmc Aetiology of childhood pneumonia in a well vaccinated South African birth cohort: a nested case-control study of the Drakenstein Child Health Study
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Heath, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Lancet Respir Med 4:463-72. 2016
    ..We aimed to longitudinally investigate the incidence and causes of childhood pneumonia in a South African birth cohort...
  6. doi request reprint Childhood pneumonia - the Drakenstein Child Health Study
    Heather Jessica Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 106:642-3. 2016
    ..Pneumonia incidence and severity are highest in the first year of life, especially in the first 6 months. ..
  7. doi request reprint Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in African children in a primary care setting by use of Xpert MTB/RIF on respiratory specimens: a prospective study
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Lancet Glob Health 1:e97-104. 2013
    ..We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF in children in primary care...
  8. pmc Pneumonia in low and middle income countries: progress and challenges
    H J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Childrens Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Thorax 68:1052-6. 2013
    ..Widespread implementation of currently effective preventative and management strategies for pneumonia remains challenging in many low and middle income countries. ..
  9. pmc Incremental value of T-SPOT.TB for diagnosis of active pulmonary tuberculosis in children in a high-burden setting: a multivariable analysis
    Daphne I Ling
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
    Thorax 68:860-6. 2013
    ....
  10. doi request reprint Challenges in treating pediatric asthma in developing countries
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Drugs 14:353-9. 2012
    ..Socioeconomic and structural barriers to care within health services remain obstacles to achieving optimal treatment of asthma for many children...
  11. doi request reprint Advances in tuberculosis 2011-2012
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Thorax 68:283-7. 2013
    ..Operational research to inform more widespread implementation of research findings is needed in order to benefit optimally from recent advances...
  12. pmc Rapid molecular diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children using nasopharyngeal specimens
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 55:1088-95. 2012
    ..The diagnosis using a nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), which can be non-invasively obtained, is desirable...
  13. ncbi request reprint Advances in childhood tuberculosis - contributions from the University of Cape Town
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 102:518-21. 2012
    ..Childhood tuberculosis (TB) is common in high TB burden countries, contributing a substantial proportion to the TB caseload. The HIV epidemic has had a large impact on the incidence, diagnosis and management of childhood TB...
  14. pmc High incidence of antimicrobial resistant organisms including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasopharyngeal and blood isolates of HIV-infected children from Cape Town, South
    Mark F Cotton
    Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 8:40. 2008
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children--what's new?
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 97:983-5. 2007
  16. ncbi request reprint Child lung health: a global concern. An introduction to the series
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol 42:1085-6. 2007
  17. ncbi request reprint Chronic lung disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol 43:1-10. 2008
    ..Preventative strategies include immunization, chemoprophylaxis, and micronutrient supplementation. Early use of HAART may prevent the development of chronic lung disease...
  18. pmc Reversion and conversion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis IFN-gamma ELISpot results during anti-tuberculous treatment in HIV-infected children
    Tom G Connell
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 10:138. 2010
    ..The kinetics of IFN-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens in HIV-infected children during treatment have not however been previously investigated...
  19. doi request reprint Low rates of hepatotoxicity in HIV-infected children on anti-retroviral therapy with and without isoniazid prophylaxis
    Diane Gray
    Paediatric HIV Service, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Trop Pediatr 56:159-65. 2010
    ..4%) children, with no cases of fulminant hepatic failure. Severe hepatic events are uncommon in children on ART or isoniazid. There is no increased risk of hepatotoxicity with ART and concurrent isoniazid preventive therapy...
  20. pmc Xpert MTB/RIF testing of stool samples for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children
    Mark P Nicol
    Division of Medical Microbiology and Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, and National Health Laboratory Service of South Africa, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 57:e18-21. 2013
    ..Sputum Xpert detected 11/17 (65%) cases. Stool holds promise for PTB diagnosis in HIV-infected children. ..
  21. pmc Effect of isoniazid prophylaxis on mortality and incidence of tuberculosis in children with HIV: randomised controlled trial
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    BMJ 334:136. 2007
    ..To investigate the impact of isoniazid prophylaxis on mortality and incidence of tuberculosis in children with HIV...
  22. pmc Accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children admitted to hospital in Cape Town, South Africa: a descriptive study
    Mark P Nicol
    Division of Medical Microbiology and Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 11:819-24. 2011
    ..We aimed to assess the accuracy of the test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children in an area with high tuberculosis and HIV prevalences...
  23. doi request reprint Alcohol exposure in utero is associated with decreased gray matter volume in neonates
    Kirsten A Donald
    Division of Developmental Paediatrics, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Klipfontein Road Private Bag, Rondebosch, 7700 7701, Cape Town, South Africa
    Metab Brain Dis 31:81-91. 2016
    ..These findings suggest the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain growth is present very early in the first year of life, a period during which the most rapid growth and maturation occurs...
  24. doi request reprint Determinants of early-life lung function in African infants
    Diane Gray
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and MRC Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Thorax . 2016
    ..Low lung function in early life is associated with later respiratory illness. There is limited data on lung function in African infants despite a high prevalence of respiratory disease...
  25. doi request reprint Management of community-acquired pneumonia in HIV-infected children
    Diane Gray
    G25 Paediatric HIV AIDS Service, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 7:437-51. 2009
    ..Specific preventive interventions, including chemoprophylaxis for P. jiroveci pneumonia or for TB and early initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy, may significantly reduce the burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected children...
  26. ncbi request reprint Comparison of in-hospital morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected and uninfected children after surgery
    Jonathan S Karpelowsky
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Surg Int 28:1007-14. 2012
    ..Increasingly HIV-infected children can be expected to require surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of HIV-infected and HIV-unexposed children undergoing surgery...
  27. pmc Outcome of HIV-exposed uninfected children undergoing surgery
    Jonathan S Karpelowsky
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Pediatr 11:69. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the morbidity and mortality of HIVe compared to both HIVn and HIV-infected (HIVi) children after a general surgical procedure...
  28. pmc Adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis among HIV-infected children: a randomized controlled trial comparing two dosing schedules
    Stanzi M le Roux
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Med 7:67. 2009
    ..We investigated adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis administered daily, compared to three times a week, and predictors of adherence amongst HIV-infected children...
  29. doi request reprint Bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Cape Town, South Africa
    David M le Roux
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:904-6. 2011
    ..Children should be prioritized for early cART...
  30. ncbi request reprint Induced sputum versus gastric lavage for microbiological confirmation of pulmonary tuberculosis in infants and young children: a prospective study
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 365:130-4. 2005
    ..We aimed to compare the yield of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from repeated induced sputum with that from gastric lavage in young children from an area with a high rate of HIV and tuberculosis...
  31. pmc White Matter Microstructural Integrity and Neurobehavioral Outcome of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Neonates
    Linh T Tran
    From the Division of Developmental Paediatrics, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town LTT, KAD SU UCT MRC Unit on Anxiety and Stress Disorders, Stellenbosch University AR Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town J PF Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University J PF Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, MRC Unit on Anxiety and Stress Disorders, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa NK, DJS Department of Neurology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA RPW, KLN and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health and MRC Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa HJZ
    Medicine (Baltimore) 95:e2577. 2016
    ..Longitudinal studies of HEU infants as their brains mature are necessary to understand further the significance of prenatal HIV and antiretroviral treatment exposure on white matter integrity and neurodevelopmental outcomes...
  32. pmc Lung function and exhaled nitric oxide in healthy unsedated African infants
    Diane Gray
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respirology 20:1108-14. 2015
    ..There are currently no reference data in African infants. The aim was to describe normal lung function in healthy African infants...
  33. doi request reprint Prevalence and outcome of cytomegalovirus-associated pneumonia in relation to human immunodeficiency virus infection
    Marco Zampoli
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 30:413-7. 2011
    ..To investigate the antemortem prevalence and outcome of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-associated pneumonia in African children...
  34. pmc Psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: risk factors and associations with birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study
    Nastassja Koen
    Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur J Psychotraumatol 7:28720. 2016
    ..Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal-fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition...
  35. doi request reprint Interhemispheric Functional Brain Connectivity in Neonates with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Preliminary Findings
    Kirsten A Donald
    Division of Developmental Paediatrics KAD, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Alcohol Clin Exp Res 40:113-21. 2016
    ....
  36. pmc Detection of tuberculosis in HIV-infected children using an enzyme-linked immunospot assay
    Mary Ann Davies
    Red Cross Children s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 23:961-9. 2009
    ..To evaluate an enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children with suspected TB and to compare the performance of ELISPOT with the tuberculin skin test (TST)...
  37. ncbi request reprint Oral trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole levels in stable HIV-infected children
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 96:627-9. 2006
    ..However, oral therapy is desirable as the intravenous route is costly, time-consuming, more difficult to administer and carries a risk of needlestick injury...
  38. doi request reprint Etiology and Incidence of Pleural Empyema in South African Children
    Marco Zampoli
    From the Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Centre for Respiratory Diseases and Meningitis, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa and MRC Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 34:1305-10. 2015
    ..South Africa introduced the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2009 and PCV13 in 2011. The etiology and incidence of childhood empyema in an 8-year period overlapping the introduction of PCV was investigated...
  39. doi request reprint Chest radiographic abnormalities in HIV-infected African children: a longitudinal study
    Richard D Pitcher
    Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Thorax 70:840-6. 2015
    ..There is limited knowledge of chest radiographic abnormalities over time in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings...
  40. doi request reprint Pneumocystis pneumonia in South African children with and without human immunodeficiency virus infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy
    Brenda M Morrow
    Department of Paediatics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 29:535-9. 2010
    ..Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a major cause of hospitalization and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected African children...
  41. ncbi request reprint The changing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in African adolescents from 1995 to 2002
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 18:560-5. 2007
    ..Symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in adolescents have increased over the past 7 yr in this geographical area. Allergic diseases are common in this group of adolescents and increasingly impair their quality of life...
  42. pmc Improved detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in upper and lower respiratory tract specimens from children with suspected pneumocystis pneumonia using real-time PCR: a prospective study
    Catherine M Samuel
    Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Cape Town and National Health Laboratory Service, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 11:329. 2011
    ..The main objectives of the study was (1) to compare the diagnostic yield of PCR with immunofluorescence (IF) and (2) to investigate the usefulness of upper compared to lower respiratory tract samples for diagnosing PCP in children...
  43. doi request reprint Risk Factors for Antenatal Depression and Associations with Infant Birth Outcomes: Results From a South African Birth Cohort Study
    Kirsty Brittain
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 29:505-14. 2015
    ..We investigated risk factors for antenatal depression and the associations between depression and infant birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), a birth cohort study in the Western Cape, South Africa...
  44. pmc Pneumocystis pneumonia in South African children diagnosed by molecular methods
    Brenda M Morrow
    Department of Paediatics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital RCWMCH, University of Cape Town, 5th Floor Institute of Child Health Building, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch 7700, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Res Notes 7:26. 2014
    ..The use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for pneumocystis has enabled more reliable diagnosis. This study describes the incidence, clinical features and outcome of PCP in South African children diagnosed using PCR...
  45. doi request reprint Clinical and immunological correlates of chest X-ray abnormalities in HIV-infected South African children with limited access to anti-retroviral therapy
    Richard D Pitcher
    Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol 49:581-8. 2014
    ..The chest X-ray (CXR) abnormalities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in low/middle income countries (LMIC's) have not been well studied...
  46. ncbi request reprint Serum immunoglobulin E levels in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children with pneumonia
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13:328-33. 2002
    ..HIV-infected children with pneumonia have higher serum IgE compared with seronegative patients. In HIV-positive children, IgE levels did not correlate with the degree of immunosuppression or with outcome...
  47. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis in the developing world
    Heather J Zar
    Department of School Adolescent and Child Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, 5th Floor, ICH Building, Klipfontein Road, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl 26:53-4. 2004
  48. pmc Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing
    Heidi E Smuts
    Division Medical Virology NHLS, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 11:65. 2011
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children...
  49. doi request reprint Role of human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus NL63 and human bocavirus in infants and young children with acute wheezing
    Heidi Smuts
    Division Medical Virology NHLS, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Med Virol 80:906-12. 2008
    ..Viruses are an important cause of wheezing in preschool children; hMPV, HCoV NL63, and HBoV are less common than the usual respiratory pathogens...
  50. doi request reprint Predictors of postoperative complications in HIV-infected children undergoing surgery
    Jonathan Saul Karpelowsky
    Department of Pediatric Surgery, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town 7700, South Africa
    J Pediatr Surg 46:674-8. 2011
    ..An increasing number of HIV-infected children require a surgical procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with the development of complications in HIV-infected children undergoing surgery...
  51. ncbi request reprint Childhood pneumonia--progress and challenges
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town and Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 96:890-900. 2006
    ..This article reviews changes in the epidemiology, management and prevention of childhood pneumonia in developing countries, specifically in Africa and South Africa, and addresses future challenges...
  52. pmc New specimens and laboratory diagnostics for childhood pulmonary TB: progress and prospects
    Mark P Nicol
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town and National Health Laboratory Service of South Africa
    Paediatr Respir Rev 12:16-21. 2011
    ..The recent development of an integrated specimen processing and real-time PCR testing platform for M. tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance is an important advance that requires evaluation in childhood TB...
  53. ncbi request reprint Incorrect use of a homemade spacer for treatment of recurrent wheezing in children--a cause for concern
    Heather J Zar
    Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 95:388, 390. 2005
  54. pmc Maternal participant experience in a South African birth cohort study enrolling healthy pregnant women and their infants
    Whitney Barnett
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, and Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Philos Ethics Humanit Med 11:3. 2016
    ..This study aims to investigate quantitatively participant experiences in a South African birth cohort study...
  55. doi request reprint Incidence and severity of childhood pneumonia in the first year of life in a South African birth cohort: the Drakenstein Child Health Study
    David M le Roux
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Lancet Glob Health 3:e95-e103. 2015
    ..We aimed to assess the incidence, severity, and risk factors for pneumonia in the first year of life in children enrolled in a South African birth cohort...
  56. pmc Respiratory microbes present in the nasopharynx of children hospitalised with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa
    Felix S Dube
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 16:597. 2016
    ..We aimed to identify the presence of potential respiratory pathogens in nasopharyngeal (NP) samples from children with suspected PTB...
  57. pmc Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study
    David M le Roux
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and MRC Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa Department of Paediatrics, New Somerset Hospital, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
    BMJ Open 5:e009111. 2015
    ..We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa...
  58. doi request reprint Clinical Predictors of Culture-confirmed Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children in a High Tuberculosis and HIV Prevalence Area
    Lisa Frigati
    From the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town and Tygerberg Childrens Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town and National Health Laboratory Service of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa and Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross Childrens Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa and MRC unit on Child and Adolescent Lung Health, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 34:e206-10. 2015
    ..Clinical diagnosis predominates, despite advances in molecular and microbiological diagnostics. The aim of this study is to identify clinical features associated with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB (PTB) in children...
  59. doi request reprint A comparison of the efficiency of five different commercial DNA extraction kits for extraction of DNA from faecal samples
    Shantelle Claassen
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Microbiol Methods 94:103-10. 2013
    ..DGGE and T-RFLP produced the highest diversity scores for DNA extracted using kit Z (H'=2.30 and 1.27) and kit QS (H'=2.16 and 0.94), which also extracted the highest DNA yields compared to the other kits assessed. ..
  60. ncbi request reprint The impact of HIV infection and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole prophylaxis on bacterial isolates from children with community-acquired pneumonia in South Africa
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Trop Pediatr 49:78-83. 2003
    ..17 of 79 (22 per cent), p = 0.009]. The rising prevalence of HIV infection and the use of TMP-SMX prophylaxis may alter the spectrum of colonizing and pathogenic bacteria in children in developing countries...
  61. ncbi request reprint Pneumonia in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in developing countries: epidemiology, clinical features, and management
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 10:176-82. 2004
    ..This article reviews recent findings on the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of HIV-infected and -uninfected children with pneumonia in developing countries...
  62. ncbi request reprint Clinical indicators of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in South African children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus
    Geoffrey L Fatti
    Department of Human Biology, and Lung Institute, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Infect Dis 10:282-5. 2006
    ..Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci is common in HIV-infected children, producing substantial morbidity and mortality. Initiation of timely, effective therapy depends on clinical identification of children with PCP...
  63. doi request reprint Improvements in lung function of a pediatric cystic fibrosis population in a developing country
    Brenda M Morrow
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town UCT, Cape Town, WC, South Africa
    J Pediatr (Rio J) 84:403-9. 2008
    ..To document the change in pulmonary function of a pediatric cystic fibrosis population managed at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, between January 1999 and December 2006...
  64. doi request reprint Home environment and indoor air pollution exposure in an African birth cohort study
    Aneesa Vanker
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and MRC Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Klipfontein Road, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa Electronic address
    Sci Total Environ 536:362-7. 2015
    ..This study aimed to describe the home environment and measure IAP in the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), an African birth cohort...
  65. doi request reprint Incidence and Diagnosis of Pertussis in South African Children Hospitalized With Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
    Rudzani Muloiwa
    From the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa MRC Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa and Division of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa National Health Laboratory Service, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Vaccines for Africa Initiative, Division of Medical Microbiology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 35:611-6. 2016
    ..This study aimed to prospectively investigate the incidence of pertussis in South African children hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)...
  66. doi request reprint Microbiological yield from induced sputum compared to oropharyngeal swab in young children with cystic fibrosis
    Marco Zampoli
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, University of Cape Town, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    J Cyst Fibros 15:605-10. 2016
    ..Sputum induction (IS) has been poorly investigated in this population. We aimed to compare the bacteriological yield of OPS vs. IS in young children with CF...
  67. doi request reprint Infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort-A longitudinal study
    Shrish Budree
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital and MRC Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Matern Child Nutr . 2016
    ..Several dietary deficits and a rising trend in the consumption of inappropriate nutritionally poor foods were identified. These findings raise concern about poor dietary practices and the impact on child and long-term health...
  68. pmc Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children: Assessment of the 2012 National Institutes of Health Expert Consensus Criteria
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town and Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health
    Clin Infect Dis 61:S173-8. 2015
    ..We aimed to assess the NIH diagnostic criteria in children with culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis and those in whom tuberculosis has been excluded...
  69. doi request reprint The chest X-ray features of chronic respiratory disease in HIV-infected children--a review
    Richard D Pitcher
    Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Hospital, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Paediatr Respir Rev 16:258-66. 2015
    ..Prospective research on the natural history of lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, response to anti-tuberculous therapy, the impact of anti-retroviral therapy and HIV-associated bronchiectasis are needed. ..
  70. doi request reprint The bronchiolitis season is upon us--recommendations for the management and prevention of acute viral bronchiolitis
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa Medical Research Council Unit on Child and Adolescent Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 105:525-6. 2015
    ..Despite being so common, bronchiolitis remains poorly diagnosed and managed. This article is intended as an update on issues pertaining to this condition. ..
  71. doi request reprint The South African Food Sensitisation and Food Allergy population-based study of IgE-mediated food allergy: validity, safety, and acceptability
    Wisdom Basera
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 115:113-9. 2015
    ..Few studies exist on food sensitization and challenge-proven food allergy in low- and middle-income countries...
  72. doi request reprint The spread of carbapenemase-producing bacteria in Africa: a systematic review
    Rendani I Manenzhe
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Antimicrob Chemother 70:23-40. 2015
    ..The epidemiology of bacteria producing carbapenemases has been described in considerable detail in Europe, North America and Asia; however, little is known about their spread and clinical relevance in Africa...
  73. ncbi request reprint Global burden of pediatric respiratory illness and the implications for management and prevention
    Heather J Zar
    School Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol 36:457-61. 2003
  74. ncbi request reprint A 500-ml plastic bottle: an effective spacer for children with asthma
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 13:217-22. 2002
    ..It is concluded that a modified 500-ml plastic bottle is an effective spacer; modification and use of this device should be incorporated into international guidelines for the management of children with asthma...
  75. doi request reprint Promising directions in the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis
    Elizabeth Whittaker
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
    Expert Rev Respir Med 6:385-95. 2012
    ..Further research is needed to develop a rapid point-of-care, reliable and affordable diagnostic test for childhood tuberculosis that can be widely used...
  76. ncbi request reprint Neonatal chlamydial infections: prevention and treatment
    Heather J Zar
    School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Drugs 7:103-10. 2005
    ....
  77. doi request reprint The African Pediatric Fellowship Program: Training in Africa for Africans
    Jo M Wilmshurst
    African Paediatric Fellowship Program, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatrics 137:. 2016
    ..Increasing and retaining the skills pool of African child health specialists is building a network of motivated, highly skilled clinicians who are equipped to advance child health in Africa. ..
  78. pmc Comparison of a Real-Time Multiplex PCR and Sequetyping Assay for Pneumococcal Serotyping
    Felix S Dube
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 10:e0137349. 2015
    ....
  79. doi request reprint Impact of fibrinolytics on the outcome of empyema in South African children
    Marco Zampoli
    Division of Paediatric Pulmonology, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 105:549-53. 2015
    ..The role of routine intrapleural fibrinolytics in the management of childhood empyema is not well established in low- and middle-income countries...
  80. ncbi request reprint Respiratory infections in children in developing countries
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Division of Paediatric Pulmonology, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Ann 31:133-8. 2002
  81. doi request reprint Food allergy in South African children with atopic dermatitis
    Claudia L Gray
    Division of Allergology, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol 25:572-9. 2014
    ..This study aimed to determine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, IgE-mediated food allergy in South African children with atopic dermatitis (AD)...
  82. pmc Respiratory impedance in healthy unsedated South African infants: effects of maternal smoking
    Diane Gray
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Respirology 20:467-73. 2015
    ..The study aims to assess the use of the forced oscillation technique to measure the influence of antenatal exposures on respiratory mechanics in unsedated infants enrolled in a birth cohort study in Cape Town, South Africa...
  83. ncbi request reprint Nosocomial pneumonia in pediatric patients: practical problems and rational solutions
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, 46 Sawkins Road, Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Drugs 4:73-83. 2002
    ..Of these, hand hygiene, appropriate infection control policies, and judicious use of antibacterials are essential...
  84. doi request reprint Chest radiographic presenting features and radiographic progression of pneumocystis pneumonia in South African children
    Richard D Pitcher
    Division of Radiodiagnosis, Department of Medical Imaging and Clinical Oncology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol 46:1015-22. 2011
    ..To describe the radiographic features of PCP in South African children, including the progression of changes and the impact of HIV-infection and respiratory co-infections...
  85. ncbi request reprint Global paediatric pulmonology: out of Africa
    Heather J Zar
    Department of Paediatric Pulmonology, School of Child and Adolescent Health, Red Cross Childrens Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Paediatr Respir Rev 7:S226-8. 2006
    ..Greater access to newer vaccines and, in HIV-infected children, to anti-retroviral therapy and prophylaxis is necessary to further reduce the burden of childhood respiratory illness in Africa...
  86. ncbi request reprint Etiology of sickle cell chest
    Heather J Zar
    Department of School Adolescent and Child Health, Red Cross Childrens Hospital, University of Cape Town, 7th floor ICH Building, Klipfontein Road, Cape Town 7700, South Africa
    Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl 26:188-90. 2004
  87. ncbi request reprint Co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in African children with HIV-1
    Shabir A Madhi
    Lancet 365:749-50; author reply 750-1. 2005
  88. ncbi request reprint Training pediatric pulmonologists for the future: academic is a state of mind not just a location
    Robert B Mellins
    Pediatric Pulmonary Division, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
    Pediatr Pulmonol Suppl 26:9-11. 2004
  89. ncbi request reprint Sensitivity and specificity of nested and real-time PCR for the detection of Pneumocystis jiroveci in clinical specimens
    Miriam J Alvarez-Martinez
    Microbiology Department, Hospital Clinic IDIBAPS, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona 08036, Spain
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 56:153-60. 2006
    ..Real-time PCR has a statistically significantly better specificity than nested PCR (P = .015) and is likely to generate fewer false positives...