Tae Cheon Kang

Summary

Affiliation: Hallym University
Country: Korea

Publications

  1. pmc Transcortical alterations in Na(+)-K+ ATPase and microtubule-associated proteins immunoreactivity in the rat cortical atrophy model induced by hypoxic ischemia
    Jun Gyo Suh
    Department of Medical Genetics and Experimental Animal Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neural Plast 9:135-46. 2002
  2. pmc Status epilepticus induces vasogenic edema via tumor necrosis factor-α/ endothelin-1-mediated two different pathways
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, Republic of Korea Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, Republic of Korea
    PLoS ONE 8:e74458. 2013
  3. pmc The effects of electrical shock on the expressions of aquaporin subunits in the rat spinal cords
    Seong Il Yeo
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea
    Anat Cell Biol 44:50-9. 2011
  4. pmc P2X7 receptor activation ameliorates CA3 neuronal damage via a tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated pathway in the rat hippocampus following status epilepticus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    J Neuroinflammation 8:62. 2011
  5. pmc P2X7 receptor regulates leukocyte infiltrations in rat frontoparietal cortex following status epilepticus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    J Neuroinflammation 7:65. 2010
  6. ncbi request reprint GABA(B) receptor-mediated regulation of P2X7 receptor expression in the gerbil hippocampus
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 121:12-8. 2004
  7. ncbi request reprint Altered Na+-K+ ATPase immunoreactivity within GABAergic neurons in the gerbil hippocampal complex induced by spontaneous seizure and vigabatrin treatment
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Kangwon Do, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurochem Int 45:179-87. 2004
  8. ncbi request reprint Elevated voltage-gated Ca2+ channel immunoreactivities in the hippocampus of seizure-prone gerbil
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1029:168-78. 2004
  9. ncbi request reprint Epileptogenic roles of astroglial death and regeneration in the dentate gyrus of experimental temporal lobe epilepsy
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, South Korea
    Glia 54:258-71. 2006
  10. ncbi request reprint The somatostatin receptors in the normal and epileptic hippocampus of the gerbil: subtype-specific localization and its alteration
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 986:91-102. 2003

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications128 found, 100 shown here

  1. pmc Transcortical alterations in Na(+)-K+ ATPase and microtubule-associated proteins immunoreactivity in the rat cortical atrophy model induced by hypoxic ischemia
    Jun Gyo Suh
    Department of Medical Genetics and Experimental Animal Center, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neural Plast 9:135-46. 2002
    ..In addition, this asymmetric hyperexcitability might play an important role in the recovery or the reorganization of the brain, accompanied by transcortical changes in MAPs expression...
  2. pmc Status epilepticus induces vasogenic edema via tumor necrosis factor-α/ endothelin-1-mediated two different pathways
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, Republic of Korea Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, Republic of Korea
    PLoS ONE 8:e74458. 2013
    ....
  3. pmc The effects of electrical shock on the expressions of aquaporin subunits in the rat spinal cords
    Seong Il Yeo
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea
    Anat Cell Biol 44:50-9. 2011
    ..Unlike AQP1 and AQP4, AQP9 immunoreactivity was unaffected by the ES. These findings indicate that altered AQP immunoreactivity may be involved in SCI following an ES...
  4. pmc P2X7 receptor activation ameliorates CA3 neuronal damage via a tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated pathway in the rat hippocampus following status epilepticus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    J Neuroinflammation 8:62. 2011
    ..In the present study, we addressed the question of whether P2X7 receptor-mediated TNF-α regulation is involved in pathogenesis and outcome of status epilepticus (SE)...
  5. pmc P2X7 receptor regulates leukocyte infiltrations in rat frontoparietal cortex following status epilepticus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    J Neuroinflammation 7:65. 2010
    ..In the present study, we investigated the roles of P2X7 receptor in recruitment and infiltration of neutrophil during epileptogenesis in rat epilepsy models...
  6. ncbi request reprint GABA(B) receptor-mediated regulation of P2X7 receptor expression in the gerbil hippocampus
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 121:12-8. 2004
    ....
  7. ncbi request reprint Altered Na+-K+ ATPase immunoreactivity within GABAergic neurons in the gerbil hippocampal complex induced by spontaneous seizure and vigabatrin treatment
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Kangwon Do, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurochem Int 45:179-87. 2004
    ..Following administration of vigabatrin Na(+)-K(+) ATPase expression was also increased. The present data suggest that altered Na(+)-K(+) ATPase expression may contribute the regulation of the seizure activity in this animal...
  8. ncbi request reprint Elevated voltage-gated Ca2+ channel immunoreactivities in the hippocampus of seizure-prone gerbil
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1029:168-78. 2004
    ....
  9. ncbi request reprint Epileptogenic roles of astroglial death and regeneration in the dentate gyrus of experimental temporal lobe epilepsy
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, South Korea
    Glia 54:258-71. 2006
    ..Thus, we believe that it is worth considering new therapeutic approaches to epileptogenesis involving targeting the inactivation of microglia and protecting against astroglial loss...
  10. ncbi request reprint The somatostatin receptors in the normal and epileptic hippocampus of the gerbil: subtype-specific localization and its alteration
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 986:91-102. 2003
    ....
  11. ncbi request reprint P2X2 and P2X4 receptor expression is regulated by a GABA(A) receptor-mediated mechanism in the gerbil hippocampus
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 116:168-75. 2003
    ..These results suggest that the GABA(A) receptor-mediated modulation of P2X receptor expression may play an important role in the regulation of neuronal excitability...
  12. ncbi request reprint Presynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor-mediated regulation of vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter expression in the gerbil hippocampus
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Lett 346:49-52. 2003
    ....
  13. ncbi request reprint Altered expression of K+ -Cl- cotransporters affects fast paired-pulse inhibition during GABA receptor activation in the gerbil hippocampus
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1072:8-14. 2006
    ..In addition, altered KCC immunoreactivity induced by baclofen or muscimol may play an important role in maintaining or regulating inhibitory transmission during GABA receptor activation...
  14. ncbi request reprint The evidence for GABAB receptor-mediated regulation of acid-base balance: involvement of Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+/HCO3- cotransporter
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 114:86-90. 2003
    ..Therefore, our findings suggest that GABAB receptor-mediated regulation of NHE1 and NBC expressions may participate in acid-base balance in the gerbil hippocampus...
  15. ncbi request reprint Effect of vigabatrin on glutamate dehydrogenase in the hippocampus of seizure prone gerbils
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Lett 340:115-8. 2003
    ..These findings suggest that VGB administration may suppress the development and spread of seizures not only by elevating the level of GABA, but also by affecting the glutamate signaling and energy metabolism in neurons...
  16. ncbi request reprint Alterations in Na+/H+ exchanger and Na+/HCO3- cotransporter immunoreactivities within the gerbil hippocampus following seizure
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res Mol Brain Res 109:226-32. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that the changes in both NHE1 and NBC immunoreactivity within the hippocampus following seizure may affect tissue excitability and play a role in the reduction of the seizure activity in the gerbil...
  17. ncbi request reprint Changed vesicular GABA transporter immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus following spontaneous seizure and vigabatrin administration
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Lett 335:207-11. 2003
    ....
  18. ncbi request reprint Changes in pyridoxal kinase immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus following spontaneous seizure
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, College of Life Science, Hallym University, Kangwon Do, Chunchon, South Korea
    Brain Res 957:242-50. 2002
    ..The over-expression of PLK in the hippocampus of pre-seizure SS gerbils suggests that PLP play an important role in the modulation of GAD activity and GABA reuptake as mediated by membrane transporter via neurons...
  19. ncbi request reprint Chronological changes in pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase immunoreactivity in the seizure-sensitive gerbil hippocampus
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, South Korea
    J Neurosci Res 68:785-91. 2002
    ..In addition, this change in the PNP oxidase immunoreactivity following seizure may be a compensatory response designed to reduce epileptic activity in this animal...
  20. ncbi request reprint Changes in Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus following spontaneous seizure
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, 200 702 Kangwon Do, Chunchon, South Korea
    Neurosci Res 44:285-95. 2002
    ..These findings suggest that altered NKCC expression may be associated with seizure activity, and have an important role in the postictal recovery by regulating GABA-mediated inhibitory circuit in the hippocampal complex of the gerbil...
  21. ncbi request reprint The selective effects of somatostatin- and GABA-mediated transmissions on voltage gated Ca2+ channel immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus
    Duk Soo Kim
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1115:200-8. 2006
    ..These findings also suggest that up-regulated VGCC immunoreactivity may be consequence of the neuronal excitability caused by a reduction in inhibitory neurotransmission in the gerbil hippocampus...
  22. ncbi request reprint Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against human ceruloplasmin
    Won Sik Eum
    Department of Genetic Engineering and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    J Biochem Mol Biol 38:71-6. 2005
    ..The CP mAbs could be of great benefit to design the diagnostic kit for CP-related diseases such as Wilson's disease...
  23. ncbi request reprint Effects of GABAergic transmissions on the immunoreactivities of calcium binding proteins in the gerbil hippocampus
    Sung Eun Kwak
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    J Comp Neurol 485:153-64. 2005
    ..These findings therefore suggest that reduced CBP immunoreactivities may be the consequence of abnormal discharge caused by loss of GABAergic inhibition rather than an indication of the neuronal damage/degeneration...
  24. ncbi request reprint Neuroprotective effects of grape seed extract on neuronal injury by inhibiting DNA damage in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, 200 702, South Korea
    Life Sci 75:1989-2001. 2004
    ..Therefore, these results suggest that GSE can protect ischemic neuronal damage by inhibiting DNA damage after transient forebrain ischemia...
  25. ncbi request reprint Transduced Tat-SOD fusion protein protects against ischemic brain injury
    Dae Won Kim
    Department of Genetic Engineering and Research, Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    Mol Cells 19:88-96. 2005
    ..These results suggest that Tat-SOD provides a strategy for therapeutic delivery in various hu-man diseases, including stroke, related to this anti-oxidant enzyme or to ROS...
  26. ncbi request reprint Comparison of alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity and protein levels in ischemic hippocampal CA1 region between adult and aged gerbils and correlation with Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase
    Dae Kun Yoon
    Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Res 55:434-41. 2006
    ....
  27. ncbi request reprint Spatial and temporal alterations in the GABA shunt in the gerbil hippocampus following transient ischemia
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Life Science, Hallym University, Chunchon, South Korea
    Brain Res 944:10-8. 2002
    ..Thus, our findings suggest that the differential alterations of GABA metabolism may be one of the important factors in neuronal damages induced by ischemia...
  28. ncbi request reprint Transient ischemia-induced changes of interleukin-2 and its receptor beta immunoreactivity and levels in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1106:197-204. 2006
    ..These results suggest that IL-2 and IL-2Rbeta show malfunction from 3 h after ischemia, and exogenous IL-2 does not protect ischemic neuronal damage...
  29. ncbi request reprint Expression and changes of galanin in neurons and microglia in the hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1023:193-9. 2004
    ....
  30. pmc Copper chaperone for Cu,Zn-SOD supplement potentiates the Cu,Zn-SOD function of neuroprotective effects against ischemic neuronal damage in the gerbil hippocampus
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Free Radic Biol Med 39:392-402. 2005
    ....
  31. ncbi request reprint Transduced human copper chaperone for Cu,Zn-SOD (PEP-1-CCS) protects against neuronal cell death
    Soo Hyun Choi
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    Mol Cells 20:401-8. 2005
    ..These results suggest that CCS is essential to activate SOD, and that transduction of PEP-1-CCS provides a potential strategy for therapeutic delivery in various human diseases including stroke related to SOD or ROS...
  32. ncbi request reprint Tyrosine kinase A but not phosphacan/protein tyrosine phosphatase-zeta/beta immunoreactivity and protein level changes in neurons and astrocytes in the gerbil hippocampus proper after transient forebrain ischemia
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1036:35-41. 2005
    ..These results suggest that chronological changes of trkA after transient forebrain ischemia may be associated with an ischemic damage compensatory mechanism in CA1 pyramidal cells...
  33. ncbi request reprint Comparative study on Cu,Zn-SOD immunoreactivity and protein levels in the adult and aged hippocampal CA1 region after ischemia-reperfusion
    Dae Kun Yoon
    Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1092:214-9. 2006
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Differential effects and changes of ceruloplasmin in the hippocampal CA1 region between adult and aged gerbils after transient cerebral ischemia
    Ki Yeon Yoo
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Res 55:134-41. 2006
    ....
  35. ncbi request reprint Transduction of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-related mutant PEP-1-SOD proteins into neuronal cells
    Jae Jin An
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    Mol Cells 25:55-63. 2008
    ..The effects of the transduced SOD1 fusion proteins may provide an explanation for the association of SOD1 with FALS, and Hsps could be candidate agents for the treatment of ALS...
  36. ncbi request reprint Altered GABAB receptor immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus induced by baclofen and phaclofen, not seizure activity
    Seung Kook Park
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Kangwon do Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Res 49:405-16. 2004
    ..These findings suggest that GABA(B) receptor expression in the gerbil hippocampus may be altered by baclofen or phaclofen treatment...
  37. ncbi request reprint Age-related changes of gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus of the Mongolian gerbil
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1017:77-84. 2004
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that the age-related changes of GABA-T provide important information about the aged brain with GABA dysfunction...
  38. ncbi request reprint 9-polylysine protein transduction domain: enhanced penetration efficiency of superoxide dismutase into mammalian cells and skin
    Jinseu Park
    Division of Life Sciences, Hallym University, Chunchon, Korea
    Mol Cells 13:202-8. 2002
    ..These results suggest Tat-SOD and 9Lys-SOD fusion proteins can be used as anti-aging cosmetics, or in protein therapy, for various disorders that are related to this antioxidant enzyme and ROS...
  39. ncbi request reprint Ischemia-related change of ceruloplasmin immunoreactivity in neurons and astrocytes in the gerbil hippocampus and dentate gyrus
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurochem Int 44:601-7. 2004
    ..This delayed neuronal injury 1 day after ischemic insult might provide a window of opportunity for therapeutic interventions using antioxidants...
  40. ncbi request reprint Differential paired-pulse responses between the CA1 region and the dentate gyrus are related to altered CLC-2 immunoreactivity in the pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model
    Sung Eun Kwak
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1115:162-8. 2006
    ..Therefore, our findings suggest that the regionally specific alterations in CLC-2 immunoreactivity after SE may determine the properties of paired-pulse responses in the hippocampus of the pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model...
  41. ncbi request reprint PEP-1-SOD fusion protein efficiently protects against paraquat-induced dopaminergic neuron damage in a Parkinson disease mouse model
    Hee Soon Choi
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    Free Radic Biol Med 41:1058-68. 2006
    ..These results suggest that PEP-1-SOD provides a strategy for therapeutic delivery in various human diseases related to reactive oxygen species, including PD...
  42. ncbi request reprint Chronological alterations of neurofilament 150 immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus and dentate gyrus after transient forebrain ischemia
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Okchon dong 1, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1016:119-28. 2004
    ..These results suggest that ischemia-related changes of NF-150 expression may be caused by the calcium following transient forebrain ischemia...
  43. ncbi request reprint The effect of P2X receptor activity on GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the gerbil hippocampus
    Duk Soo Kim
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1065:125-31. 2005
    ..Therefore, our findings suggest that the relationship between GABA(A) receptor and P(2)X receptor may not be reciprocal, although GABA(A) receptor activity affects P(2)X receptor functionality and its expression...
  44. ncbi request reprint Protein disulfide isomerase immunoreactivity and protein level changes in neurons and astrocytes in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient ischemia
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Lett 375:117-22. 2005
    ....
  45. ncbi request reprint In vivo protein transduction: biologically active intact pep-1-superoxide dismutase fusion protein efficiently protects against ischemic insult
    Won Sik Eum
    Department of Genetic Engineering, Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, 1 1 Okchon Dong, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, Korea, 200 702, Korea
    Free Radic Biol Med 37:1656-69. 2004
    ..These results suggest that the biologically active intact forms of PEP-1-SOD provide a more efficient strategy for therapeutic delivery in various human diseases related to this antioxidant enzyme or to ROS, including stroke...
  46. ncbi request reprint Up-regulated astroglial TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ channel-1 (TASK-1) in the hippocampus of seizure-sensitive gerbils: a target of anti-epileptic drugs
    Duk Soo Kim
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1185:346-58. 2007
    ....
  47. ncbi request reprint Very delayed neuronal loss occurs in the glomerular layer of the main olfactory bulb following transient ischemia in gerbils
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, 1 Okchon Dong, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Lett 366:272-6. 2004
    ..At this time period, astrocytes and microglia were pronouncedly increased. This result indicates that neuronal loss must be much delayed in the GL following transient ischemia...
  48. doi request reprint Transduced Tat-SAG fusion protein protects against oxidative stress and brain ischemic insult
    Dae Won Kim
    Department of Biomedical Science, Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Medical and Bio material Research Center, Hallym University, Chunchon, Korea
    Free Radic Biol Med 48:969-77. 2010
    ..Our results demonstrate that Tat-SAG fusion protein is a tool for the treatment of ischemic insult and it can be used in protein therapy for various disorders related to ROS, including stroke...
  49. ncbi request reprint Age-dependent changes of pyridoxal phosphate synthesizing enzymes immunoreactivities and activities in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Mech Ageing Dev 126:1322-30. 2005
    ..Therefore, decreases of PLK and PNPO in the hippocampal CA1 region of aged brains may be involved in aging processes related with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function...
  50. ncbi request reprint Antioxidant-like protein 1 is altered in non-pyramidal cells and expressed in astrocytes in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after transient forebrain ischemia
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1062:111-9. 2005
    ..This result suggests that AOP-1 may be important role in homeostasis of GABAergic neurons because these neurons are resistant to ischemic damage...
  51. ncbi request reprint The effect of topiramate on GABA(B) receptor, vesicular GABA transporter and paired-pulse inhibition in the gerbil hippocampus
    Duk Soo Kim
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Res 53:413-20. 2005
    ..Therefore, these properties of TPM may be another possible antiepileptic effect, which plays an important role in preventing the spread of seizure activity without proconvulsive effects...
  52. ncbi request reprint Transient ischemia-induced changes of neurofilament 200 kDa immunoreactivity and protein content in the main olfactory bulb in gerbils
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    J Neurol Sci 239:59-66. 2005
    ....
  53. ncbi request reprint Elevated voltage gated Cl- channel expression enhances fast paired-pulse inhibition in the dentate gyrus of seizure sensitive gerbil
    Duk Soo Kim
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Res 51:45-53. 2005
    ..These findings suggest that enhancement of CLC expression in the dentate gyrus of SS gerbils may be one of the compensatory responses for reduced GABA(A) receptor-mediated fast postsynaptic inhibitory potentials...
  54. ncbi request reprint Expression and changes of Ca2+-ATPase in neurons and astrocytes in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia
    Hyoseon Shin
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1049:43-51. 2005
    ....
  55. doi request reprint Blockade of P2X receptor prevents astroglial death in the dentate gyrus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Korea
    Neurol Res 31:982-8. 2009
    ..Therefore, we investigated whether blocking the P(2) receptor would prevent the astroglial death induced by status epilepticus (SE)...
  56. ncbi request reprint Vigabatrin inhibits pyridoxine-5'-phosphate oxidase, not pyridoxal kinase in the hippocampus of seizure prone gerbils
    Sung Jin An
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Kangwon Do 200 702, Chunchon, South Korea
    Neurochem Int 44:133-7. 2004
    ..In conclusion, the present data presents a piece of in vivo evidence that supports the anti-epileptic effects mediated by pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate (PMP) metabolism, and which may be helpful in the development of an anti-epileptic drug...
  57. doi request reprint Transduced human PEP-1-heat shock protein 27 efficiently protects against brain ischemic insult
    Jae J An
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon, Korea
    FEBS J 275:1296-308. 2008
    ....
  58. ncbi request reprint Enhanced transduction of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase with HIV-1 Tat protein transduction domains at both termini
    Won Sik Eum
    Department of Genetic Engineering and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    Mol Cells 19:191-7. 2005
    ..The availability of a more efficient SOD fusion protein provides a powerful vehicle for therapy in human diseases related to this anti-oxidant enzyme and to reactive oxygen species...
  59. ncbi request reprint Transduced HSP27 protein protects neuronal cell death by enhancing FALS-associated SOD1 mutant activity
    Jae Jin An
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    BMB Rep 42:136-41. 2009
    ..Moreover, transduced PEP-1-HSP27 efficiently prevents protein aggregation produced by oxidative stress. These results suggest that transduced HSP27 fusion protein may be explored as a potential therapeutic agent for FALS patients...
  60. doi request reprint Potential role of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate phosphatase/chronopin in epilepsy
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Republic of Korea
    Exp Neurol 211:128-40. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that PLPP/CIN-mediated actin dynamics may play an important role in the changes of morphological properties and excitability of the epileptic hippocampus...
  61. ncbi request reprint Protein transduction of an antioxidant enzyme: subcellular localization of superoxide dismutase fusion protein in cells
    Dae Won Kim
    Department of Biomedical Science and the Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Korea
    BMB Rep 41:170-5. 2008
    ..Thus, our results suggest that these peptides should be useful for targeting the specific localization of therapeutic proteins in various human diseases...
  62. ncbi request reprint Enhancement of HIV-1 Tat fusion protein transduction efficiency by bog blueberry anthocyanins
    Sun Hwa Lee
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    BMB Rep 43:561-6. 2010
    ....
  63. ncbi request reprint Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 immunoreactive cells change in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after ischemia/reperfusion
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurochem Res 31:957-65. 2006
    ..These may be associated with the delayed neuronal death of CA1 pyramidal cells in the gerbil ischemic hippocampus...
  64. ncbi request reprint Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 alters in pyramidal cells and expresses in astrocytes of the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region after ischemia
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1086:181-90. 2006
    ....
  65. ncbi request reprint Immunohistochemical studies of human ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3)
    Soo Hyun Choi
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    J Biochem Mol Biol 39:208-15. 2006
    ..The different distributions of rpS3 in brain tissues reply that rpS3 protein may play an important second function in the neuronal cells...
  66. ncbi request reprint Ischemia-induced changes of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 in the hippocampal CA1 region in gerbils
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1048:251-7. 2005
    ..This result suggests that the increase of PECAM-1 and decrease of PECAM-1 RNA in the CA1 region 4 days after ischemia may be associated with transmigration of neurotrophil...
  67. ncbi request reprint Expression and changes of endogenous insulin-like growth factor-1 in neurons and glia in the gerbil hippocampus and dentate gyrus after ischemic insult
    In Koo Hwang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurochem Int 45:149-56. 2004
    ..These increases of IGF-1 in astrocytes and in microglia are associated with mechanisms that compensate for the effects of delayed neuronal death...
  68. ncbi request reprint Bilateral enhancement of excitation via up-regulation of vesicular glutamate transporter subtype 1, not subtype 2, immunoreactivity in the unilateral hypoxic epilepsy model
    Duk Soo Kim
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1055:122-30. 2005
    ....
  69. doi request reprint PEP-1-heat shock protein 27 protects from neuronal damage in cells and in a Parkinson's disease mouse model
    Yeom Pyo Lee
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon, Korea
    FEBS J 279:1929-42. 2012
    ..These results demonstrate that PEP-1-HSP27 provides a potential strategy for therapeutic delivery against various diseases and is a potential tool for the treatment of PD...
  70. ncbi request reprint Up-regulation of P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel immunoreactivity within parvalbumin positive neurons in the rat hippocampus following status epilepticus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Res 57:379-86. 2007
    ..These findings suggest that SE may induce prolonged up-regulation in P/Q-type VGCC expression within PV positive neurons...
  71. doi request reprint Spatiotemporal characteristics of astroglial death in the rat hippocampo-entorhinal complex following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus
    Duk Soo Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    J Comp Neurol 511:581-98. 2008
    ..These findings suggest that regional specific astroglial death/regeneration patterns may play an important role in the pathogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy...
  72. doi request reprint Hyperthermic seizure induces persistent alteration in excitability of the dentate gyrus in immature rats
    Sung Eun Kwak
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1216:1-15. 2008
    ..These findings indicate that in this model the epileptogenic changes in the dentate gyrus may be based on the persistent alterations in excitability via neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, and impaired GABA(B) receptor-mediated inhibition...
  73. ncbi request reprint Altered corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampal complex following spontaneous seizure
    Sung Jin An
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, 200 702, Kangwon Do, South Korea
    Neurochem Int 43:39-45. 2003
    ..These results suggest that altered CRF receptor expression in the hippocampal complex may affect tissue excitability and seizure activity in SS gerbils...
  74. doi request reprint Astroglial loss and edema formation in the rat piriform cortex and hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    J Comp Neurol 518:4612-28. 2010
    ..Subsequently, vasogenic edema results in extensive astroglial loss that may aggravate vasogenic edema...
  75. doi request reprint Anti-inflammatory effect of transduced PEP-1-cyclophilin A in Raw264.7 cells and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced mice
    Min Jung Lee
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Republic of Korea
    Life Sci 89:896-904. 2011
    ..CypA has emerged as a potential drug target for several inflammatory diseases, although the details of its mechanism are unclear. We examined the protective effects of CypA on inflammation in Raw 264.7 cells and animal models...
  76. ncbi request reprint Cysteine-321 of human brain GABA transaminase is involved in intersubunit cross-linking
    Chang Sik Yoon
    Department of Genetic Engineering and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    Mol Cells 18:214-9. 2004
    ..These results suggest that the Cys321 residue is essential for the catalytic function of GABA-T, and that it is involved in the formation of a disulfide link between two monomers of human brain GABA-T...
  77. doi request reprint Pyridoxine 5'-phosphate oxidase, not pyridoxal kinase, involves in long-term potentiation induction in the rat dentate gyrus
    Sung Eun Kwak
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, Republic of Korea
    Hippocampus 19:45-56. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that PNPO may play a role in activity-dependent regulation of PLP level in the brain, which is involved in LTP induction and paired-pulse facilitation but not in enhancement of GABAergic inhibition...
  78. doi request reprint Levosulpiride, (S)-(-)-5-Aminosulfonyl-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-2-methoxybenzamide, enhances the transduction efficiency of PEP-1-ribosomal protein S3 in vitro and in vivo
    Eun Hee Ahn
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon, Korea
    BMB Rep 44:329-34. 2011
    ..These results suggest that levosulpiride may be useful for enhancing the therapeutic effect of PEP-1-rpS3 against various inflammatory diseases. [BMB reports 2011; 44(5): 329-334]...
  79. ncbi request reprint Seizure activity affects neuroglial Kv1 channel immunoreactivities in the gerbil hippocampus
    Duk Soo Kim
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Kangwon Do, South Korea
    Brain Res 1151:172-87. 2007
    ..Therefore, the present study demonstrates that seizure activity may distinctly affect neuroglial Kv1 immunoreactivities in the gerbil hippocampus...
  80. ncbi request reprint Berberry extract reduces neuronal damage and N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 immunoreactivity in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia
    Ki Yeon Yoo
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, South Korea
    Biol Pharm Bull 29:623-8. 2006
    ..These results suggest that BE has potent neuroprotective effects against ischemic damage via the reduction of NR1 activity...
  81. doi request reprint P2X7 receptor differentially modulates astroglial apoptosis and clasmatodendrosis in the rat brain following status epilepticus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Hippocampus 21:1318-33. 2011
    ..Astroglial loss in the piriform cortex was not affected by P2X7 receptor agonist- or antagonist-infusion. These findings suggest that P2X7 receptor function differently modulates SE-induced astroglial loss in distinct brain regions...
  82. doi request reprint Levetiracetam inhibits interleukin-1 beta inflammatory responses in the hippocampus and piriform cortex of epileptic rats
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Lett 471:94-9. 2010
    ..These findings suggest that the LEV may have, at least in part, anti-inflammatory effect, particularly against IL-1 beta system in neuroglia within epileptic brains...
  83. doi request reprint Region-specific alterations in astroglial TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+-1 channel immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampal complex following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    J Comp Neurol 510:463-74. 2008
    ..Therefore, alteration in TASK-1 immunoreactivity may contribute to acquisition of the properties of the epileptic hippocampal complex...
  84. doi request reprint Effects of pergolide mesylate on transduction efficiency of PEP-1-catalase protein
    Eun Jeong Sohn
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Republic of Korea
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun 406:336-40. 2011
    ..Our results indicate that PM may enhance the delivery of PTDs fusion therapeutic proteins to target cells and tissues and has potential to increase their therapeutic effects of such drugs against various diseases...
  85. ncbi request reprint Human brain pyridoxal-5'-phosphate phosphatase: production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies
    Dae Won Kim
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    J Biochem Mol Biol 38:703-8. 2005
    ..We believe that these PLP phosphatase mAbs could be used as valuable immunodiagnostic reagents for the detection, identification, and characterization of various neurological diseases related to vitamin B6 abnormalities...
  86. ncbi request reprint The altered expression of GABA shunt enzymes in the gerbil hippocampus before and after seizure generation
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Kangwon Do, South Korea
    Neurochem Int 42:239-49. 2003
    ..Therefore, the initiation of seizure, at least in gerbils, may be the result of a malfunction in GABA shunt in the GABAergic neurons...
  87. doi request reprint Anticonvulsant characteristics of pyridoxyl-gamma-aminobutyrate, PL-GABA
    Tae Cheon Kang
    Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    Neuropharmacology 54:954-64. 2008
    ..Therefore, our results indicate that PL-GABA exerts a broad-spectrum anticonvulsant effect, and identify the potential for reduced PL-GABA tolerance as an additional positive profile for novel antiepileptic drugs...
  88. doi request reprint Decrease in dystrophin expression prior to disruption of brain-blood barrier within the rat piriform cortex following status epilepticus
    Seung Hun Sheen
    Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Republic of Korea
    Brain Res 1369:173-83. 2011
    ....
  89. ncbi request reprint Neuronal loss in primary long-term cortical culture involves neurodegeneration-like cell death via calpain and p35 processing, but not developmental apoptosis or aging
    Min Ju Kim
    Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200 702, Korea
    Exp Mol Med 39:14-26. 2007
    ..Our results suggest that the long term primary culture of cortical neurons represent a valuable model of neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease...
  90. ncbi request reprint Tat-mediated protein transduction of human brain pyridoxine-5-P oxidase into PC12 cells
    So Young Kim
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Research, Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Korea
    J Biochem Mol Biol 39:76-83. 2006
    ..These results suggest that the transduction of Tat-pyridoxine-5-P oxidase fusion protein presents a means of regulating the level of pyridoxal-5-P and of replenishing this enzyme in various neurological disorders related to vitamin B6...
  91. doi request reprint Voltage-gated Na+ channel II immunoreactivity is selectively up-regulated in hippocampal interneurons of seizure sensitive gerbils
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do 200 702, South Korea
    Neurosci Lett 438:295-9. 2008
    ....
  92. ncbi request reprint Human PEP-1-ribosomal protein S3 protects against UV-induced skin cell death
    Soo Hyun Choi
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Republic of Korea
    FEBS Lett 580:6755-62. 2006
    ..These results suggest that PEP-1-rpS3 fusion protein can be used in protein therapy for various disorders related to UV, including skin aging and cancer...
  93. doi request reprint Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate phosphatase/chronophin inhibits long-term potentiation induction in the rat dentate gyrus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, South Korea
    Hippocampus 19:1078-89. 2009
    ..These findings suggest that PLPP/CIN-mediated actin dynamics may play an important role in the changes of morphological properties (dendritic spine reorganization) of the hippocampus in LTP...
  94. doi request reprint Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on GABAergic inhibition in the hippocampus of normal and pilocarpine induced epileptic rats
    Hui Chul Choi
    Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Brain Res 1357:131-41. 2010
    ..However, whether these differential effects result from a direct effect on GABAergic interneurons or via 5-HT subtype receptors remains to be elucidated...
  95. doi request reprint Transduced PEP-1-ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3) ameliorates 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation in mice
    Eun Hee Ahn
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Republic of Korea
    Toxicology 276:192-7. 2010
    ..These results indicate that PEP-1-rpS3 inhibits inflammatory response cytokines and enzymes by blocking NF-kB and MAPK, prompting the suggestion that PEP-1-rpS3 can be used as a therapeutic agent against skin inflammation...
  96. pmc Tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated threonine 435 phosphorylation of p65 nuclear factor-κB subunit in endothelial cells induces vasogenic edema and neutrophil infiltration in the rat piriform cortex following status epilepticus
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, Kangwon Do, South Korea
    J Neuroinflammation 9:6. 2012
    ....
  97. doi request reprint Upregulated TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ channel-2 in neurons and perivascular astrocytes in the hippocampus of experimental temporal lobe epilepsy
    Ji Eun Kim
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology and Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon, South Korea
    Epilepsia 50:654-63. 2009
    ....
  98. pmc Effects of creatine and β-guanidinopropionic acid and alterations in creatine transporter and creatine kinases expression in acute seizure and chronic epilepsy models
    Dae Won Kim
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Life Science, Hallym University, Chunchon Kangwon Do 200 702, Republic of Korea
    BMC Neurosci 11:141. 2010
    ....
  99. doi request reprint The expression of somatostatin receptors in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model
    Sung Eun Kwak
    Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, South Korea
    Neuropeptides 42:569-83. 2008
    ....
  100. ncbi request reprint Transduced Tat-Annexin protein suppresses inflammation-associated gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells
    Sun Hwa Lee
    Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon, Korea
    BMB Rep 44:484-9. 2011
    ..The results indicate that Tat-ANX1 inhibits the production of inflammatory response cytokines and enzymes by blocking NF-kB and MAPK. Therefore, Tat-ANX1 protein may be useful as a therapeutic agent against various inflammatory diseases...
  101. doi request reprint Down-regulation of delayed rectifier K+ channels in the hippocampus of seizure sensitive gerbils
    Sang Moo Lee
    Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200 702, Kangwon Do, South Korea
    Brain Res Bull 80:433-42. 2009
    ..1, Kv1.2, Kv1.5, Kv1.6, Kv2.1 and Kv3.1-2), not A-type K(+) channels (Kv1.4, Kv3.4 and Kv4.x), may be down-regulated in the SS gerbil hippocampus, as compared to SR gerbils...