Yoshio Yamaoka

Summary

Affiliation: Oita University
Country: Japan

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Effect of bacterial and host factors on Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy
    Takahiro Uotani
    a 1 Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan 81 97 586 5740 81 97 586 5749
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 19:1637-50. 2015
  2. ncbi request reprint Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastric Mucosal Atrophy in Two Ethnic Groups in Nepal
    Muhammad Miftahussurur
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan E mail
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16:7911-6. 2015
  3. ncbi request reprint Strategy for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Curr Pharm Des 20:4489-500. 2014
  4. pmc Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-Related Gastroduodenal Diseases from Molecular Epidemiological Studies
    Yoshio Yamaoka
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Gastroenterol Res Pract 2012:371503. 2012
  5. pmc Role of Helicobacter pylori cagA EPIYA motif and vacA genotypes for the development of gastrointestinal diseases in Southeast Asian countries: a meta-analysis
    Shu Sahara
    First Department of Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan
    BMC Infect Dis 12:223. 2012
  6. pmc Mechanisms of disease: Helicobacter pylori virulence factors
    Yoshio Yamaoka
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufucity, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:629-41. 2010
  7. pmc Helicobacter pylori cagA 12-bp insertion can be a marker for duodenal ulcer in Okinawa, Japan
    Yuichi Matsuo
    Departments of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 28:291-6. 2013
  8. pmc Prevalence of two homologous genes encoding glycosyltransferases of Helicobacter pylori in the United States and Japan
    Miyuki Matsuda
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 26:1451-6. 2011
  9. pmc Intact long-type dupA as a marker for gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawan subpopulation, Japan
    Ayaka Takahashi
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu, 879 5569, Japan
    Helicobacter 18:66-72. 2013
  10. pmc Association between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa, Japan
    Osamu Matsunari
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 50:876-83. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications45

  1. doi request reprint Effect of bacterial and host factors on Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy
    Takahiro Uotani
    a 1 Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan 81 97 586 5740 81 97 586 5749
    Expert Opin Ther Targets 19:1637-50. 2015
    ..A clearer understanding of the factors affecting the cure rate of Helicobacter pylori infection might lead to the development of novel prevention strategies and therapeutic targets...
  2. ncbi request reprint Helicobacter pylori Infection and Gastric Mucosal Atrophy in Two Ethnic Groups in Nepal
    Muhammad Miftahussurur
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan E mail
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 16:7911-6. 2015
    ..009). The low incidence of gastric cancer in Nepal can be attributed to low gastric mucosal atrophy. However, the mountainous subjects have high-risk gastric mucosal status, which could be considered a high-risk population in Nepal. ..
  3. ncbi request reprint Strategy for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Curr Pharm Des 20:4489-500. 2014
    ..Quadruple therapy and sequential therapy are reasonable alternatives for initial therapy. First-line treatment should be recommended on the basis of an understanding of the local prevalence of H. pylori antimicrobial resistance. ..
  4. pmc Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori-Related Gastroduodenal Diseases from Molecular Epidemiological Studies
    Yoshio Yamaoka
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Gastroenterol Res Pract 2012:371503. 2012
    ..Because genome wide analyses using whole-genome sequencing technology give a broad view of the genome of H. pylori, we hope that next-generation sequencers will enable us to efficiently investigate novel virulence factors...
  5. pmc Role of Helicobacter pylori cagA EPIYA motif and vacA genotypes for the development of gastrointestinal diseases in Southeast Asian countries: a meta-analysis
    Shu Sahara
    First Department of Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Japan
    BMC Infect Dis 12:223. 2012
    ..Here, we examined the cagA status and prevalence of cagA EPIYA motifs and vacA genotypes among H. pylori strains found in Southeast Asia and examined their association with gastroduodenal disease...
  6. pmc Mechanisms of disease: Helicobacter pylori virulence factors
    Yoshio Yamaoka
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufucity, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:629-41. 2010
    ..pylori virulence factor DupA. Despite advances in our understanding of the development of H. pylori-related diseases, further work is required to clarify the roles of H. pylori virulence factors...
  7. pmc Helicobacter pylori cagA 12-bp insertion can be a marker for duodenal ulcer in Okinawa, Japan
    Yuichi Matsuo
    Departments of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 28:291-6. 2013
    ..It has also been reported that J-Western-type cagA possesses a 12-bp insertion located in the 5' region of cagA sequence...
  8. pmc Prevalence of two homologous genes encoding glycosyltransferases of Helicobacter pylori in the United States and Japan
    Miyuki Matsuda
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 26:1451-6. 2011
    ..We examined the prevalence of jhp0562, β-(1,3)galT, and cagA in the United States (US) and Japanese populations...
  9. pmc Intact long-type dupA as a marker for gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawan subpopulation, Japan
    Ayaka Takahashi
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu, 879 5569, Japan
    Helicobacter 18:66-72. 2013
    ....
  10. pmc Association between Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and gastroduodenal diseases in Okinawa, Japan
    Osamu Matsunari
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    J Clin Microbiol 50:876-83. 2012
    ..Overall, low prevalence of gastric cancer in Okinawa may result from the high prevalence of non-East-Asian-type cagA strains. The origin of Western-type cagA strains in Okinawa may be different from those of Western countries...
  11. pmc Association between Helicobacter pylori cagA-related genes and clinical outcomes in Colombia and Japan
    Masahide Watada
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Japan
    BMC Gastroenterol 11:141. 2011
    ..Therefore, we aimed to find novel candidate virulence genes that correlate with cagA and examined the association of these genes with clinical outcomes in Colombian and Japanese populations...
  12. pmc Evaluation of the anti-East Asian CagA-specific antibody for CagA phenotyping
    Lam Tung Nguyen
    Department of Molecular Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:1687-92. 2009
    ..7%, 97.9%, and 97.1%, respectively. Moreover, anti-EAS Ab was not cross-reactive with noninfected gastric mucosa. In conclusion, immunohistochemistry with anti-EAS Ab appears to be a good method for determination of CagA phenotype...
  13. pmc Helicobacter pylori iceA, clinical outcomes, and correlation with cagA: a meta-analysis
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    PLoS ONE 7:e30354. 2012
    ..The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of the risk for clinical outcomes associated with iceA...
  14. pmc Association of helicobacter pylori dupA with the failure of primary eradication
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    J Clin Gastroenterol 46:297-301. 2012
    ..To determine whether the presence of dupA Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) influences the cure rate of primary eradication therapy...
  15. pmc Rare Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genotypes in Bhutan
    Osamu Matsunari
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan
    Sci Rep 6:22584. 2016
    ..5%) sharing East Asian and Amerindian components. Only 9.5% belonged to the European type consistant with H. pylori in Bhutan representing an intermediate evolutionary stage between H. pylori from European and East Asian countries. ..
  16. pmc The relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and Alzheimer's disease in Japan
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of General Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    J Neurol 258:1460-3. 2011
    ..83, respectively). The prevalence of H. pylori infection did not differ between AD patients and controls among Japanese subjects. The high prevalence of H. pylori in controls may contribute to the discrepancy with previous reports...
  17. pmc The Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors in Bhutan, Vietnam, and Myanmar Is Related to Gastric Cancer Incidence
    Tran Thi Huyen Trang
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu, Oita 879 5593, Japan Department of Molecular Biology, 108 Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam
    Biomed Res Int 2015:830813. 2015
    ..We suggest that the cagA, vacA s1, vacA m1, and jhp0562-positive/β-(1,3)galT-negative genotype may play a role in the development of gastric cancer. ..
  18. doi request reprint Impact of Helicobacter pylori CagA diversity on gastric mucosal damage: an immunohistochemical study of East-Asian-type CagA
    Takashi Abe
    Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 26:688-93. 2011
    ..In this study, the correlations between Helicobacter pylori CagA protein diversity and gastric mucosal condition was investigated using immunohistochemical staining with α-EAS Ab in Japan...
  19. pmc The incidence of primary antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Vietnam
    Tran T Binh
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan
    J Clin Gastroenterol 47:233-8. 2013
    ..To determine the susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from a Vietnamese population to 5 antibiotics...
  20. pmc The significance of virulence factors in Helicobacter pylori
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    J Dig Dis 14:341-9. 2013
    ..pylori consists of approximately 1600 genes. Despite the advances in our understanding of the development of H. pylori infection-related diseases, further work is required to clarify the roles of H. pylori virulence factors...
  21. pmc Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:35-40. 2013
    ..pylori infection' was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections...
  22. pmc Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal atrophy in Bhutan, a country with a high prevalence of gastric cancer
    Seiji Shiota
    1Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan
    J Med Microbiol 62:1571-8. 2013
    ..Based on the ABC method, Group B was the most dominant, followed by Group A, Group C and Group D. The high incidence of gastric cancer in Bhutan can be attributed to the high prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric mucosal atrophy...
  23. pmc Helicobacter pylori Infection in Thailand: A Nationwide Study of the CagA Phenotype
    Tomohisa Uchida
    Department of Molecular Pathology, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    PLoS ONE 10:e0136775. 2015
    ..5 times higher than that in the South region. We hypothesized that the prevalence of H. pylori infection and diversity of CagA phenotype contributes to the variety of gastric cancer risk in various regions of Thailand...
  24. pmc Helicobacter pylori infection introduces DNA double-strand breaks in host cells
    Katsuhiro Hanada
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Yufu City, Oita, Japan Department of Medicine Gastroenterology, Baylor College of Medicine, and Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA
    Infect Immun 82:4182-9. 2014
    ..These results are consistent with the fact that infections with both cag PAI-positive and -negative strains are associated with gastric carcinogenesis, but the risk is higher in individuals infected with cag PAI-positive strains. ..
  25. pmc Differences in interleukin 8 expression in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa tissues from patients in Bhutan and the Dominican Republic
    Hiroyuki Nagashima
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu 879 5593, Japan Department of Medicine Gastroenterology, Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA
    Hum Pathol 46:129-36. 2015
    ..We compared IL-8 messenger RNA levels between the high gastric cancer risk country, Bhutan (mainly East Asian-type H pylori), and the lower gastric cancer risk country, Dominican Republic (mainly Western-type H pylori). ..
  26. pmc Molecular epidemiology, population genetics, and pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori
    Rumiko Suzuki
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Infect Genet Evol 12:203-13. 2012
    ..pylori, but also novel virulence factors and genomic changes related to drug resistance...
  27. pmc Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Nepal: Specific Ancestor Root
    Muhammad Miftahussurur
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita, Japan Gastroentero Hepatology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Airlangga University Faculty of Medicine, Surabaya, Indonesia Institute of Tropical Disease, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia
    PLoS ONE 10:e0134216. 2015
    ..05). These results support that ancestor roots of Kathmandu`s people not only connected with India alone. ..
  28. pmc Helicobacter pylori from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer show same phylogeographic origin in the Andean region in Colombia
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan
    PLoS ONE 9:e105392. 2014
    ..In this study, we examined the phylogenetic origins of strains from gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer patients living in Bogota, Colombia...
  29. pmc Serum Helicobacter pylori CagA antibody as a biomarker for gastric cancer in east-Asian countries
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventative Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    Future Microbiol 5:1885-93. 2010
    ..We aimed to clarify the association between anti-CagA antibody and gastric cancer in east-Asian countries...
  30. pmc Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases in Vietnam: a cross-sectional, hospital-based study
    Tung L Nguyen
    Department of Molecular Pathology, Oita University, Yufu City, Japan
    BMC Gastroenterol 10:114. 2010
    ..The virulence of Vietnamese H. pylori has also not been investigated in detail...
  31. pmc Discovery of novel mutations for clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori by using next-generation sequencing
    Tran Thanh Binh
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Oita, Japan Department of Endoscopy, Cho Ray Hospital, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
    J Antimicrob Chemother 69:1796-803. 2014
    ..Although clarithromycin resistance is mainly associated with three point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes, it is unclear whether other mutations are associated with this resistance...
  32. pmc Analysis of virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori isolated from a Vietnamese population
    Tomohisa Uchida
    Department of Molecular Pathology, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan
    BMC Microbiol 9:175. 2009
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate several genetic factors regarded as virulence or molecular epidemiologic markers in H. pylori isolates from Vietnamese subjects...
  33. pmc Search for novel candidate mutations for metronidazole resistance in Helicobacter pylori using next-generation sequencing
    Tran Thanh Binh
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan Department of Endoscopy, Cho Ray Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:2343-8. 2015
    ..pylori resistance only in the presence of rdxA mutations. Moreover, mutations in rpsU may play a role in metronidazole resistance. ..
  34. pmc Virulence genes of Helicobacter pylori in the Dominican Republic
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu 879 5593, Japan
    J Med Microbiol 63:1189-96. 2014
    ..In conclusion, we found that H. pylori infection is a risk factor for peptic ulcer in the Dominican Republic. Patients with cagA-positive H. pylori could be at higher risk for severe inflammation and atrophy. ..
  35. ncbi request reprint [Detection of prehistoric human migration by Helicobacter pylori]
    Rumiko Suzuki
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine
    Nihon Rinsho 71:1368-73. 2013
    ..Analysis of genotypes of single genes, multi locus sequence typing, and also with the aid of next generation sequencer, we identified a group of H. pylori strains that diverged remarkably old era in Okinawa, Japan...
  36. pmc Serum Helicobacter pylori CagA antibody titer as a useful marker for advanced inflammation in the stomach in Japan
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan Department of General Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 29:67-73. 2014
    ..However, it remains unclear why serum CagA-positive status is associated with gastric cancer. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between anti-CagA antibody titer and the levels of pepsinogen (PG), and histological score...
  37. pmc Population-based strategies for Helicobacter pylori-associated disease management: a Japanese perspective
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 4:149-56. 2010
    ..Overall, the most important and dramatic revision is that all infected people are recommended to receive eradication therapy irrespective of the clinical outcomes in the Japanese population...
  38. pmc Systematic review and meta-analysis: the relationship between the Helicobacter pylori dupA gene and clinical outcomes
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan
    Gut Pathog 2:13. 2010
    ..However, the importance of the dupA gene on clinical outcomes is conflicting in subsequent studies. The aim of this study was to estimate the magnitude of the risk for clinical outcomes associated with dupA gene...
  39. pmc Identification of the genes that contribute to lactate utilization in Helicobacter pylori
    Shun Iwatani
    Department of Medicine Gastroenterology, Baylor College of Medicine and Michael E DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas, United States of America Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Oita, Japan
    PLoS ONE 9:e103506. 2014
    ..This study identified the genes contributing to the lactate utilization and demonstrated the ability of H. pylori to utilize both D- and L-lactate. ..
  40. doi request reprint Helicobacter pylori antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Bangladesh: Emerging levofloxacin resistance
    Hafeza Aftab
    Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu, Japan
    J Infect Dev Ctries 10:245-53. 2016
    ..We therefore aimed to determine the current antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline and levofloxacin in Bangladesh...
  41. pmc Diagnostic Methods of Helicobacter pylori Infection for Epidemiological Studies: Critical Importance of Indirect Test Validation
    Muhammad Miftahussurur
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu 879 5593, Japan Gastroentero Hepatology Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Airlangga University, Faculty of Medicine, Surabaya 60131, Indonesia Institute of Tropical Disease, Airlangga University, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia
    Biomed Res Int 2016:4819423. 2016
    ..The sensitivity of serology is quite high, but that of the urine test was lower compared with that of the other methods. Thus, indirect test validation is important although some commercial kits propose universal cut-off values. ..
  42. doi request reprint Appropriate first-line regimens to combat Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance: an Asian perspective
    Muhammad Miftahussurur
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu 879 5593, Japan
    Molecules 20:6068-92. 2015
    ..pylori antibiotic resistance in Asia. ..
  43. pmc Biomarkers for Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases
    Seiji Shiota
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Yufu City, Oita, Japan
    Biomark Med 8:1127-37. 2014
    ..In this review, we summarized the utilities and limitations of each strategy. ..
  44. doi request reprint Genetic battle between Helicobacter pylori and humans. The mechanism underlying homologous recombination in bacteria, which can infect human cells
    Katsuhiro Hanada
    Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, 1 1 Idaigaoka, Hasama machi, Yufu City, Oita 879 5593, Japan Electronic address
    Microbes Infect 16:833-9. 2014
    ..Homologous recombination is also involved in the repair of DSBs in human cells. In this review, we describe the roles of homologous recombination with an emphasis on the maintenance of a chronic infection. ..