Philip J Norris

Summary

Publications

  1. pmc Elevations in IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma from the earliest point of HIV Type 1 infection
    Philip J Norris
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:757-62. 2006
  2. doi Immune modulation and lack of alloimmunization following transfusion with pathogen-reduced platelets in mice
    Rachael P Jackman
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California Terumo BCT Biotechnologies, Lakewood, Colorado Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California
    Transfusion 53:2697-709. 2013
  3. pmc Evidence of persistent low-level viremia in long-term HAART-suppressed, HIV-infected individuals
    Hiroyu Hatano
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 24:2535-9. 2010
  4. pmc Agreement among HLA antibody detection assays is higher in ever-pregnant donors and improved using a consensus cutoff
    Danielle M Carrick
    Blood Systems Research Institute and Blood Centers of the Pacific, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    Transfusion 51:1105-16. 2011
  5. pmc Tregs control the development of symptomatic West Nile virus infection in humans and mice
    Marion C Lanteri
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:3266-77. 2009
  6. pmc Cytokine and chemokine responses in the acute phase of hepatitis B virus replication in naive and previously vaccinated blood and plasma donors
    Sheila M Keating
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California
    J Infect Dis 209:845-54. 2014
  7. doi Virus and antibody dynamics in acute west nile virus infection
    Michael P Busch
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:984-93. 2008
  8. doi Cytokines Elevated in HIV Elite Controllers Reduce HIV Replication in vitro and Modulate HIV Restriction Factor Expression
    Evan S Jacobs
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA, Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Medicine, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Virol . 2017
  9. pmc Exosomes from red blood cell units bind to monocytes and induce proinflammatory cytokines, boosting T-cell responses in vitro
    Ali Danesh
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA
    Blood 123:687-96. 2014
  10. pmc Distinct roles of trauma and transfusion in induction of immune modulation after injury
    Rachael P Jackman
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    Transfusion 52:2533-50. 2012

Detail Information

Publications57

  1. pmc Elevations in IL-10, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma from the earliest point of HIV Type 1 infection
    Philip J Norris
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:757-62. 2006
    ..Cytokine alterations occurred within 7 days of detectable HIV-1 viremia, emphasizing the need to study the earliest events of infection...
  2. doi Immune modulation and lack of alloimmunization following transfusion with pathogen-reduced platelets in mice
    Rachael P Jackman
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California Terumo BCT Biotechnologies, Lakewood, Colorado Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California
    Transfusion 53:2697-709. 2013
    ..We sought to determine if this loss of immunogenicity is extended in vivo where indirect presentation of allogeneic antigens can occur...
  3. pmc Evidence of persistent low-level viremia in long-term HAART-suppressed, HIV-infected individuals
    Hiroyu Hatano
    Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 24:2535-9. 2010
    ..HAART can effectively reduce plasma HIV RNA levels to below the level of detection in most HIV-infected patients. The degree to which residual low-level viremia persists during HAART remains unclear...
  4. pmc Agreement among HLA antibody detection assays is higher in ever-pregnant donors and improved using a consensus cutoff
    Danielle M Carrick
    Blood Systems Research Institute and Blood Centers of the Pacific, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    Transfusion 51:1105-16. 2011
    ..HLA antibody detection methods include ELISA, flow cytometry, and multiplex bead-based assays, as well as the older lymphocytotoxicity assay, and it is not obvious how to compare results across platforms...
  5. pmc Tregs control the development of symptomatic West Nile virus infection in humans and mice
    Marion C Lanteri
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    J Clin Invest 119:3266-77. 2009
    ..Together, these results suggest that higher levels of peripheral Tregs after infection protect against severe WNV disease in immunocompetent animals and humans...
  6. pmc Cytokine and chemokine responses in the acute phase of hepatitis B virus replication in naive and previously vaccinated blood and plasma donors
    Sheila M Keating
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California
    J Infect Dis 209:845-54. 2014
    ....
  7. doi Virus and antibody dynamics in acute west nile virus infection
    Michael P Busch
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:984-93. 2008
    ..The dynamics of the early stages of West Nile virus (WNV) infection can be assessed by follow-up studies of viremic blood donors...
  8. doi Cytokines Elevated in HIV Elite Controllers Reduce HIV Replication in vitro and Modulate HIV Restriction Factor Expression
    Evan S Jacobs
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA, Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Medicine, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Virol . 2017
    ..This cytokine pattern may be a signature characteristic of HIV-1 elite control, potentially important for HIV therapeutic and curative strategies...
  9. pmc Exosomes from red blood cell units bind to monocytes and induce proinflammatory cytokines, boosting T-cell responses in vitro
    Ali Danesh
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA
    Blood 123:687-96. 2014
    ..Contrary to our hypothesis, the data demonstrate that EVs isolated from RBC units increase the potency of APCs and boost mitogen-driven T-cell proliferative responses. ..
  10. pmc Distinct roles of trauma and transfusion in induction of immune modulation after injury
    Rachael P Jackman
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    Transfusion 52:2533-50. 2012
    ..Trauma and transfusion can both alter immunity, and while transfusions are common among traumatically injured patients, few studies have examined their combined effects on immunity...
  11. pmc HIV+ elite controllers have low HIV-specific T-cell activation yet maintain strong, polyfunctional T-cell responses
    Rachel E Owen
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    AIDS 24:1095-105. 2010
    ..We studied immune responses in these individuals to inform vaccine development, with the goal of identifying the immune correlates of protection from HIV...
  12. pmc Effects of blood sample age at time of separation on measured cytokine concentrations in human plasma
    Rachael P Jackman
    Blood Systems Research Institute, 270 Masonic Ave, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:318-26. 2011
    ..When this is not possible, care should be taken to account for differences due to sample age...
  13. pmc Leukoreduction and ultraviolet treatment reduce both the magnitude and the duration of the HLA antibody response
    Rachael P Jackman
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California Puget Sound Blood Center, Seattle, Washington University of California, Davis, California National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California Children s National Medical Center, Washington, DC Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington
    Transfusion 54:672-80. 2014
    ....
  14. pmc A CD4+ T cell antagonist epitope down-regulates activating signaling proteins, up-regulates inhibitory signaling proteins and abrogates HIV-specific T cell function
    Evan S Jacobs
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California
    Retrovirology 11:57. 2014
    ..Interestingly, in HIV infection it has been shown that peptide sequence variation can reduce CD4+ T cell responses to the virus, and small changes to peptide sequences can transform agonist peptides into antagonist peptides...
  15. pmc Lower-sensitivity and avidity modifications of the vitros anti-HIV 1+2 assay for detection of recent HIV infections and incidence estimation
    Sheila M Keating
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Clin Microbiol 50:3968-76. 2012
    ..Both modified Vitros assays can be used to estimate the length of time since seroconversion and in calculations for HIV incidence. Like other RITAs, they are subject to high FRR in subjects on HAART or with AIDS...
  16. doi Interferon and interferon-induced chemokine expression is associated with control of acute viremia in West Nile virus-infected blood donors
    Leslie H Tobler
    University of California, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Infect Dis 198:979-83. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that IFN-mediated innate immunity plays a key role in initial control of WNV replication...
  17. pmc Identification of specificities of antibodies against human leukocyte antigens in blood donors
    Robert O Endres
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 85282, USA
    Transfusion 50:1749-60. 2010
    ..Blood centers are implementing TRALI risk reduction strategies based on screening apheresis donors for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLA)...
  18. pmc Association between HLA class I and class II alleles and the outcome of West Nile virus infection: an exploratory study
    Marion C Lanteri
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 6:e22948. 2011
    ..West Nile virus (WNV) infection is asymptomatic in most individuals, with a minority developing symptoms ranging from WNV fever to serious neuroinvasive disease. This study investigated the impact of host HLA on the outcome of WNV disease...
  19. pmc Human Galectin-9 Is a Potent Mediator of HIV Transcription and Reactivation
    Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS Pathog 12:e1005677. 2016
    ..Our data suggest that galectin-9 and the host glycosylation machinery should be explored as foundations for novel HIV cure strategies. ..
  20. pmc West Nile virus nucleic acid persistence in whole blood months after clearance in plasma: implication for transfusion and transplantation safety
    Marion C Lanteri
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California
    Transfusion 54:3232-41. 2014
    ..This study characterized the dynamics of WNV viremia in blood compartments in a longitudinal cohort of 54 WNV-infected blood donors...
  21. pmc Prospective study on the clinical course and outcomes in transfusion-related acute lung injury*
    Mark R Looney
    1Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 3Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 4Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 5Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Care, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 6Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 7Department of Anesthesia, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 8Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 9American Red Cross Neutrophil Reference Laboratory, St Paul, MN 10Blood Centers of the Pacific, San Francisco, CA
    Crit Care Med 42:1676-87. 2014
    ..A prospective study using electronic surveillance was conducted at two academic medical centers in the United States with the objective to define the clinical course and outcomes in transfusion-related acute lung injury cases...
  22. pmc Increased frequency of Tim-3 expressing T cells is associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection
    Marion C Lanteri
    Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e92134. 2014
    ....
  23. pmc CD57 expression and cytokine production by T cells in lesional and unaffected skin from patients with psoriasis
    Mariana D Batista
    Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    PLoS ONE 8:e52144. 2013
    ..CD57 is a marker of replicative inability and immunosenescence on CD8+ T cells and the proportion of CD57 expressing CD8+ T cells is increased in a number of inflammatory conditions...
  24. pmc Low-level HLA antibodies do not predict platelet transfusion failure in TRAP study participants
    Rachael P Jackman
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Blood 121:3261-6; quiz 3299. 2013
    ..These data demonstrate that weak to moderate HLA antibody levels detectable by modern binding assays are not associated with platelet refractoriness...
  25. pmc Evidence for persistent low-level viremia in individuals who control human immunodeficiency virus in the absence of antiretroviral therapy
    Hiroyu Hatano
    San Francisco General Hospital, Building 80, Ward 84, 995 Potrero Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    J Virol 83:329-35. 2009
    ..This confirms the failure to eradicate the virus, even in these unique individuals who are able to reduce plasma viremia to very low levels without antiretroviral therapy...
  26. doi C1q-binding anti-HLA antibodies do not predict platelet transfusion failure in Trial to Reduce Alloimmunization to Platelets study participants
    Rachael P Jackman
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California
    Transfusion 56:1442-50. 2016
    ..As complement can contribute to PLT rejection, we assessed if previously undetected complement-binding antibodies account for refractoriness among LCA- patients...
  27. pmc HIV RNA levels in plasma and cervical-vaginal lavage fluid in elite controllers and HAART recipients
    Alan Landay
    aDepartment of Immunology Microbiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois bDepartment of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland cResearch and Development Support Creative Testing Solutions, Tempe, Arizona dMontefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx eCenter for Allergy and Asthma Research, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, New York, New York fDivision of Infectious Disease, Georgetown University, Washington, DC gDepartment of Pediatrics and Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles hDepartment of Clinical Pharmacy, Medicine, Epidemiology and Biostatistics iDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
    AIDS 28:739-43. 2014
    ..There are still gaps in our knowledge of whether low-level replication persists in systemic versus mucosal sites...
  28. pmc Fetal production of growth factors and inflammatory mediators predicts pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia
    Shannon Fleck
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco UCSF, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Pediatr Res 74:290-8. 2013
    ..We studied biomarkers at the maternal-fetal interface to understand factors associated with the persistence of PH...
  29. pmc Lot-to-lot variability in HLA antibody screening using a multiplexed bead-based assay
    Manish J Gandhi
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Department of Biomedical STatistics and Informatics, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Transfusion Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota Westat, Inc, Rockville, Maryland One Lambda, Inc, Canoga Park, California Deparment of Laboratory Medicine, University of California at San Francisco, Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California
    Transfusion 53:1940-7. 2013
    ..Various cutoffs for detection assays have been proposed in the literature; however, these do not take into consideration lot-to-lot variability of commercially available assays...
  30. pmc Detection of host immune responses in acute phase sera of spontaneous resolution versus persistent hepatitis C virus infection
    Suganya Selvarajah
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Gen Virol 93:1673-9. 2012
    ..In addition to monitoring lack of reduction in viral load, serum levels of IP-10 and IL-10 expression during acute HCV infection may be useful biomarkers to predict the progress to chronic HCV...
  31. pmc The effect of HIV infection and HAART on inflammatory biomarkers in a population-based cohort of women
    Sheila M Keating
    Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    AIDS 25:1823-32. 2011
    ..To determine the qualitative and quantitative nature of cytokine perturbation, we compared cytokine patterns in three HIV clinical groups, including HAART responders (HAART), untreated HIV noncontrollers, and HIV-uninfected (NEG)...
  32. pmc A novel human CD4+ T-cell inducer subset with potent immunostimulatory properties
    Lishomwa C Ndhlovu
    Division of Experimental Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, and HIV AIDS Division, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA
    Eur J Immunol 40:134-41. 2010
    ..We propose that this novel CD4+ T-cell population counterbalances the suppressive activity of suppressor Treg in peripheral blood and serves as a calibrator of immunoregulation...
  33. pmc CD57 defines a functionally distinct population of mature NK cells in the human CD56dimCD16+ NK-cell subset
    Sandra Lopez-Verges
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology and the Cancer Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
    Blood 116:3865-74. 2010
    ....
  34. pmc Identifying the early post-HIV antibody seroconversion period
    Frederick M Hecht
    University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    J Infect Dis 204:526-33. 2011
    ..Identifying persons with recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody seroconversion is useful for treatment, research, and prevention, but the sensitivity and specificity of tests for this purpose are uncertain...
  35. doi Comprehensive analysis of west nile virus-specific T cell responses in humans
    Marion C Lanteri
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Infect Dis 197:1296-306. 2008
    ..However, little is known about the immunogenic regions of the virus or the phenotype of responding T cells in human infection...
  36. pmc The importance of Foxp3 antibody and fixation/permeabilization buffer combinations in identifying CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells
    Jacqueline P Law
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94118, USA
    Cytometry A 75:1040-50. 2009
    ..The experiments presented here will aid in optimization of flow cytometry staining panels to quantify T(reg) frequencies in humans...
  37. pmc Magnitude and Quality of Cytokine and Chemokine Storm during Acute Infection Distinguish Nonprogressive and Progressive Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections of Nonhuman Primates
    Sheila M Keating
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, USA
    J Virol 90:10339-10350. 2016
    ....
  38. pmc Role of microRNA modulation in the interferon-α/ribavirin suppression of HIV-1 in vivo
    Mohamed Abdel-Mohsen
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States of America
    PLoS ONE 9:e109220. 2014
    ....
  39. pmc Soluble mediators of inflammation in HIV and their implications for therapeutics and vaccine development
    Sheila M Keating
    Blood Systems Research Institute, 270 Masonic Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 23:193-206. 2012
    ..Cytokines also show great promise as adjuvants in the development of HIV vaccines, which would be critical for the eventual control of the epidemic...
  40. pmc Understanding loss of donor white blood cell immunogenicity after pathogen reduction: mechanisms of action in ultraviolet illumination and riboflavin treatment
    Rachael P Jackman
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Medicine, Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA
    Transfusion 49:2686-99. 2009
    ..In addition to pathogens, WBCs treated with this system are affected and fail to stimulate proliferation of allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) in vitro...
  41. pmc Long-term in vitro reactivity for human leukocyte antigen antibodies and comparison of detection using serum versus plasma
    Philip J Norris
    Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, USA
    Transfusion 49:243-51. 2009
    ..Serum is the manufacturer's recommended sample, but plasma may be easier to obtain for studies of HLA antibody prevalence and TRALI case investigations...
  42. pmc Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 infection drives spontaneous proliferation of natural killer cells
    Philip J Norris
    Blood Systems Research Institute, and Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA
    Virulence 1:19-28. 2010
    ....
  43. pmc Suppression of HIV-1 plasma viral load below detection preserves IL-17 producing T cells in HIV-1 infection
    Lishomwa C Ndhlovu
    Division of Experimental Medicine, San Francisco General Hospital, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, California 94110, USA
    AIDS 22:990-2. 2008
    ..These results imply viral-mediated destruction or impairment of Th17 cells and argue for complete suppression of viremia for reconstitution of Th17 cells...
  44. doi The effects of 22°C and 4°C storage of platelets on vascular endothelial integrity and function
    Gyulnar Baimukanova
    Blood Systems Research Institute, University of California, San Francisco, California
    Transfusion 56:S52-64. 2016
    ..In this study, we compared the effects of room temperature (22°C) stored and (4°C) stored PLTs on the regulation of vascular endothelial cell (EC) permeability in vitro and in vivo...
  45. pmc Techniques to improve detection and analysis of extracellular vesicles using flow cytometry
    Heather C Inglis
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, California
    Cytometry A 87:1052-63. 2015
    ..In conclusion, use of these optimized techniques enhances the accuracy and efficiency of EV detection using FCM...
  46. pmc Transfusion-related acute lung injury: incidence and risk factors
    Pearl Toy
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Box 0451, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 0451, USA
    Blood 119:1757-67. 2012
    ..57 (95% CI, 1.72-3.86) in 2006 versus 0.81 (95% CI, 0.44-1.49) in 2009 per 10 000 transfused units (P = .002). The identified risk factors provide potential targets for reducing residual TRALI...
  47. pmc Loss of T cell responses following long-term cryopreservation
    Rachel E Owen
    Blood Systems Research Institute, 270 Masonic Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Immunol Methods 326:93-115. 2007
    ..Long-term cryopreservation, however, may lead to the loss of CD4(+) T cell responses and mild skewing of T cell phenotypic marker expression...
  48. ncbi Transfusion-associated microchimerism: a new complication of blood transfusions in severely injured patients
    William Reed
    Blood Systems Research Institute, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Semin Hematol 44:24-31. 2007
    ....
  49. pmc Beyond help: direct effector functions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD4(+) T cells
    Philip J Norris
    Blood Systems Research Institute, 270 Masonic Ave, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    J Virol 78:8844-51. 2004
    ..While the antiviral effector activity of CD8(+) T cells has been well documented, these results strongly suggest that HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T cells are capable of directly contributing to antiviral immunity...
  50. pmc Antagonism of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells by C-terminal truncation of a minimum epitope
    Philip J Norris
    Blood Systems Research Institute, Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, 270 Masonic Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
    Mol Immunol 43:1349-57. 2006
    ....
  51. ncbi Nanoparticle-Based biobarcode amplification assay (BCA) for sensitive and early detection of human immunodeficiency type 1 capsid (p24) antigen
    Shixing Tang
    Lab of Molecular Virology, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
    J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 46:231-7. 2007
    ....
  52. ncbi The effects of early antiretroviral therapy and its discontinuation on the HIV-specific antibody response
    M Scott Killian
    Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, 94143, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22:640-7. 2006
    ..These results demonstrate that early ART prevents the typical evolution of the HIV-1-specific antibody response and can alter the expected kinetics of this response in subjects discontinuing therapy...
  53. ncbi Influenza viremia and the potential for blood-borne transmission
    Anna M Likos
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Transfusion 47:1080-8. 2007
  54. pmc Fine specificity and cross-clade reactivity of HIV type 1 Gag-specific CD4+ T cells
    Philip J Norris
    Partners AIDS Research Center and Infectious Disease Unit, The Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 20:315-25. 2004
    ..Abrogated recognition of variant CD4(+) T cell epitopes presents a potential obstacle to vaccine development...
  55. ncbi Heat shock protein-mediated cross-presentation of exogenous HIV antigen on HLA class I and class II
    Devi SenGupta
    Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA
    J Immunol 173:1987-93. 2004
    ....
  56. ncbi CD4(+) T helper cells and the role they play in viral control
    Philip J Norris
    Massachusetts General Hospital and Partners AIDS Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, GRJ 504, Boston, MA 02114, USA
    J Mol Med (Berl) 80:397-405. 2002
    ..We then focus on the role T helper cells play in viral control in murine and nonhuman primate models, and finally review what is known of CD4(+) T helper cell function in HIV-1 infection...
  57. pmc Comprehensive analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific CD4 responses reveals marked immunodominance of gag and nef and the presence of broadly recognized peptides
    Daniel E Kaufmann
    Partners AIDS Research Center and Infectious Disease Unit, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Division of AIDS, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA
    J Virol 78:4463-77. 2004
    ..These findings have implications for the design of immunotherapeutic strategies and for testing candidate HIV vaccines...