Graeme Meintjes

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cape Town
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. pmc Patient and provider delay in tuberculosis suspects from communities with a high HIV prevalence in South Africa: a cross-sectional study
    Graeme Meintjes
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 8:72. 2008
  2. doi request reprint Prevention and treatment of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 3:468-76. 2008
  3. doi request reprint Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a large multicenter cohort study: case definition and comparability
    Graeme Meintjes
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 10:737-41. 2012
  4. pmc Corticosteroid-modulated immune activation in the tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 186:369-77. 2012
  5. doi request reprint Management of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 9:238-50. 2012
  6. pmc Outcome of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis initially treated with 200 mg/day or 400 mg/day of fluconazole
    C F Schaars
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 6:118. 2006
  7. pmc Early severe morbidity and resource utilization in South African adults on antiretroviral therapy
    Teresa K Smith de Cherif
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 9:205. 2009
  8. pmc Randomized placebo-controlled trial of prednisone for paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South
    AIDS 24:2381-90. 2010
  9. doi request reprint Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and unmasking of tuberculosis by antiretroviral therapy
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    Clin Chest Med 30:797-810, x. 2009
  10. pmc Novel relationship between tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and antitubercular drug resistance
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 48:667-76. 2009

Detail Information

Publications72

  1. pmc Patient and provider delay in tuberculosis suspects from communities with a high HIV prevalence in South Africa: a cross-sectional study
    Graeme Meintjes
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 8:72. 2008
    ..The aim was to describe patient and provider delay in the diagnosis of TB in patients with suspected TB requiring admission, and to determine the risk factors for this delay and the consequences...
  2. doi request reprint Prevention and treatment of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 3:468-76. 2008
    ..The prevention and treatment of this condition is the focus of much research attention, which is the scope of this review...
  3. doi request reprint Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a large multicenter cohort study: case definition and comparability
    Graeme Meintjes
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 10:737-41. 2012
    ....
  4. pmc Corticosteroid-modulated immune activation in the tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 186:369-77. 2012
    ..Prednisone reduces morbidity in TB-IRIS, but the mechanisms are unclear...
  5. doi request reprint Management of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 9:238-50. 2012
    ..When considering corticosteroid treatment clinicians should be aware of their side effects and only use them when the diagnosis of IRIS is certain. In viral forms of IRIS corticosteroids are generally avoided...
  6. pmc Outcome of AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis initially treated with 200 mg/day or 400 mg/day of fluconazole
    C F Schaars
    Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 6:118. 2006
    ..In 2001 donated fluconazole became available, allowing us to use standard doses (400 mg daily initially). Antiretroviral therapy was not available during the study period...
  7. pmc Early severe morbidity and resource utilization in South African adults on antiretroviral therapy
    Teresa K Smith de Cherif
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 9:205. 2009
    ..There is limited data on the causes of early morbidity on HAART and the associated resource utilization...
  8. pmc Randomized placebo-controlled trial of prednisone for paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South
    AIDS 24:2381-90. 2010
    ..We aimed to assess whether a 4-week course of prednisone would reduce morbidity in patients with paradoxical TB-IRIS without excess adverse events...
  9. doi request reprint Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and unmasking of tuberculosis by antiretroviral therapy
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    Clin Chest Med 30:797-810, x. 2009
    ..In this review the incidence, clinical features, risk factors, treatment, and prevention of TB-IRIS in adult and pediatric patients are discussed...
  10. pmc Novel relationship between tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and antitubercular drug resistance
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 48:667-76. 2009
    ..The differential diagnosis of TB IRIS includes deterioration caused by other human immunodeficiency virus-related morbidities and drug-resistant TB...
  11. pmc Adjunctive interferon-γ immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized controlled trial
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 26:1105-13. 2012
    ..We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether addition of IFNγ to standard therapy increased the rate of clearance of cryptococcal infection in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis...
  12. pmc Clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment in Africa: incidence, causes and risk factors
    Dominique J Pepper
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 10:83. 2010
    ..We therefore determined the incidence, causes and risk factors for clinical deterioration...
  13. doi request reprint Neurologic manifestations of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: a case series
    Dominique J Pepper
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 48:e96-107. 2009
    ..The reports in the published literature are anecdotal, and the prevalence and outcomes of neurologic TB-IRIS are unknown...
  14. pmc Dissection of regenerating T-Cell responses against tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults sensitized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Katalin A Wilkinson
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Room S3 13, Wernher and Beit Building South, Observatory 7925, Republic of South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:674-83. 2009
    ..Therefore a novel approach to gain insight into protection against tuberculosis is to analyze the T cells that expand in people sensitized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) during cART...
  15. doi request reprint Comparison of the early fungicidal activity of high-dose fluconazole, voriconazole, and flucytosine as second-line drugs given in combination with amphotericin B for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Angela Loyse
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 54:121-8. 2012
    ..Alternative, more widely available, and/or more effective antifungal combination treatment regimens are urgently needed...
  16. pmc Frequency, severity, and prediction of tuberculous meningitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Suzaan Marais
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 56:450-60. 2013
    ..Potentially life-threatening neurological involvement occurs frequently and has been suggested as a reason to defer ART...
  17. doi request reprint Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a prospective study
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 51:130-4. 2009
    ..Prospective data on incidence, characteristics, and risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CM-IRIS) are lacking...
  18. doi request reprint High-dose amphotericin B with flucytosine for the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: a randomized trial
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 47:123-30. 2008
    ..A dosage range for AmB of 0.7-1 mg/kg per day is noted in current guidelines, but there are no data comparing 0.7 mg/kg per day with 1 mg/kg per day...
  19. pmc Clinical deterioration during antitubercular treatment at a district hospital in South Africa: the importance of drug resistance and AIDS defining illnesses
    Dominique J Pepper
    Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 4:e4520. 2009
    ..We undertook this study among tuberculosis (TB) patients referred to an adult district level hospital situated in a high HIV-1 prevalence setting to determine the frequency, reasons and outcome for such clinical deterioration...
  20. pmc Symptomatic relapse of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa: the role of inadequate secondary prophylaxis
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 100:378-82. 2010
    ..We carried out a study to examine the contribution of inadequate secondary fluconazole prophylaxis to symptomatic relapses of cryptococcal meningitis...
  21. pmc Barriers to initiation of antiretrovirals during antituberculosis therapy in Africa
    Dominique J Pepper
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e19484. 2011
    ..The initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during TB therapy significantly improves survival, however it is not known which barriers prevent eligible TB patients from initiating life-saving ART...
  22. pmc Management of individuals requiring antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment
    Karen Cohen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin HIV AIDS 5:61-9. 2010
    ..The incidence of TB in patients established on ART remains high. Co-treatment presents several management challenges. Recent data on these management issues are reviewed...
  23. doi request reprint Relationship of cerebrospinal fluid pressure, fungal burden and outcome in patients with cryptococcal meningitis undergoing serial lumbar punctures
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 23:701-6. 2009
    ....
  24. ncbi request reprint Fungal burden, early fungicidal activity, and outcome in cryptococcal meningitis in antiretroviral-naive or antiretroviral-experienced patients treated with amphotericin B or fluconazole
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 45:76-80. 2007
    ....
  25. pmc Prolonged tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: characteristics and risk factors
    Tasnim M Bana
    Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, 7925, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 16:518. 2016
    ..Prolonged TB-IRIS has not been prospectively studied to date. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients with prolonged TB-IRIS, as well as the clinical characteristics and risk factors for prolonged TB-IRIS...
  26. pmc Complications of antiretroviral therapy initiation in hospitalised patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis
    Helen van der Plas
    Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 8:e54145. 2013
    ....
  27. pmc Altered ratio of IFN-γ/IL-10 in patients with drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV- Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome
    Keira H Skolimowska
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 7:e46481. 2012
    ..02). Since host immune responses are dependent on the bacterial load, we hypothesise that the impaired cytokine balance is likely to be caused by the poorly controlled bacterial growth in these patients...
  28. pmc Corticosteroid therapy, vitamin D status, and inflammatory cytokine profile in the HIV-tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Anali Conesa-Botella
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 55:1004-11. 2012
    ..As adjunctive corticosteroid therapy and vitamin D have immunomodulatory properties, we investigated the relationship between cytokine/chemokine profiles, corticosteroid use, and vitamin D deficiency in TB-IRIS patients...
  29. ncbi request reprint Severe hyperlactataemia complicating stavudine first-line antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
    David Stead
    GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antivir Ther 13:937-43. 2008
    ..In the public sector antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in South Africa the standardized first-line regimen includes stavudine (d4T). Severe symptomatic hyperlactataemia (SHL) is a potentially life-threatening complication of d4T...
  30. pmc Cytotoxic mediators in paradoxical HIV-tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Katalin A Wilkinson
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 7925 South Africa Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 7925 South Africa Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 194:1748-54. 2015
    ..Our data implicate the granule exocytosis pathway in TB-IRIS pathophysiology. Further understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this condition will facilitate development of specific diagnostic and improved therapeutic options. ..
  31. pmc Neutrophil-associated central nervous system inflammation in tuberculous meningitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Suzaan Marais
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 59:1638-47. 2014
    ..In this study we investigated inflammatory mediators at the disease site in patients with TBM-IRIS...
  32. pmc Burden of antituberculosis and antiretroviral drug-induced liver injury at a secondary hospital in South Africa
    Charlotte Schutz
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 102:506-11. 2012
    ..G F Jooste Hospital (GFJH) is a secondary-level referral hospital in a high HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection setting...
  33. pmc Assessment at antiretroviral clinics during TB treatment reduces loss to follow-up among HIV-infected patients
    Dominique J Pepper
    Department of Medicine, Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Western Province, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 7:e37634. 2012
    ..A South African township clinic where loss to follow-up during TB treatment may prevent HIV-infected TB patients from receiving life-saving ART...
  34. pmc Central nervous system disorders after starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
    Valerie Asselman
    Department of Medicine, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 24:2871-6. 2010
    ..To describe the spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) disease during the first year of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and to determine the contribution of neurological immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)...
  35. pmc Implementation and Operational Research: Evaluation of a Public-Sector, Provider-Initiated Cryptococcal Antigen Screening and Treatment Program, Western Cape, South Africa
    Snigdha Vallabhaneni
    Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Mycotic Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George s, University of London, London, United Kingdom Desmond Tutu HIV AIDS Foundation and Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Centre for Infectious Diseases, Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Department of Health, Provincial Government of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa and National Institute for Communicable Diseases Centre for Opportunistic, Tropical and Hospital Infections, A Division of the National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg, South Africa and Division of Medical Microbiology, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 72:e37-42. 2016
    ..We evaluated the implementation and effectiveness of this large-scale public-sector program during its first year, September 1, 2012-August 31, 2013...
  36. ncbi request reprint Management of patients with the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Suzaan Marais
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, 7925, South Africa
    Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 6:162-71. 2009
    ..Therapeutic procedures (eg, aspiration of pus collections) play an important role in some patients. Interruption of ART may be considered in life-threatening forms of IRIS...
  37. pmc Type 1 helper T cells and FoxP3-positive T cells in HIV-tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    F R C P, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178:1083-9. 2008
    ..Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) induced by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been attributed to dysregulated expansion of tuberculin PPD-specific IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+) T cells...
  38. pmc Adult meningitis in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence: findings from 4961 suspected cases
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 10:67. 2010
    ..We performed a retrospective study to determine these findings in a setting of high HIV and TB prevalence in Cape Town...
  39. pmc Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: case definitions for use in resource-limited settings
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:516-23. 2008
    ..It is envisaged that these definitions could be used by clinicians and researchers in a variety of settings to promote standardisation and comparability of data...
  40. pmc Pathogenesis and prevention of immune reconstitution disease during antiretroviral therapy
    Stephen D Lawn
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 9:415-30. 2011
    ..In addition, use of a range of pharmacological agents with immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory activity is being explored...
  41. ncbi request reprint Complications of antiretroviral therapy in patients with tuberculosis: drug interactions, toxicity, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Helen McIlleron
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 196:S63-75. 2007
    ..These complexities of coadministration of antitubercular and antiretroviral agents are reviewed, and research priorities are highlighted...
  42. pmc HIV-Related Medical Admissions to a South African District Hospital Remain Frequent Despite Effective Antiretroviral Therapy Scale-Up
    Graeme Meintjes
    From the Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine GM, CS, LB Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town GM, RB, CS, SDL Department of Medicine, Khayelitsha District Hospital, South Africa GM, RB Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK GM The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa ADK, SDL Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA ADK Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ADK School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town AB Health Impact Assessment Directorate, Western Cape Department of Health AB Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town AB Department of Medicine, Mitchells Plain Hospital GVW Division of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town MPN National Health Laboratory Service, South Africa MPN and Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases
    Medicine (Baltimore) 94:e2269. 2015
    ..Strategies to improve linkage to care, ART adherence/retention and TB prevention are key to reducing HIV-related hospitalizations in this setting...
  43. pmc Cryptococcal Antigen Screening in Patients Initiating ART in South Africa: A Prospective Cohort Study
    Nicky Longley
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George s University of London, United Kingdom Department of Medicine and Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 62:581-7. 2016
    ..Prospective data are limited...
  44. pmc Interleukin-17 mediated differences in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated tuberculous and cryptococcal meningitis
    Suzaan Marais
    aClinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular MedicinebDivision of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape TowncDepartment of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South AfricadDepartment of Medicine, Imperial CollegeeThe Francis Crick Institute, Mill Hill Laboratory, London, UK
    AIDS 30:395-404. 2016
    ..In this study we compared the clinical and inflammatory features of HIV-1-associated TBM, and cryptococcal meningitis...
  45. pmc Cost effectiveness of cryptococcal antigen screening as a strategy to prevent HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom
    PLoS ONE 8:e69288. 2013
    ..Prior to programmatic implementation in South Africa we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative preventive strategies for CM...
  46. pmc Heart failure and cardiogenic shock associated with the TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Chris Kenyon
    Department of Medicine, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Cardiovasc J Afr 23:e14-7. 2012
    ..Possible aetiologies and pathophysiology as well as suggested diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this problem are discussed...
  47. doi request reprint Pulmonary manifestations of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Gregory Calligaro
    Division of Pulmonology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 17:180-8. 2011
    ..Pulmonologists need an awareness of the timing, presentation and treatment of pulmonary IRIS...
  48. pmc Presentation and outcome of tuberculous meningitis in a high HIV prevalence setting
    Suzaan Marais
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e20077. 2011
    ..We undertook this study to describe causes of meningitis at a secondary-level hospital in a high HIV/TB co-infection setting and to determine predictors of mortality in patients with TBM...
  49. doi request reprint Pulmonary cryptococcosis misdiagnosed as smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis with fatal consequences
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Int J Infect Dis 14:e310-2. 2010
    ..Serum cryptococcal antigen testing may facilitate diagnosis in such cases...
  50. pmc HIV-1 Coinfection Does Not Reduce Exposure to Rifampin, Isoniazid, and Pyrazinamide in South African Tuberculosis Outpatients
    Neesha Rockwood
    Department of Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60:6050-9. 2016
    ..Ambulant HIV-1-coinfected patients, the majority of whom were coprescribed ART, did not have reduced antituberculosis drug concentrations compared to HIV-1-uninfected patients. ..
  51. ncbi request reprint Inflammasome activation underlies central nervous system deterioration in HIV-associated tuberculosis
    Suzaan Marais
    1 Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    J Infect Dis . 2016
    ..Whole blood transcriptome findings complement protein measurement from the site-of-disease, which together, suggest a dominant role for the innate immune system in the pathogenesis of TBM-IRIS...
  52. pmc Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis
    Joseph N Jarvis
    Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom Botswana UPenn Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS Pathog 11:e1004754. 2015
    ..These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS. ..
  53. doi request reprint A dimorphic fungus causing disseminated infection in South Africa
    Chris Kenyon
    Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    N Engl J Med 369:1416-24. 2013
    ..We report a fungal pathogen within the genus emmonsia that is most closely related to E. pasteuriana in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults in South Africa...
  54. doi request reprint Improved survival and antiretroviral treatment outcomes in adults receiving community-based adherence support: 5-year results from a multicentre cohort study in South Africa
    Geoffrey Fatti
    Kheth Impilo, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 61:e50-8. 2012
    ..However, little effectiveness data of the large-scale implementation of these programs is available. We evaluated the effect of a community-based adherence-support (CBAS) program on ART outcomes across 57 South African sites...
  55. pmc Failure to eradicate Isospora belli diarrhoea despite immune reconstitution in adults with HIV--a case series
    Tom H Boyles
    Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 7:e42844. 2012
    ..Mortality was high and pending more data we recommend extended treatment with high-dose co-trimoxazole in similar cases...
  56. pmc Reduced referral and case fatality rates for severe symptomatic hyperlactataemia in a South African public sector antiretroviral programme: a retrospective observational study
    Charlotte Schutz
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Duinefontein Road, Manenberg, 7764, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Ther 7:13. 2010
    ..This study assessed trends in referral rate, severity at presentation and case fatality rate for severe SHL...
  57. pmc Hypoxia induces an immunodominant target of tuberculosis specific T cells absent from common BCG vaccines
    Hannah Priyadarshini Gideon
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, South Africa
    PLoS Pathog 6:e1001237. 2010
    ....
  58. pmc Preventing Paradoxical Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in High-Risk Patients: Protocol of a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Prednisone (PredART Trial)
    Cari Stek
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    JMIR Res Protoc 5:e173. 2016
    ..Safe interventions that reduce the incidence or severity of TB-IRIS are needed. Prednisone has been shown to reduce symptoms and markers of inflammation when used to treat TB-IRIS...
  59. doi request reprint Linezolid in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis: the challenge of its narrow therapeutic index
    Sean Wasserman
    a Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 14:901-15. 2016
    ....
  60. pmc Flow Cytometry To Assess Cerebrospinal Fluid Fungal Burden in Cryptococcal Meningitis
    James E Scriven
    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom Wellcome Trust Liverpool Glasgow Centre for Global Health Research, Liverpool, United Kingdom Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town and Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 54:802-4. 2016
    ..Here, we demonstrate the potential of flow cytometry as a novel and rapid technique to address this issue. ..
  61. pmc Raised Venous Lactate and Markers of Intestinal Translocation Are Associated With Mortality Among In-Patients With HIV-Associated TB in Rural South Africa
    Sathyavani Subbarao
    Madwaleni Hospital, Elliotdale, South Africa Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa MRC National Institute for Medical Research, London, United Kingdom Monsall Unit, Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom Department of Statistics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, TX and Department of Medicine, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70:406-13. 2015
    ..Case fatality among in-patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis (HIV-TB) in Africa is high. We investigated the factors associated with mortality in a rural South African hospital...
  62. pmc Risk Factors for Acquired Rifamycin and Isoniazid Resistance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Neesha Rockwood
    Department of Medicine, Imperial College, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 10:e0139017. 2015
    ..This is important to inform policy and identify key areas for further studies...
  63. pmc Antiretroviral treatment outcomes amongst older adults in a large multicentre cohort in South Africa
    Geoffrey Fatti
    Kheth Impilo, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 9:e100273. 2014
    ..We compared baseline characteristics and ART outcomes of older adults (aged ≥55 years) vs. younger adults (aged 25-54 years) in routine care settings in South Africa...
  64. ncbi request reprint Dermatologic manifestations of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Rannakoe Lehloenya
    Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, 7925, South Africa
    Dermatol Clin 24:549-70, vii. 2006
    ..This article covers certain general issues related to IRIS and then focuses on the spectrum of dermatologic manifestations...
  65. pmc Time to ART Initiation among Patients Treated for Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Khayelitsha, South Africa: Impact on Mortality and Treatment Success
    Johnny Flippie Daniels
    Medecins Sans Frontieres, Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 10:e0142873. 2015
    ..Khayelitsha, South Africa, with high burdens of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) and HIV co-infection...
  66. doi request reprint Paradoxical TB-IRIS in HIV-infected adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Phiona E Namale
    Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Future Microbiol 10:1077-99. 2015
    ..Case fatality was 7% (95% CI: 4-11%), but death attributed to TB-IRIS occurred in 2% of cases (95% CI: 1-3%)...
  67. pmc Rapid diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis by use of lateral flow assay on cerebrospinal fluid samples: influence of the high-dose "hook" effect
    Adré Lourens
    Division of Medical Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, National Health Laboratory Services, Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Clin Microbiol 52:4172-5. 2014
    ..Microscopy is essential for preventing the reporting of false-negative results due to the high-dose "hook" effect. ..
  68. ncbi request reprint Uniquely South African: time to consider offering HIV-positive donor kidneys to HIV-infected renal failure patients?
    W D Francois Venter
    Reproductive Health and HIV Research Unit, Cape Town, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 98:182-3. 2008
  69. ncbi request reprint Symptomatic relapse of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis after initial fluconazole monotherapy: the role of fluconazole resistance and immune reconstitution
    Tihana Bicanic
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 43:1069-73. 2006
    ..Therefore, we conducted a study to assess the contribution of these factors to CM relapse in this context...
  70. ncbi request reprint Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy : pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management
    Devesh J Dhasmana
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Harefield Hospital, Middlesex, UK
    Drugs 68:191-208. 2008
    ..In this review, we discuss research relating to pathogenesis, the range of clinical manifestations, treatment options and prevention issues...
  71. ncbi request reprint Antiretroviral roll-out, antifungal roll-back: access to treatment for cryptococcal meningitis
    Tihana Bicanic
    Lancet Infect Dis 5:530-1. 2005
  72. ncbi request reprint Effect of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection on the T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens
    Katalin A Wilkinson
    Wellcome Trust Center for Research in Clinical Tropical Medicine, Division of Medicine, Imperial College London, Wright Fleming Institute, UK
    J Infect Dis 193:354-9. 2006
    ..These results suggest that the integrity of the bacterial cell wall is important for M. tuberculosis in avoiding immune recognition by T cells and favor a dynamic model of LTBI...