Gary Maartens

Summary

Affiliation: University of Cape Town
Country: South Africa

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Occupational post-exposure HIV prophylaxis
    Gary Maartens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 94:626-7. 2004
  2. doi request reprint HIV infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention
    Gary Maartens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Lancet 384:258-71. 2014
  3. doi request reprint Clinical pharmacology becomes a specialty in South Africa
    A Walubo
    Department of Pharmacology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 103:150-1. 2013
  4. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis
    Gary Maartens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town Medical School, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 370:2030-43. 2007
  5. ncbi request reprint CD4 T-cell responses to combination antiretroviral therapy
    Gary Maartens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 370:366-8. 2007
  6. doi request reprint Effectiveness and safety of antiretrovirals with rifampicin: crucial issues for high-burden countries
    Gary Maartens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antivir Ther 14:1039-43. 2009
  7. doi request reprint Outcomes of nevirapine- and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy when coadministered with rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy
    Andrew Boulle
    School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    JAMA 300:530-9. 2008
  8. pmc Clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment in Africa: incidence, causes and risk factors
    Dominique J Pepper
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 10:83. 2010
  9. doi request reprint Effect of rifampicin on efavirenz pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected children with tuberculosis
    Yuan Ren
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 50:439-43. 2009
  10. ncbi request reprint Effect of rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy on nevirapine plasma concentrations in South African adults with HIV-associated tuberculosis
    Karen Cohen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Antimicrob Chemother 61:389-93. 2008

Detail Information

Publications91

  1. ncbi request reprint Occupational post-exposure HIV prophylaxis
    Gary Maartens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 94:626-7. 2004
  2. doi request reprint HIV infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention
    Gary Maartens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Lancet 384:258-71. 2014
    ..Research into other prevention interventions, notably vaccines and vaginal microbicides, is in progress...
  3. doi request reprint Clinical pharmacology becomes a specialty in South Africa
    A Walubo
    Department of Pharmacology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
    S Afr Med J 103:150-1. 2013
    ..This article outlines the need for clinical pharmacologists, their role in advancing public health, the potential benefits to the country, and recommendations for ensuring a healthy future for the discipline...
  4. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis
    Gary Maartens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town Medical School, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 370:2030-43. 2007
    ..The development of a comprehensive worldwide plan to stop tuberculosis might facilitate this process by coordinating the work of health agencies. However, massive effort, political will, and resources are needed for this plan to succeed...
  5. ncbi request reprint CD4 T-cell responses to combination antiretroviral therapy
    Gary Maartens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet 370:366-8. 2007
  6. doi request reprint Effectiveness and safety of antiretrovirals with rifampicin: crucial issues for high-burden countries
    Gary Maartens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antivir Ther 14:1039-43. 2009
    ....
  7. doi request reprint Outcomes of nevirapine- and efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy when coadministered with rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy
    Andrew Boulle
    School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    JAMA 300:530-9. 2008
    ..Rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy reduces the plasma concentrations of nevirapine and efavirenz. The virological consequences of these interactions are not well described...
  8. pmc Clinical deterioration during antituberculosis treatment in Africa: incidence, causes and risk factors
    Dominique J Pepper
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 10:83. 2010
    ..We therefore determined the incidence, causes and risk factors for clinical deterioration...
  9. doi request reprint Effect of rifampicin on efavirenz pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected children with tuberculosis
    Yuan Ren
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 50:439-43. 2009
    ..Rifampicin may reduce plasma efavirenz concentrations by inducing the expression of the cytochrome P450 2B6, which metabolizes efavirenz. However, there is no data in pediatric patient populations...
  10. ncbi request reprint Effect of rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy on nevirapine plasma concentrations in South African adults with HIV-associated tuberculosis
    Karen Cohen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    J Antimicrob Chemother 61:389-93. 2008
    ..We describe the steady-state pharmacokinetics of nevirapine during and after antitubercular therapy in South African patients...
  11. pmc Role of the interleukin 10 family of cytokines in patients with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with HIV infection and tuberculosis
    Rebecca Tadokera
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 207:1148-56. 2013
    ..We hypothesized that a deficiency of IL-10 and its homologs may contribute to the immunopathology of IRIS in these patients...
  12. ncbi request reprint Clinical, immunological, and epidemiological importance of antituberculosis T cell responses in HIV-infected Africans
    Molebogeng X Rangaka
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 44:1639-46. 2007
    ....
  13. pmc Effect of rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy and the cytochrome P450 2B6 516G>T polymorphism on efavirenz concentrations in adults in South Africa
    Karen Cohen
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antivir Ther 14:687-95. 2009
    ..We explored the effect of rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy and the 516G>T polymorphism on efavirenz concentrations in HIV-infected patients in South Africa...
  14. ncbi request reprint Mortality in patients treated for tuberculous pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa
    Bongani M Mayosi
    Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 98:36-40. 2008
    ..To determine the mortality rate and its predictors in patients with a presumptive diagnosis of tuberculous pericarditis in sub-Saharan Africa...
  15. doi request reprint Effect of rifampicin on lopinavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected children with tuberculosis
    Yuan Ren
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 47:566-9. 2008
    ..We evaluated the effect of additional ritonavir on plasma lopinavir concentrations in HIV-infected children receiving rifampicin-based treatment for tuberculosis...
  16. pmc Efavirenz versus nevirapine-based initial treatment of HIV infection: clinical and virological outcomes in Southern African adults
    Jean B Nachega
    Department of Internal Medicine and Center for Infectious Disease, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 22:2117-25. 2008
    ..To determine the effectiveness of efavirenz versus nevirapine in initial antiretroviral therapy regimens for adults in sub-Saharan Africa...
  17. pmc Randomized placebo-controlled trial of prednisone for paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South
    AIDS 24:2381-90. 2010
    ..We aimed to assess whether a 4-week course of prednisone would reduce morbidity in patients with paradoxical TB-IRIS without excess adverse events...
  18. doi request reprint Neurologic manifestations of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: a case series
    Dominique J Pepper
    Infectious Diseases Unit, GF Jooste Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 48:e96-107. 2009
    ..The reports in the published literature are anecdotal, and the prevalence and outcomes of neurologic TB-IRIS are unknown...
  19. pmc Early and late direct costs in a Southern African antiretroviral treatment programme: a retrospective cohort analysis
    Rory Leisegang
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS Med 6:e1000189. 2009
    ..Our objectives were to describe the direct heath care costs and establish the cost drivers over time in an HIV managed care programme in Southern Africa...
  20. pmc The safety, effectiveness and concentrations of adjusted lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected adults on rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy
    Eric H Decloedt
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 7:e32173. 2012
    ..We evaluated the safety, effectiveness and pre-dose concentrations of adjusted doses of LPV/r in HIV infected adults treated with rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment...
  21. doi request reprint Lopinavir exposure is insufficient in children given double doses of lopinavir/ritonavir during rifampicin-based treatment for tuberculosis
    Helen McIlleron
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Antivir Ther 16:417-21. 2011
    ..We evaluated this strategy in children treated with rifampicin-based antituberculosis therapy attending antiretroviral clinics in South Africa...
  22. pmc Novel relationship between tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and antitubercular drug resistance
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 48:667-76. 2009
    ..The differential diagnosis of TB IRIS includes deterioration caused by other human immunodeficiency virus-related morbidities and drug-resistant TB...
  23. pmc Type 1 helper T cells and FoxP3-positive T cells in HIV-tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    F R C P, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 178:1083-9. 2008
    ..Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) induced by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been attributed to dysregulated expansion of tuberculin PPD-specific IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+) T cells...
  24. pmc Isoniazid plus antiretroviral therapy to prevent tuberculosis: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Molebogeng X Rangaka
    Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Clinical Infectious Disease Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK Electronic address
    Lancet 384:682-90. 2014
    ..We aimed to assess the effect of isoniazid preventive therapy on the risk of tuberculosis in people infected with HIV-1 concurrently receiving antiretroviral therapy...
  25. ncbi request reprint When to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa? A South African cost-effectiveness study
    Motasim Badri
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Antivir Ther 11:63-72. 2006
    ..However, cost-effectiveness of initiating treatment at different CD4 count thresholds has not been explored in resource-poor settings...
  26. ncbi request reprint Complications of antiretroviral therapy in patients with tuberculosis: drug interactions, toxicity, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Helen McIlleron
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 196:S63-75. 2007
    ..These complexities of coadministration of antitubercular and antiretroviral agents are reviewed, and research priorities are highlighted...
  27. pmc Corticosteroid-modulated immune activation in the tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Graeme Meintjes
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 186:369-77. 2012
    ..Prednisone reduces morbidity in TB-IRIS, but the mechanisms are unclear...
  28. pmc Model-based approach to dose optimization of lopinavir/ritonavir when co-administered with rifampicin
    Chao Zhang
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 73:758-67. 2012
    ....
  29. pmc Improving the evidence base of Markov models used to estimate the costs of scaling up antiretroviral programmes in resource-limited settings
    Rory Leisegang
    Division of Clinical of Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Health Serv Res 10:S3. 2010
    ..This paper revisits these modelling assumptions in order to provide input to future attempts to model the lifetime costs and the costs of scaling up ART...
  30. pmc Early severe morbidity and resource utilization in South African adults on antiretroviral therapy
    Teresa K Smith de Cherif
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 9:205. 2009
    ..There is limited data on the causes of early morbidity on HAART and the associated resource utilization...
  31. pmc Prolonged tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: characteristics and risk factors
    Tasnim M Bana
    Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, 7925, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 16:518. 2016
    ..Prolonged TB-IRIS has not been prospectively studied to date. We aimed to determine the proportion of patients with prolonged TB-IRIS, as well as the clinical characteristics and risk factors for prolonged TB-IRIS...
  32. pmc Adverse Drug Reactions Causing Admission to Medical Wards: A Cross-Sectional Survey at 4 Hospitals in South Africa
    Johannes P Mouton
    From the Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town JPM, CN, NK, As, UM, MB, MFDS, RDW, GM, KC Department of Medicine, East London Hospital Complex and Walter Sisulu University, East London AGP Department of Medicine, Edendale Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa DPKW, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pretoria EUI, GA National Department of Health, Pretoria MD and Pharmaceutical Services, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa MD
    Medicine (Baltimore) 95:e3437. 2016
    ..Identification and management of these ADRs should be considered in HIV and tuberculosis care and treatment programs and should be emphasized in health care worker training programmes. ..
  33. ncbi request reprint Substitutions due to antiretroviral toxicity or contraindication in the first 3 years of antiretroviral therapy in a large South African cohort
    Andrew Boulle
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antivir Ther 12:753-60. 2007
    ..The patterns and reasons for antiretroviral therapy (ART) drug substitutions are poorly described in resource-limited settings...
  34. pmc Patient and provider delay in tuberculosis suspects from communities with a high HIV prevalence in South Africa: a cross-sectional study
    Graeme Meintjes
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, 7925, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 8:72. 2008
    ..The aim was to describe patient and provider delay in the diagnosis of TB in patients with suspected TB requiring admission, and to determine the risk factors for this delay and the consequences...
  35. pmc Complications of antiretroviral therapy initiation in hospitalised patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis
    Helen van der Plas
    Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 8:e54145. 2013
    ....
  36. pmc Effect of antiretroviral therapy on the diagnostic accuracy of symptom screening for intensified tuberculosis case finding in a South African HIV clinic
    Molebogeng X Rangaka
    Centre for Infectious Disease Research and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, South Africa
    Clin Infect Dis 55:1698-706. 2012
    ..There is a need to validate screening algorithms in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
  37. pmc Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in HIV-infected adults receiving rifampin with adjusted doses of lopinavir-ritonavir tablets
    Eric H Decloedt
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:3195-200. 2011
    ..Doubling the dose of the tablet formulation of LPV/r overcomes induction by rifampin. Less hepatotoxicity occurred in our cohort of HIV-infected participants than was reported in healthy-volunteer studies...
  38. doi request reprint Seven-year experience of a primary care antiretroviral treatment programme in Khayelitsha, South Africa
    Andrew Boulle
    School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS 24:563-72. 2010
    ..We report on outcomes after 7 years of a community-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in Khayelitsha, South Africa, with death registry linkages to correct for mortality under-ascertainment...
  39. pmc A novel Markov model projecting costs and outcomes of providing antiretroviral therapy to public patients in private practices versus public clinics in South Africa
    Rory Leisegang
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 8:e53570. 2013
    ..We compared the costs and outcomes of a private-care and a public-care ART program in South Africa...
  40. pmc Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue damage in HIV-tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Rebecca Tadokera
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Eur J Immunol 44:127-36. 2014
    ..TB-IRIS is associated with a distinct pattern of MMP gene and protein activation. Modulation of dysregulated MMP activity may represent a novel therapeutic approach to alleviate TB-IRIS in HIV-TB patients undergoing treatment...
  41. pmc A time-to-event pharmacodynamic model describing treatment response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using days to positivity in automated liquid mycobacterial culture
    Emmanuel Chigutsa
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57:789-95. 2013
    ..Our model can be used to analyze similar data from studies testing new drug regimens...
  42. pmc Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: case definitions for use in resource-limited settings
    Graeme Meintjes
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 8:516-23. 2008
    ..It is envisaged that these definitions could be used by clinicians and researchers in a variety of settings to promote standardisation and comparability of data...
  43. pmc HIV infection is associated with a lower incidence of constriction in presumed tuberculous pericarditis: a prospective observational study
    Mpiko Ntsekhe
    Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 3:e2253. 2008
    ..The impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on the incidence of constrictive pericarditis following tuberculous pericardial effusion is unknown...
  44. pmc Cases of antiretroviral-associated gynaecomastia reported to the National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa
    Christine Njuguna
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Ther 13:40. 2016
    ..We describe the clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of gynaecomastia cases reported to the National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa...
  45. pmc Effect of Lopinavir and Nevirapine Concentrations on Viral Outcomes in Protease Inhibitor-experienced HIV-infected Children
    Retsilisitsoe R Moholisa
    From the Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Centre for Infectious Diseases Epidemiology and Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Gertrude H Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, and Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY Empilweni Services and Research Unit, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa ICAP, Mailman School of Public Health, and College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY and Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 35:e378-e383. 2016
    ..We assessed the relationship between plasma lopinavir or nevirapine concentrations and the risk of subsequent viremia in children initially suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
  46. pmc Pharmacogenetics of plasma efavirenz exposure in HIV-infected adults and children in South Africa
    Phumla Z Sinxadi
    Division of Clinical of Pharmacology, Division of Exercise and Endocrine Metabolism, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 80:146-56. 2015
    ..We characterized relationships between genetic polymorphisms and plasma efavirenz concentrations in HIV-infected Black South African adults and children...
  47. pmc Cytotoxic mediators in paradoxical HIV-tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
    Katalin A Wilkinson
    Clinical Infectious Diseases Research Initiative, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 7925 South Africa Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 7925 South Africa Medical Research Council National Institute for Medical Research, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom
    J Immunol 194:1748-54. 2015
    ..Our data implicate the granule exocytosis pathway in TB-IRIS pathophysiology. Further understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this condition will facilitate development of specific diagnostic and improved therapeutic options. ..
  48. pmc Burden of antituberculosis and antiretroviral drug-induced liver injury at a secondary hospital in South Africa
    Charlotte Schutz
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 102:506-11. 2012
    ..G F Jooste Hospital (GFJH) is a secondary-level referral hospital in a high HIV and tuberculosis (TB) co-infection setting...
  49. pmc Baseline predictors of sputum culture conversion in pulmonary tuberculosis: importance of cavities, smoking, time to detection and W-Beijing genotype
    Marianne E Visser
    School of Public Health, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 7:e29588. 2012
    ..The M. tuberculosis W-Beijing genotype is spreading globally, indicating a selective advantage. There is a paucity of data on the association between baseline TTD and W-Beijing genotype and tuberculosis outcomes...
  50. doi request reprint Effect of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy on dysglycemia and insulin sensitivity in South African HIV-infected patients
    Joel A Dave
    Division of Diabetic Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 57:284-9. 2011
    ..We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of dysglycemia and insulin sensitivity in HIV-infected South Africans...
  51. pmc Association of lopinavir concentrations with plasma lipid or glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans: a cross sectional study
    Phumla Z Sinxadi
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Ther 9:32. 2012
    ..Lopinavir/ritonavir, the most commonly used protease inhibitor in resource-limited settings, often causes dyslipidaemia. There are contradictory data regarding the association between lopinavir concentrations and changes in lipids...
  52. doi request reprint Effect of different antiretroviral drug regimens on body fat distribution of HIV-infected South African women
    Julia H Goedecke
    UCT MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29:557-63. 2013
    ..Changing to a PI-based regimen in ART2, which also substitutes stavudine with zidovudine, partially reversed the peripheral fat loss observed on ART1...
  53. pmc Performance of serum C-reactive protein as a screening test for smear-negative tuberculosis in an ambulatory high HIV prevalence population
    Douglas Wilson
    Department of Medicine, Edendale Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, University of KwaZulu Natal, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 6:e15248. 2011
    ..New diagnostic strategies for SNTB are urgently needed. C-reactive protein (CRP) is a non-specific inflammatory protein that is usually elevated in patients with tuberculosis, but its role in the diagnosis of tuberculosis is uncertain...
  54. ncbi request reprint Effect of HIV-1 infection on T-Cell-based and skin test detection of tuberculosis infection
    Molebogeng Xheeda Rangaka
    Institute of Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 175:514-20. 2007
    ..Two forms of the IFN-gamma release assay (IFNGRA) to detect tuberculosis infection are available, but neither has been evaluated in comparable HIV-infected and uninfected persons in a high tuberculosis incidence environment...
  55. pmc Clinical characteristics and initial management of patients with tuberculous pericarditis in the HIV era: the Investigation of the Management of Pericarditis in Africa (IMPI Africa) registry
    Bongani M Mayosi
    The Cardiac Clinic, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, E25 Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 6:2. 2006
    ....
  56. doi request reprint Effect of mid-dose efavirenz concentrations and CYP2B6 genotype on viral suppression in patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy
    Catherine Orrell
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 47:466-72. 2016
    ..Knowledge of CYP2B6 metaboliser genotype is not required for prediction of virological outcomes. ..
  57. doi request reprint Severe antiretroviral-associated skin reactions in South African patients: a case series and case-control analysis
    Annemie Stewart
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 25:1313-1319. 2016
    ..We reviewed cases of severe skin reactions admitted to a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. We identified associations with severe skin reactions in patients on cART...
  58. pmc Random lopinavir concentrations predict resistance on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy
    Richard Court
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Electronic address
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 48:158-62. 2016
    ....
  59. pmc Antiretroviral Therapy, Especially Efavirenz, Is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected South Africans
    Joel A Dave
    Division of Diabetic Medicine and Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 10:e0144286. 2015
    ..We determined the prevalence and correlates of low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV-infected South Africans as there is a paucity of such data from Africa...
  60. ncbi request reprint Outcomes after two years of providing antiretroviral treatment in Khayelitsha, South Africa
    David Coetzee
    Infectious Disease Epidemiology Unit, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    AIDS 18:887-95. 2004
    ....
  61. pmc Mitochondrial genomics and antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic complications in HIV-infected Black South Africans: a pilot study
    Phumla Z Sinxadi
    University of Cape Town Medical School, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29:1031-9. 2013
    ..This is the first report to link an African mtDNA variant with hypertriglyceridemia. If replicated, these findings may provide new insights into host factors affecting metabolic complications...
  62. pmc Impact of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome on antiretroviral therapy adherence
    Jean B Nachega
    University of Cape Town, Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cape Town, South Africa Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Departments of International Health and Epidemiology, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Johns Hopkins University, Center for Tuberculosis Research, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
    Patient Prefer Adherence 6:887-91. 2012
    ..We determined the impact of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence in a cohort of 274 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected South African adults initiating ART...
  63. pmc Quantitative and functional differences between peripheral blood myeloid dendritic cells from patients with pleural and parenchymal lung tuberculosis
    Marc Mendelson
    Laboratory of Mycobcterial Immunity and Pathogenesis, Public Health Research Institute, International Center for Public Health, Newark, New Jersey 07103 3535, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 13:1299-306. 2006
    ..Our findings suggest important differences in innate immunity between patients with different forms of active TB, and this may contribute to the differences in natural history observed between the two groups...
  64. pmc Dissection of regenerating T-Cell responses against tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults sensitized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    Katalin A Wilkinson
    Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Room S3 13, Wernher and Beit Building South, Observatory 7925, Republic of South Africa
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 180:674-83. 2009
    ..Therefore a novel approach to gain insight into protection against tuberculosis is to analyze the T cells that expand in people sensitized by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) during cART...
  65. doi request reprint Drug-drug interactions between bedaquiline and the antiretrovirals lopinavir/ritonavir and nevirapine in HIV-infected patients with drug-resistant TB
    Mishal Pandie
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Antimicrob Chemother 71:1037-40. 2016
    ..We evaluated the effect of nevirapine and lopinavir/ritonavir on bedaquiline exposure...
  66. pmc Mortality from adverse drug reactions in adult medical inpatients at four hospitals in South Africa: a cross-sectional survey
    Johannes P Mouton
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town
    Br J Clin Pharmacol 80:818-26. 2015
    ..We determined the proportion of deaths in South African medical inpatients attributable to ADRs, and their preventability, stratified by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status...
  67. pmc Adverse Drug Reactions Reported to a National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa: Description and Prospective Follow-Up of Reports
    Christine Njuguna
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Drug Saf 39:159-69. 2016
    ..We describe suspected ADRs reported to the hotline by HCWs, concordance with advice, and patient outcomes...
  68. doi request reprint A Randomized Controlled Trial of Real-Time Electronic Adherence Monitoring With Text Message Dosing Reminders in People Starting First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy
    Catherine Orrell
    Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Department of Statistical Science, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Global Health, Boston, MA and Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70:495-502. 2015
    ..There are conflicting findings about whether mobile phone text message reminders impact on antiretroviral adherence. We hypothesized that text reminders sent when dosing was late would improve adherence and HIV viral suppression...
  69. doi request reprint Neuronal toxicity of efavirenz: a systematic review
    Eric H Decloedt
    Stellenbosch University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, PO Box 19063 Francie van Zijl Drive, Tygerberg 7505, South Africa
    Expert Opin Drug Saf 12:841-6. 2013
    ..Efavirenz commonly causes early neuropsychiatric side effects, but tolerance develops in most patients. There is emerging evidence that efavirenz use may damage neurons, which could result in impaired neurocognitive performance...
  70. pmc Systematic review of antiretroviral-associated lipodystrophy: lipoatrophy, but not central fat gain, is an antiretroviral adverse drug reaction
    ReneƩ de Waal
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS ONE 8:e63623. 2013
    ..Lipoatrophy and/or central fat gain are observed frequently in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Both are assumed to be antiretroviral adverse drug reactions...
  71. pmc Lack of association between stavudine exposure and lipoatrophy, dysglycaemia, hyperlactataemia and hypertriglyceridaemia: a prospective cross sectional study
    Phumla Z Sinxadi
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, K45 Old Main Building, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, 7925, Cape Town, South Africa
    AIDS Res Ther 7:23. 2010
    ..Stavudine continues to be widely used in resource poor settings despite its toxicity. Our objective was to determine association between plasma stavudine concentrations and lipoatrophy, concentrations of glucose, lactate and triglycerides...
  72. pmc Cost-effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in South Africa
    Motasim Badri
    Department of Medicine, Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    PLoS Med 3:e4. 2006
    ..Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices...
  73. ncbi request reprint High prevalence of subtherapeutic plasma concentrations of efavirenz in children
    Yuan Ren
    Pharmacokinetic Research Unit, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 45:133-6. 2007
    ..In many settings, concentration-controlled dosing is not available. In this study, efavirenz plasma concentrations were evaluated in South African HIV-infected children receiving efavirenz-based antiretroviral treatment...
  74. ncbi request reprint Is it safe to switch between efavirenz and nevirapine in the event of toxicity?
    Ushma Mehta
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Lancet Infect Dis 7:733-8. 2007
    ..There is insufficient evidence to recommend substituting nevirapine for efavirenz following either hepatotoxicity or cutaneous hypersensitivity...
  75. ncbi request reprint Treating AIDS-associated cerebral toxoplasmosis - pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine compared with cotrimoxazole, and outcome with adjunctive glucocorticoids
    James Arens
    Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 97:956-8. 2007
    ..There were no differences in clinical outcomes, but co-trimoxazole was better tolerated (p = 0.066). There was also a trend towards more deaths among patients who received glucocorticoids...
  76. ncbi request reprint The role of the infectious diseases unit at Groote Schuur Hospital in addressing South Africa's greatest burden of disease
    Mishal Pandie
    Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town
    S Afr Med J 102:528-31. 2012
    ..However, other infections including community-acquired and imported infections and the rise in hospital-acquired infections pose a considerable threat to public health...
  77. pmc Safety and effectiveness of colistin compared with tobramycin for multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections
    Ronald Gounden
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    BMC Infect Dis 9:26. 2009
    ..Nosocomial infections due to multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are often treated with colistin, but there are few data comparing its safety and efficacy with other antimicrobials...
  78. pmc The SLCO1B1 rs4149032 polymorphism is highly prevalent in South Africans and is associated with reduced rifampin concentrations: dosing implications
    Emmanuel Chigutsa
    Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, University of Cape Town, K 45 Old Main Building, Groote Schuur Hospital, Observatory, 7925 Cape Town, South Africa
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55:4122-7. 2011
    ..SLCO1B1 rs4149032 was present in most patients and was associated with substantially reduced rifampin exposure. These data suggest that the standard recommended dose of rifampin should be reconsidered for South Africans...
  79. ncbi request reprint Advances in adult pulmonary tuberculosis
    Gary Maartens
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
    Curr Opin Pulm Med 8:173-7. 2002
    ..However, the duration of benefit of preventive therapy seems to be relatively short-lived. Effective long-term reduction of tuberculosis risk in HIV-infected patients can be achieved with highly active antiretroviral therapy...
  80. ncbi request reprint Tuberculosis in the tropics
    Gary Maartens
    Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Medicine, UCT Health Sciences Faculty, Anzio Road, Observatory 7925, South Africa
    Clin Chest Med 23:341-50. 2002
    ..Preventive therapy in tropical countries is limited to high-risk cases (young children and HIV-infected patients who are tuberculin skin test-positive). An improved TB vaccine would dramatically improve TB control...
  81. ncbi request reprint Gary Maartens--committed to improving public health in South Africa
    Gary Maartens
    Lancet Infect Dis 2:254-7. 2002
  82. ncbi request reprint Severe hepatotoxicity associated with nevirapine use in HIV-infected subjects
    Ian Sanne
    Clinical HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
    J Infect Dis 191:825-9. 2005
    ..The use of nevirapine in female patients with a low BMI should be discouraged...
  83. ncbi request reprint Treatment supporter to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected South African adults. A qualitative study
    Jean B Nachega
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21215, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:S127-33. 2006
    ..In addition, our results suggest that interventions tailored to treatment supporter characteristics and relationship factors may be effective in influencing patients' antiretroviral therapy adherence...
  84. ncbi request reprint Vertical HIV transmission in South Africa: translating research into policy and practice
    Salim Abdool Karim
    University of Natal, 4041, South Africa
    Lancet 359:992-3. 2002
  85. ncbi request reprint Adherence to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based HIV therapy and virologic outcomes
    Jean B Nachega
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA
    Ann Intern Med 146:564-73. 2007
    ..Adherence of 95% or more to unboosted protease regimens is required for optimal virologic suppression in HIV-1-infected patients. Whether the same is true for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based therapy is unclear...
  86. pmc Impact of enhanced tuberculosis diagnosis in South Africa: a mathematical model of expanded culture and drug susceptibility testing
    David W Dowdy
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Suite W6508, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11293-8. 2008
    ..In South Africa, expanding TB culture and DST could substantially reduce TB, and particularly MDR-TB, mortality. Control of XDR-TB will require additional interventions, the impact of which may be enhanced by improved TB diagnosis...
  87. ncbi request reprint Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy assessed by pharmacy claims predicts survival in HIV-infected South African adults
    Jean B Nachega
    Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 43:78-84. 2006
    ..42-7.72, for CD4+ T-cell count<or=50 cells/microL vs >200 cells/microL). Pharmacy-based records may be a simple and effective population-level tool for monitoring adherence as HAART programs in Africa are scaled up...
  88. ncbi request reprint CD4 decline and incidence of opportunistic infections in Cape Town, South Africa: implications for prophylaxis and treatment
    Charles B Holmes
    Divisions of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 42:464-9. 2006
    ..To determine the rate of CD4 decline and the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) among antiretroviral therapy-naive South African HIV-infected patients and inform timing of OI prophylaxis...
  89. ncbi request reprint Response to "CD4 cell count natural history and informative censoring in sub-Saharan Africa"
    Charles B Holmes
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 44:491. 2007
  90. pmc Pharmacy refill adherence compared with CD4 count changes for monitoring HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy
    Gregory P Bisson
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America
    PLoS Med 5:e109. 2008
    ....
  91. ncbi request reprint Generic substitution--is it safe in patients at high cardiovascular risk?
    Gary Maartens
    S Afr Med J 92:837-8. 2002