Carolyn Williamson

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cape Town
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. ncbi CTL response to HIV type 1 subtype C is poorly predicted by known epitope motifs
    Nobubelo G Ngandu
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Medical School, Observatory, South Africa 7925
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:1033-41. 2007
  2. ncbi Characterization and selection of HIV-1 subtype C isolates for use in vaccine development
    Carolyn Williamson
    Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa 7925
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 19:133-44. 2003
  3. doi A multigene HIV type 1 subtype C modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine efficiently boosts immune responses to a DNA vaccine in mice
    Enid Shephard
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Division of Medical Virology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:207-17. 2008
  4. doi A prime-boost immunisation regimen using recombinant BCG and Pr55(gag) virus-like particle vaccines based on HIV type 1 subtype C successfully elicits Gag-specific responses in baboons
    Gerald K Chege
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
    Vaccine 27:4857-66. 2009
  5. pmc Differential impact of magnitude, polyfunctional capacity, and specificity of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses on HIV set point
    Catherine Riou
    Division of Medical Virology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Virol 88:1819-24. 2014
  6. doi HIV-1 subtype C Pr55gag virus-like particle vaccine efficiently boosts baboons primed with a matched DNA vaccine
    Gerald K Chege
    Medical Virology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Gen Virol 89:2214-27. 2008
  7. ncbi Genetic characteristics of HIV-1 subtype C envelopes inducing cross-neutralizing antibodies
    Cecilia Rademeyer
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Virology 368:172-81. 2007
  8. doi Epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes among men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa
    Keren Middelkoop
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Division of Medical Virology and Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Center for Learning and Innovation, San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, CA University of California, San Francisco and National Health Laboratory Services, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 65:473-80. 2014
  9. pmc Rapid, complex adaptation of transmitted HIV-1 full-length genomes in subtype C-infected individuals with differing disease progression
    Melissa Rose Abrahams
    Division of Medical Virology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 27:507-18. 2013
  10. pmc Increased memory differentiation is associated with decreased polyfunctionality for HIV but not for cytomegalovirus-specific CD8+ T cells
    Catherine Riou
    Division of Immunology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa
    J Immunol 189:3838-47. 2012

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. ncbi CTL response to HIV type 1 subtype C is poorly predicted by known epitope motifs
    Nobubelo G Ngandu
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Medical School, Observatory, South Africa 7925
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:1033-41. 2007
    ..This can have important implications for understanding immune escape and predicting vaccine efficacy in the context of populations primarily infected with non-B subtype HIV-1...
  2. ncbi Characterization and selection of HIV-1 subtype C isolates for use in vaccine development
    Carolyn Williamson
    Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa 7925
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 19:133-44. 2003
    ..Genes identified in this study have been incorporated into the VEE VRP candidate vaccines targeted for clinical trial in South Africa...
  3. doi A multigene HIV type 1 subtype C modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine efficiently boosts immune responses to a DNA vaccine in mice
    Enid Shephard
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Division of Medical Virology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:207-17. 2008
    ..The demonstration that these vaccines induce potent cellular immune responses merits their testing in clinical trials...
  4. doi A prime-boost immunisation regimen using recombinant BCG and Pr55(gag) virus-like particle vaccines based on HIV type 1 subtype C successfully elicits Gag-specific responses in baboons
    Gerald K Chege
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
    Vaccine 27:4857-66. 2009
    ..In addition, a Gag-specific humoral response was elicited. These data support the development of HIV-1 vaccines based on rBCG and Pr55(gag) VLPs...
  5. pmc Differential impact of magnitude, polyfunctional capacity, and specificity of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses on HIV set point
    Catherine Riou
    Division of Medical Virology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Virol 88:1819-24. 2014
    ..High frequencies of Gag and Nef responses endowed with four functions were the best predictors of a low viral set point. ..
  6. doi HIV-1 subtype C Pr55gag virus-like particle vaccine efficiently boosts baboons primed with a matched DNA vaccine
    Gerald K Chege
    Medical Virology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Gen Virol 89:2214-27. 2008
    ....
  7. ncbi Genetic characteristics of HIV-1 subtype C envelopes inducing cross-neutralizing antibodies
    Cecilia Rademeyer
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Virology 368:172-81. 2007
    ..Collectively these data provide some insights into design features of an envelope immunogen aimed at inducing neutralizing antibodies...
  8. doi Epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes among men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa
    Keren Middelkoop
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Division of Medical Virology and Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Center for Learning and Innovation, San Francisco Department of Public Health, San Francisco, CA University of California, San Francisco and National Health Laboratory Services, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 65:473-80. 2014
    ..However, few recent HIV-1 subtype data are available for MSM in South Africa. We examined HIV-1 subtypes among MSM in Cape Town...
  9. pmc Rapid, complex adaptation of transmitted HIV-1 full-length genomes in subtype C-infected individuals with differing disease progression
    Melissa Rose Abrahams
    Division of Medical Virology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 27:507-18. 2013
    ..The purpose of this study was to characterize the earliest changes across the genome of subtype C viruses following transmission, to better understand early control of viremia...
  10. pmc Increased memory differentiation is associated with decreased polyfunctionality for HIV but not for cytomegalovirus-specific CD8+ T cells
    Catherine Riou
    Division of Immunology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa
    J Immunol 189:3838-47. 2012
    ..Overall, these data show that the polyfunctional abilities of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells are influenced by the stage of memory differentiation, which is not the case for CMV-specific responses...
  11. doi Construction, characterization, and immunogenicity of a multigene modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine based on HIV type 1 subtype C
    Wendy A Burgers
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Division of Medical Virology, Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 24:195-206. 2008
    ..An accompanying paper describes the immunogenicity of SAAVI MVA-C when given in combination with SAAVI DNA-C...
  12. pmc Characterization of HIV-1 gag and nef in Cameroon: further evidence of extreme diversity at the origin of the HIV-1 group M epidemic
    Marcel Tongo
    Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Virol J 10:29. 2013
    ..Full length HIV gag and nef sequences were generated and phylogenetic analyses were performed...
  13. pmc Transmission of HIV-1 CTL escape variants provides HLA-mismatched recipients with a survival advantage
    Denis R Chopera
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS Pathog 4:e1000033. 2008
    ....
  14. ncbi Heterosexual transmission of multiple highly conserved viral variants in HIV-1 subtype C-infected seronegative women
    Cecilia Rademeyer
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 18:2096-8. 2004
    ..11% for p17p24, 0.32% for C2C3). In two individuals diversity was uncharacteristically lower in env C2C3 than in gag pl7p24, suggesting selection in env at this very early stage of infection...
  15. pmc HIV molecular epidemiology: transmission and adaptation to human populations
    Zenda Woodman
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 4:247-52. 2009
    ..To provide an update on the origin of the HIV epidemic and insights into how the immune response is shaping virus evolution...
  16. pmc Association of HIV-specific and total CD8+ T memory phenotypes in subtype C HIV-1 infection with viral set point
    Wendy A Burgers
    Division of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Immunol 182:4751-61. 2009
    ..Thus, it is likely that a high Ag burden resulting in generalized immune activation may drive differentiation of HIV-specific and total memory CD8(+) T cells...
  17. ncbi HIV type 1 subtype C gag and nef diversity in Southern Africa
    Helba Bredell
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:477-81. 2007
    ..We do not, however, find much evidence of intersubtype recombination in the Southern African genes, implying that the likelihood of vaccine failure due to the emergence of intersubtype recombinants is probably low...
  18. pmc Plasma cytokine levels during acute HIV-1 infection predict HIV disease progression
    Lindi Roberts
    Division of Medical Virology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 24:819-31. 2010
    ..Although the acute phase of HIV infection is associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production, the relationship between cytokine concentrations and HIV pathogenesis is unknown...
  19. pmc Conserved positive selection signals in gp41 across multiple subtypes and difference in selection signals detectable in gp41 sequences sampled during acute and chronic HIV-1 subtype C infection
    Gama P Bandawe
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, South Africa
    Virol J 5:141. 2008
    ..Besides being targeted by both the humoral and cellular arms of the immune system this protein mediates fusion between viral and target cell membranes and is likely to be a primary determinant of HIV transmissibility...
  20. pmc DNA-MVA-protein vaccination of rhesus macaques induces HIV-specific immunity in mucosal-associated lymph nodes and functional antibodies
    Gerald K Chege
    Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Vaccine . 2017
    ..These data demonstrate the feasibility of inducing HIV-specific immunity in the blood and mucosal sites of viral entry by means of DNA and poxvirus-vectored vaccines, in combination with a HIV envelope-based protein vaccine...
  21. pmc Genital inflammation and the risk of HIV acquisition in women
    Lindi Masson
    Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town
    Clin Infect Dis 61:260-9. 2015
    ..We investigated whether genital inflammation influenced HIV acquisition in this group...
  22. pmc HIV disease progression in seroconvertors from the CAPRISA 004 tenofovir gel pre-exposure prophylaxis trial
    Nigel J Garrett
    Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa CAPRISA, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa National Health Laboratory Service, South Africa AIDS Virus Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa and Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 68:55-61. 2015
    ..This study assesses whether tenofovir gel impacted on disease progression among CAPRISA 004 microbicide trial seroconvertors...
  23. doi Striking lack of T cell immunodominance in both a multiclade and monoclade HIV-1 epidemic: implications for vaccine development
    Marcel Tongo
    Division of Medical Virology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Institute of Medical Research and Study of Medicinal Plants, Yaounde, Cameroon
    Vaccine 32:2328-36. 2014
    ..The central nature of HIV-1 consensus M sequences resulted in their broad recognition, but failed to identify highly immunodominant peptides between homogeneous and diverse HIV epidemics. ..
  24. doi Defining genital tract cytokine signatures of sexually transmitted infections and bacterial vaginosis in women at high risk of HIV infection: a cross-sectional study
    Lindi Masson
    Division of Medical Virology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town Medical School, Cape Town, South Africa Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa CAPRISA, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
    Sex Transm Infect 90:580-7. 2014
    ..We aimed to evaluate genital cytokine profiles and the degree of inflammation associated with common STIs and BV...
  25. pmc Intra- and inter-clade cross-reactivity by HIV-1 Gag specific T-cells reveals exclusive and commonly targeted regions: implications for current vaccine trials
    Lycias Zembe
    Division of Medical Virology, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e26096. 2011
    ....
  26. doi Defining the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission genetic bottleneck in a region with multiple circulating subtypes and recombinant forms
    Andile Nofemela
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    Virology 415:107-13. 2011
    ....
  27. pmc Short Communication: A Recombinant Variant with Increased Envelope Entry Efficiency Emerged During Early Infection of an HIV-1 Subtype C Dual Infected Rapid Progressor
    Kerry Gordon
    1 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 32:303-10. 2016
    ..Thus, our data suggest that a recombinant virus emerged at 19 mpi with enhanced Env entry efficiency. Therefore, K658 in gp41 could in part be a contributing factor to the increased viral load and rapid disease progression of Du151...
  28. pmc CAPRISA 004 tenofovir microbicide trial: no impact of tenofovir gel on the HIV transmission bottleneck
    Ziyaad Valley-Omar
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town
    J Infect Dis 206:35-40. 2012
    ..37). Tenofovir gel had no discernable impact on the transmission bottleneck...
  29. ncbi The challenges of HIV vaccine development and testing
    Wendy A Burgers
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 19:277-91. 2005
    ..These trials need to take place in the developing countries that bear the burden of the epidemic, requiring a substantial amount of infrastructure development and capacity building...
  30. ncbi Construction and characterisation of a candidate HIV-1 subtype C DNA vaccine for South Africa
    Joanne H van Harmelen
    Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
    Vaccine 21:4380-9. 2003
    ..This is the first candidate HIV-1 DNA vaccine employing the South African subtype C sequences, and constitutes a part of a vaccine scheduled to enter a clinical evaluation in South Africa in 2004...
  31. pmc HIV-1 Superinfection Resembles Primary Infection
    Daniel J Sheward
    Division of Medical Virology, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 212:904-8. 2015
    ..These features are consistent with primary HIV transmission and provide support for the use of superinfection as a model to address correlates of protection against HIV. ..
  32. ncbi Incidence of HIV-1 dual infection and its association with increased viral load set point in a cohort of HIV-1 subtype C-infected female sex workers
    Jandre Grobler
    Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town, Observatory, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 190:1355-9. 2004
    ..There was a significant association between dual infection and elevated viral load set point...
  33. ncbi Alphavirus replicon particles as candidate HIV vaccines
    Nancy L Davis
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA
    IUBMB Life 53:209-11. 2002
    ..A GMP lot of this vaccine has been manufactured and tested for a phase I trial in the first months of 2002...
  34. ncbi HIV-1 Subtype A, D, G, AG and unclassified sequences identified in South Africa
    Helba Bredell
    AIDS Virus Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South Africa
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 18:681-3. 2002
    ....
  35. ncbi Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C Gag virus-like particle boost substantially improves the immune response to a subtype C gag DNA vaccine in mice
    Ann Jaffray
    Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, South Africa
    J Gen Virol 85:409-13. 2004
    ..This study shows that a low dose of HIV-1 subtype C Gag VLPs can significantly boost the immune response to a single subtype C gag DNA inoculation in mice. These results suggest a possible vaccination regimen for humans...
  36. ncbi Combined single-clade candidate HIV-1 vaccines induce T cell responses limited by multiple forms of in vivo immune interference
    Natasha Larke
    Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
    Eur J Immunol 37:566-77. 2007
    ..Thus, these results have important ramifications for the design of both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against HIV-1 and other highly variable pathogens...
  37. ncbi Vertical HIV transmission in South Africa: translating research into policy and practice
    Salim Abdool Karim
    University of Natal, 4041, South Africa
    Lancet 359:992-3. 2002
  38. pmc Regional clustering of shared neutralization determinants on primary isolates of clade C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from South Africa
    Renata Bures
    Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 76:2233-44. 2002
    ..The clustering of shared neutralization determinants on clade C primary HIV-1 isolates from South Africa suggests that neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccines will have less epitope diversity to overcome at a regional level...
  39. ncbi Utilizing nucleic acid amplification to identify acute HIV infection
    Salim S Abdool Karim
    AIDS 21:653-5. 2007
  40. ncbi Dual HIV-1 infection associated with rapid disease progression
    Geoffrey S Gottlieb
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 8070, USA
    Lancet 363:619-22. 2004
    ..4 and <3.1 years, respectively). Our findings should prompt larger studies to assess the effect of dual infection at the population level...
  41. pmc Establishing a cohort at high risk of HIV infection in South Africa: challenges and experiences of the CAPRISA 002 acute infection study
    Francois van Loggerenberg
    Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa CAPRISA, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 3:e1954. 2008
    ..To describe the baseline demographic data, clinical characteristics and HIV-incidence rates of a cohort at high risk for HIV infection in South Africa as well as the challenges experienced in establishing and maintaining the cohort...
  42. pmc Genetic and neutralization properties of subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 molecular env clones from acute and early heterosexually acquired infections in Southern Africa
    Ming Li
    Department of Surgery, Laboratory for AIDS Vaccine Research and Development, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
    J Virol 80:11776-90. 2006
    ..A subset of these gp160 clones are suitable for use as reference reagents to facilitate standardized assessments of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses...
  43. ncbi Longitudinal analysis of HIV type 1 subtype C envelope sequences from South Africa
    Mia Coetzer
    AIDS Virus Research Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South Africa
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23:316-21. 2007
    ..In both cases this coreceptor switch was associated with specific amino acid changes in the crown, an increased net amino acid charge in the V3 loop, and an increase in the length of the V1 region...
  44. ncbi Design and preclinical evaluation of a multigene human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C DNA vaccine for clinical trial
    Wendy A Burgers
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine IIDMM and Division of Medical Virology, University of Cape Town UCT, Observatory, Cape Town 7925, South Africa
    J Gen Virol 87:399-410. 2006
    ..In addition, high titres of antibodies to gp120 were induced in guinea pigs. This vaccine is the first component of a prime-boost regimen that is scheduled for clinical trials in humans in the USA and South Africa...
  45. ncbi Investigation of HIV in amniotic fluid from HIV-infected pregnant women at full term
    Boshishi K F Mohlala
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 192:488-91. 2005
    ..In the absence of interventions and breast-feeding, the in utero transmission rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is estimated to be 10%-15%, and the role that amniotic fluid (AF) plays in this is unclear...
  46. ncbi Viral dynamics and CD4+ T cell counts in subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals from southern Africa
    Clive M Gray
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 21:285-91. 2005
    ....
  47. pmc Anaemia in acute HIV-1 subtype C infection
    Koleka Mlisana
    Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa CAPRISA, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 3:e1626. 2008
    ....
  48. pmc Enrolling adolescents in research on HIV and other sensitive issues: lessons from South Africa
    Jerome Amir Singh
    Centre for AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, Congella, South Africa
    PLoS Med 3:e180. 2006
  49. pmc CD8 T-cell recognition of multiple epitopes within specific Gag regions is associated with maintenance of a low steady-state viremia in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive patients
    Christof Geldmacher
    Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Virol 81:2440-8. 2007
    ..36; P = 0.0016). Particularly, recognition of multiple epitopes within two regions of Gag (amino acids [aa] 1 to 75 and aa 248 to 500) was associated with the maintenance of a low steady-state viremia, even years after acute infection...
  50. doi Relationship between levels of inflammatory cytokines in the genital tract and CD4+ cell counts in women with acute HIV-1 infection
    Lisa M Bebell
    Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 198:710-4. 2008
    ....
  51. pmc The c3-v4 region is a major target of autologous neutralizing antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C infection
    Penny L Moore
    National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Private Bag X4, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Virol 82:1860-9. 2008
    ..These data suggest that the C3 and V4 regions combine to form important structural motifs and that epitopes in this region are major targets of the early autologous neutralizing response in HIV-1 subtype C infection...