Gerard Clarke

Summary

Affiliation: University College Cork
Country: Ireland

Publications

  1. pmc A Distinct Profile of Tryptophan Metabolism along the Kynurenine Pathway Downstream of Toll-Like Receptor Activation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Gerard Clarke
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork Cork, Ireland
    Front Pharmacol 3:90. 2012
  2. doi request reprint The microbiome-gut-brain axis during early life regulates the hippocampal serotonergic system in a sex-dependent manner
    G Clarke
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Mol Psychiatry 18:666-73. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Review article: probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome--focus on lactic acid bacteria
    G Clarke
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 35:403-13. 2012
  4. pmc Marked elevations in pro-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites in females with irritable bowel syndrome
    Gerard Clarke
    Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    J Lipid Res 51:1186-92. 2010
  5. doi request reprint Chain reactions: early-life stress alters the metabolic profile of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids in adulthood
    Gerard Clarke
    Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Behav Brain Res 205:319-21. 2009
  6. doi request reprint Verapamil in treatment resistant depression: a role for the P-glycoprotein transporter?
    Gerard Clarke
    Department of Psychiatry, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Hum Psychopharmacol 24:217-23. 2009
  7. doi request reprint Irritable bowel syndrome: towards biomarker identification
    Gerard Clarke
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Trends Mol Med 15:478-89. 2009
  8. pmc Tryptophan degradation in irritable bowel syndrome: evidence of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation in a male cohort
    Gerard Clarke
    Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    BMC Gastroenterol 9:6. 2009
  9. doi request reprint Differential visceral nociceptive, behavioural and neurochemical responses to an immune challenge in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto rat strain
    Siobhain M O' Mahony
    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Behav Brain Res 253:310-7. 2013
  10. doi request reprint Human P-glycoprotein differentially affects antidepressant drug transport: relevance to blood-brain barrier permeability
    Fionn E O'Brien
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 16:2259-72. 2013

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications51

  1. pmc A Distinct Profile of Tryptophan Metabolism along the Kynurenine Pathway Downstream of Toll-Like Receptor Activation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    Gerard Clarke
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork Cork, Ireland
    Front Pharmacol 3:90. 2012
    ..Furthermore, these studies implicate the modulation of TLRs as means through which aberrant tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway can be controlled, a novel potential therapeutic strategy in this and other disorders...
  2. doi request reprint The microbiome-gut-brain axis during early life regulates the hippocampal serotonergic system in a sex-dependent manner
    G Clarke
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Mol Psychiatry 18:666-73. 2013
    ....
  3. doi request reprint Review article: probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome--focus on lactic acid bacteria
    G Clarke
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Aliment Pharmacol Ther 35:403-13. 2012
    ..The withdrawal, due to adverse events, of a number of pharmacological agents that were approved for the treatment of IBS has left a therapeutic vacuum for patients suffering from the disorder...
  4. pmc Marked elevations in pro-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolites in females with irritable bowel syndrome
    Gerard Clarke
    Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    J Lipid Res 51:1186-92. 2010
    ..Together, our data identifies a novel proinflammatory mechanism in irritable bowel syndrome and also suggests that elevated arachidonic acid levels in plasma may serve as putative biological markers in this condition...
  5. doi request reprint Chain reactions: early-life stress alters the metabolic profile of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids in adulthood
    Gerard Clarke
    Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Behav Brain Res 205:319-21. 2009
    ..Our results identify a proinflammatory PUFA profile as a persistent consequence of early-life stress and suggest new avenues of investigation in stress-related disorders...
  6. doi request reprint Verapamil in treatment resistant depression: a role for the P-glycoprotein transporter?
    Gerard Clarke
    Department of Psychiatry, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Hum Psychopharmacol 24:217-23. 2009
    ..In this study we examined the hypothesis that the antidepressant-like effects of verapamil are mediated through its blockade of the Pgp transporter in the blood brain barrier (BBB)...
  7. doi request reprint Irritable bowel syndrome: towards biomarker identification
    Gerard Clarke
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Trends Mol Med 15:478-89. 2009
    ..The successful identification of biomarkers is critical to progressing our understanding of IBS and addressing the unmet therapeutic needs of this debilitating condition...
  8. pmc Tryptophan degradation in irritable bowel syndrome: evidence of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation in a male cohort
    Gerard Clarke
    Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    BMC Gastroenterol 9:6. 2009
    ..In this study, we investigated tryptophan degradation in a male IBS cohort (n = 10) and control subjects (n = 26)...
  9. doi request reprint Differential visceral nociceptive, behavioural and neurochemical responses to an immune challenge in the stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto rat strain
    Siobhain M O' Mahony
    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Behav Brain Res 253:310-7. 2013
    ..This implies that heightened stress-susceptibility in vulnerable populations may compromise the coordinated CNS response to peripheral immune activation. ..
  10. doi request reprint Human P-glycoprotein differentially affects antidepressant drug transport: relevance to blood-brain barrier permeability
    Fionn E O'Brien
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 16:2259-72. 2013
    ..Moreover, the present results highlight that other antidepressants may not be transported substrates of human P-gp...
  11. doi request reprint Differential stress-induced alterations in tryptophan hydroxylase activity and serotonin turnover in two inbred mouse strains
    Caroline A Browne
    Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Neuropharmacology 60:683-91. 2011
    ..Together these data highlight the differential serotonergic response of BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice to acute and chronic restraint stress and may offer insight into the observed differences in their stress-related phenotypes...
  12. doi request reprint The probiotic Bifidobacteria infantis: An assessment of potential antidepressant properties in the rat
    Lieve Desbonnet
    Department of Psychiatry and Alimentary Pharmacobiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    J Psychiatr Res 43:164-74. 2008
    ..However, these findings are preliminary and further investigation into the precise mechanisms involved, is warranted...
  13. doi request reprint Alterations in prefrontal cortical serotonin and antidepressant-like behavior in a novel C3H/HeJxDBA/2J recombinant inbred mouse strain
    Caroline A Browne
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Ireland
    Behav Brain Res 236:283-8. 2013
    ..These data implicate serotonergic modulation in the mPFC in the maintenance of antidepressant-like behavior in a highly fearful mouse strain...
  14. doi request reprint An effective dietary method for chronic tryptophan depletion in two mouse strains illuminates a role for 5-HT in nesting behaviour
    Caroline A Browne
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Ireland
    Neuropharmacology 62:1903-15. 2012
    ..This study demonstrates significant alterations in the levels of tryptophan, serotonin turnover and behaviour following chronic dietary tryptophan depletion...
  15. doi request reprint Chronic stress-induced alterations in mouse colonic 5-HT and defecation responses are strain dependent
    Marcela Julio-Pieper
    Laboratory of Neurogastroenterology, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Stress 15:218-26. 2012
    ..In addition, C57BL/6 mice emerge as a relevant model for studying GI alterations induced by chronic stress...
  16. doi request reprint A systematic review of the psychobiological burden of informal caregiving for patients with dementia: Focus on cognitive and biological markers of chronic stress
    Andrew P Allen
    APC Microbiome Institute, Biosciences Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev . 2016
    ..Risk of bias was generally low to moderate. Given the rising need for family caregivers worldwide, the implications of these findings can no longer be neglected...
  17. doi request reprint Microbes & neurodevelopment--Absence of microbiota during early life increases activity-related transcriptional pathways in the amygdala
    Roman M Stilling
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Brain Behav Immun 50:209-20. 2015
    ....
  18. doi request reprint Acute tryptophan depletion reduces kynurenine levels: implications for treatment of impaired visuospatial memory performance in irritable bowel syndrome
    Paul J Kennedy
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Psychopharmacology (Berl) 232:1357-71. 2015
    ....
  19. doi request reprint The P-glycoprotein inhibitor cyclosporin A differentially influences behavioural and neurochemical responses to the antidepressant escitalopram
    Fionn E O'Brien
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Pharmacodelivery Group, School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Behav Brain Res 261:17-25. 2014
    ....
  20. doi request reprint Gut memories: towards a cognitive neurobiology of irritable bowel syndrome
    Paul J Kennedy
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 36:310-40. 2012
    ..We conclude that each factor addressed could significantly impinge on central nervous system function, supporting the view that future research efforts must be directed towards a detailed assessment of cognitive function in IBS...
  21. doi request reprint The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?
    Roman M Stilling
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork Ireland Electronic address
    Neurochem Int 99:110-32. 2016
    ..Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication. ..
  22. doi request reprint Gut microbiota depletion from early adolescence in mice: Implications for brain and behaviour
    Lieve Desbonnet
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Electronic address
    Brain Behav Immun 48:165-73. 2015
    ..Here we assess the effects of gut bacterial depletion from weaning onwards on adult cognitive, social and emotional behaviours and markers of gut-brain axis dysfunction in mice...
  23. doi request reprint Downregulation of Umbilical Cord Blood Levels of miR-374a in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
    Ann Marie Looney
    Neonatal Brain research group, Irish Center for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Cork University Maternity Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland
    J Pediatr 167:269-73.e2. 2015
    ..To investigate the expression profile of microRNA (miRNA) in umbilical cord blood from infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)...
  24. pmc Effect of acute swim stress on plasma corticosterone and brain monoamine levels in bidirectionally selected DxH recombinant inbred mouse strains differing in fear recall and extinction
    Caroline A Browne
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Stress 17:471-83. 2014
    ..Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder...
  25. doi request reprint Microbiota and neurodevelopmental windows: implications for brain disorders
    Yuliya E Borre
    Laboratory of Neurogastroenterology, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Trends Mol Med 20:509-18. 2014
    ....
  26. doi request reprint Biological and psychological markers of stress in humans: focus on the Trier Social Stress Test
    Andrew P Allen
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 38:94-124. 2014
    ..Our analysis suggests that multiple readouts are necessary to derive maximum information; this strategy will enhance our understanding of the psychobiology of stress and provide the means to assess novel therapeutic agents. ..
  27. doi request reprint Minireview: Gut microbiota: the neglected endocrine organ
    Gerard Clarke
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre G C, R M S, P J K, C S, J F C, T G D and Departments of Psychiatry G C, C S, T G D and Anatomy and Neuroscience J F C, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland and Teagasc C S, Moorepark, Fermoy, Cork, Ireland
    Mol Endocrinol 28:1221-38. 2014
    ..It is tempting to speculate that therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may be useful in treating stress-related disorders and metabolic diseases. ..
  28. doi request reprint A review of ketamine in affective disorders: current evidence of clinical efficacy, limitations of use and pre-clinical evidence on proposed mechanisms of action
    Marie Naughton
    Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Western Road, Cork City, Cork, Ireland Electronic address
    J Affect Disord 156:24-35. 2014
    ....
  29. doi request reprint Enhanced cholinergic-mediated increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in irritable bowel syndrome: role of muscarinic receptors
    Timothy G Dinan
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Am J Gastroenterol 103:2570-6. 2008
    ..We tested the hypothesis that the pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in IBS is driven by the cholinergic system and determined if the responses are mediated by muscarinic receptors...
  30. doi request reprint Strain differences in the neurochemical response to chronic restraint stress in the rat: relevance to depression
    Cliona M O'Mahony
    Neuropharmacology Research Group, Dept of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Pharmacol Biochem Behav 97:690-9. 2011
    ..Together these data show that there are specific strain-dependent changes in neurotransmitter and neurotrophin levels in response to chronic stress which may predispose WKY animals to a depressive-like phenotype...
  31. doi request reprint Lost in translation? The potential psychobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) fails to modulate stress or cognitive performance in healthy male subjects
    John R Kelly
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Ireland Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Science, University College Cork, Ireland
    Brain Behav Immun . 2016
    ..However, it is unclear if this single putative psychobiotic strain has psychotropic activity in humans. Consequently, we aimed to examine if these promising preclinical findings could be translated to healthy human volunteers...
  32. doi request reprint Brain-gut-microbiota axis: challenges for translation in psychiatry
    John R Kelly
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Ann Epidemiol 26:366-72. 2016
    ..The gut microbiota can communicate with the brain via neuroimmune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways comprising the brain-gut-microbiota axis. Dysfunctional neuroimmune pathways are implicated in stress-related psychiatric disorders...
  33. pmc Growing up in a Bubble: Using Germ-Free Animals to Assess the Influence of the Gut Microbiota on Brain and Behavior
    Pauline Luczynski
    APC Microbiome Institute Ms Luczynski, Dr McVey Neufeld, Ms Oriach, Dr Clarke, Dr Dinan, and Dr Cryan, Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioral Science Ms Oriach, Dr Clarke, and Dr Dinan, and Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience Dr Cryan, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 19:. 2016
    ..Increasing our understanding of the impact of the gut microbiota on brain and behavior has the potential to inform novel management strategies for stress-related gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric disorders. ..
  34. pmc Adult microbiota-deficient mice have distinct dendritic morphological changes: differential effects in the amygdala and hippocampus
    Pauline Luczynski
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Room 3 86, Western Gateway Building, Cork, Ireland
    Eur J Neurosci 44:2654-2666. 2016
    ....
  35. pmc Irritable bowel syndrome: a microbiome-gut-brain axis disorder?
    Paul J Kennedy
    Paul J Kennedy, Timothy G Dinan, Gerard Clarke, 1 15 Biosciences Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    World J Gastroenterol 20:14105-25. 2014
    ..Taken together, these findings firmly establish the microbiota as a critical node in the gut-brain axis and one which is amenable to therapeutic interventions. ..
  36. doi request reprint The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms & therapeutic potential
    Yuliya E Borre
    Laboratory of Neurogastroenterology, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Adv Exp Med Biol 817:373-403. 2014
    ..Thus, the concept of a microbiome-brain-gut axis is emerging, suggesting microbiota-modulating strategies may be a tractable therapeutic approach for developing novel treatments for CNS disorders. ..
  37. pmc P-glycoprotein inhibition increases the brain distribution and antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram in rodents
    Fionn E O'Brien
    1 Alimentary Pharmabiotic Center, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland 2 Pharmacodelivery Group, School of Pharmacy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland 3 Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Neuropsychopharmacology 38:2209-19. 2013
    ....
  38. doi request reprint Menstrual cycle influences Toll-like receptor responses
    Una Dennison
    Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Neuroimmunomodulation 19:171-9. 2012
    ..Human studies have shown changes in endometrial TLR expression during the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. Our objective was to measure peripheral TLR activity over the course of the menstrual cycle...
  39. doi request reprint The microbiome: stress, health and disease
    Rachel D Moloney
    Laboratory of Neurogastroenterology, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Mamm Genome 25:49-74. 2014
    ....
  40. ncbi request reprint An isocratic high performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of GABA and glutamate in discrete regions of the rodent brain
    Gerard Clarke
    Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre and Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    J Neurosci Methods 160:223-30. 2007
    ..Successful application of the method to a maternal deprivation study has identified the hippocampus and the brainstem as possible sites of long-term alteration in this paradigm...
  41. pmc Dynamic 5-HT2C receptor editing in a mouse model of obesity
    Harriet Schellekens
    Food for Health Ireland, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    PLoS ONE 7:e32266. 2012
    ..The differential 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(6) receptor expression and altered 5-HT(2C) receptor editing profile reported here is poised to have important consequences for the development of novel anti-obesity therapies...
  42. pmc Birth by Caesarean Section and the Risk of Adult Psychosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study
    Sinéad M O'Neill
    Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research INFANT, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Schizophr Bull 42:633-41. 2016
    ..However, the association did not persist in the sibling-matched analysis, implying the association is likely due to familial confounding by unmeasured factors such as genetics or environment...
  43. doi request reprint Molecular biomarkers of depression
    Anand Gururajan
    Dept Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Neurosci Biobehav Rev 64:101-33. 2016
    ....
  44. doi request reprint Transferring the blues: Depression-associated gut microbiota induces neurobehavioural changes in the rat
    John R Kelly
    APC Microbiome Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Department of Psychiatry and Neurobehavioural Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    J Psychiatr Res 82:109-18. 2016
    ..This suggests that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of features of depression and may provide a tractable target in the treatment and prevention of this disorder. ..
  45. doi request reprint n-3 PUFAs have beneficial effects on anxiety and cognition in female rats: Effects of early life stress
    Matteo M Pusceddu
    Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Electronic address
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 58:79-90. 2015
    ..In conclusion, our study supports the view that n-3 PUFAs are beneficial in neurodevelopmentally normal animals but have little positive benefit in animals exposed to early life stress. ..
  46. doi request reprint The brain-gut axis: a target for treating stress-related disorders
    Lucinda V Scott
    Department of Psychiatry and Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Mod Trends Pharmacopsychiatri 28:90-9. 2013
    ..It may in the future be possible to use probiotic bacteria to treat depression and other stress-related disorder but we await the results of appropriately designed placebo-controlled trials. ..
  47. doi request reprint A prospective study of C-reactive protein as a state marker in Cardiac Syndrome X
    James Dollard
    Department of Cardiology, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Brain Behav Immun 43:27-32. 2015
    ..This indicates that CRP is a state marker in CSX. ..
  48. doi request reprint Thinking small: towards microRNA-based therapeutics for anxiety disorders
    Karen A Scott
    Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland
    Expert Opin Investig Drugs 24:529-42. 2015
    ..These complex disorders are extremely difficult to treat, and there is a great need for novel therapeutics with greater efficacy and minimal adverse side effects...
  49. pmc Brain-gut-microbe communication in health and disease
    Sue Grenham
    Laboratory of Neurogastroenterology, Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork Cork, Ireland
    Front Physiol 2:94. 2011
    ..Despite the considerable challenges that lie ahead, this is an exciting area of research and one that is destined to remain the center of focus for some time to come...
  50. pmc Epistatic and Independent Effects on Schizophrenia-Related Phenotypes Following Co-disruption of the Risk Factors Neuregulin-1 × DISC1
    Colm M P O'Tuathaigh
    School of Medicine, Brookfield Health Sciences Complex, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin 2, Ireland
    Schizophr Bull . 2016
    ..The findings indicate specific behavioral correlates and underlying cellular pathways downstream of main effects of DNA variation in the schizophrenia-associated genes NRG1 and DISC1...
  51. pmc Impact of Exercise on Innate Immunity in Multiple Sclerosis Progression and Symptomatology
    Alison Barry
    Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, University College Cork Cork, Ireland
    Front Physiol 7:194. 2016
    ..This review will highlight evidence that physical activity and exercise are potential immunomodulatory therapies, targeting innate signaling mechanism(s) to modulate MS symptom development and progression. ..