Hartwig Roman Siebner

Summary

Affiliation: University of Kiel
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. ncbi request reprint Applications of combined TMS-PET studies in clinical and basic research
    Hartwig Roman Siebner
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts Universitat Kiel, Niemannsweg 147, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Suppl Clin Neurophysiol 56:63-72. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Short-term modulation of regional excitability and blood flow in human motor cortex following rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation
    Beatrice Takano
    Department of Neurology, Munich University of Technology, Munich, Germany
    Neuroimage 23:849-59. 2004
  3. pmc Bifrontal transcranial direct current stimulation slows reaction time in a working memory task
    Lisa Marshall
    University of Lubeck, Department of Neuroendocrinology H23a, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    BMC Neurosci 6:23. 2005
  4. pmc Distributed representations of the "preparatory set" in the frontal oculomotor system: a TMS study
    M Nagel
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Luebeck, Germany
    BMC Neurosci 9:89. 2008
  5. ncbi request reprint Patients with focal arm dystonia have increased sensitivity to slow-frequency repetitive TMS of the dorsal premotor cortex
    Hartwig R Siebner
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK
    Brain 126:2710-25. 2003
  6. doi request reprint Imitation in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome--a behavioral study
    Melanie Jonas
    Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Mov Disord 25:991-9. 2010
  7. doi request reprint Effects of DBS, premotor rTMS, and levodopa on motor function and silent period in advanced Parkinson's disease
    Tobias Bäumer
    Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Mov Disord 24:672-6. 2009
  8. doi request reprint Inducing homeostatic-like plasticity in human motor cortex through converging corticocortical inputs
    Monika Pötter-Nerger
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 102:3180-90. 2009
  9. doi request reprint Acute changes in motor cortical excitability during slow oscillatory and constant anodal transcranial direct current stimulation
    Til Ole Bergmann
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 102:2303-11. 2009
  10. doi request reprint Interhemispheric motor networks are abnormal in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
    Tobias Bäumer
    Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Mov Disord 25:2828-37. 2010

Detail Information

Publications61

  1. ncbi request reprint Applications of combined TMS-PET studies in clinical and basic research
    Hartwig Roman Siebner
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts Universitat Kiel, Niemannsweg 147, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Suppl Clin Neurophysiol 56:63-72. 2003
  2. ncbi request reprint Short-term modulation of regional excitability and blood flow in human motor cortex following rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation
    Beatrice Takano
    Department of Neurology, Munich University of Technology, Munich, Germany
    Neuroimage 23:849-59. 2004
    ..This opens up new possibilities for studying acute reorganization at the systems level in the intact human brain...
  3. pmc Bifrontal transcranial direct current stimulation slows reaction time in a working memory task
    Lisa Marshall
    University of Lubeck, Department of Neuroendocrinology H23a, Ratzeburger Allee 160, 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    BMC Neurosci 6:23. 2005
    ....
  4. pmc Distributed representations of the "preparatory set" in the frontal oculomotor system: a TMS study
    M Nagel
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Luebeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, Luebeck, Germany
    BMC Neurosci 9:89. 2008
    ..This preparatory activity can be examined using the gap-paradigm in which a temporal gap is introduced between the disappearance of a central fixation target and the appearance of an eccentric target...
  5. ncbi request reprint Patients with focal arm dystonia have increased sensitivity to slow-frequency repetitive TMS of the dorsal premotor cortex
    Hartwig R Siebner
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK
    Brain 126:2710-25. 2003
    ..Since the greater effects of premotor rTMS were not related to any differences in task performance, increased responsiveness of the motor system to rTMS reveals a physiological trait that characterizes patients with focal arm dystonia...
  6. doi request reprint Imitation in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome--a behavioral study
    Melanie Jonas
    Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Mov Disord 25:991-9. 2010
    ..Thus, movement stimuli may facilitate similar motor responses less but interfere more with different responses in these patients...
  7. doi request reprint Effects of DBS, premotor rTMS, and levodopa on motor function and silent period in advanced Parkinson's disease
    Tobias Bäumer
    Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Mov Disord 24:672-6. 2009
    ..e., only partially reversed abnormal motor network activity...
  8. doi request reprint Inducing homeostatic-like plasticity in human motor cortex through converging corticocortical inputs
    Monika Pötter-Nerger
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 102:3180-90. 2009
    ..These results provide evidence for a homeostatic response pattern in the human M1(HAND) that integrates acute plastic changes evoked through different "input channels."..
  9. doi request reprint Acute changes in motor cortical excitability during slow oscillatory and constant anodal transcranial direct current stimulation
    Til Ole Bergmann
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, D 24105 Kiel, Germany
    J Neurophysiol 102:2303-11. 2009
    ..We conclude that sleep slow oscillation-like excitability changes cannot be actively imposed on the awake cortex with so-tDCS, but phase-independent on-line as well as off-line facilitation can reliably be induced...
  10. doi request reprint Interhemispheric motor networks are abnormal in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
    Tobias Bäumer
    Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Mov Disord 25:2828-37. 2010
    ..Our combined TMS-DTI approach demonstrates abnormal functional interhemispheric connectivity in GTS accompanied by an altered structure-function relationship in the motor CC...
  11. pmc How does transcranial DC stimulation of the primary motor cortex alter regional neuronal activity in the human brain?
    Nicolas Lang
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, United Kingdom
    Eur J Neurosci 22:495-504. 2005
    ..The extensive spatial and temporal effects of tDCS need to be taken into account when tDCS is used to modify brain function...
  12. ncbi request reprint Long-lasting increase in corticospinal excitability after 1800 pulses of subthreshold 5 Hz repetitive TMS to the primary motor cortex
    Alexander Peinemann
    Department of Neurology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Mohlstrasse 28, D 81675 Munich, Germany
    Clin Neurophysiol 115:1519-26. 2004
    ..To study the after effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) on corticospinal excitability...
  13. doi request reprint Right hemisphere contributions to imitation tasks
    Katja Biermann-Ruben
    Department of Neurology, MEG Laboratory, Dusseldorf University Hospital, Moorenstrasse 5, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 27:1843-55. 2008
    ....
  14. pmc Brain-derived neurotrophic factor--a major player in stimulation-induced homeostatic metaplasticity of human motor cortex?
    Claudia Mastroeni
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    PLoS ONE 8:e57957. 2013
    ....
  15. ncbi request reprint MEP latency shift after implantation of deep brain stimulation systems in the subthalamic nucleus in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease
    Ute Hidding
    Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany
    Mov Disord 21:1471-6. 2006
    ..These TMS effects need to be considered when interpreting results of excitability measurements in PD patients after implantation of STN electrodes...
  16. doi request reprint Sensorimotor skills and focal dystonia are linked to putaminal grey-matter volume in pianists
    Oliver Granert
    Department of Neurology, University Hospital Schleswig Holstein, Kiel Campus, Arnold Heller Str 3, Building No 41, Kiel D 24105, Germany
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 82:1225-31. 2011
    ..Focal hand dystonia has been associated with morphometric changes and distorted somatotopic representations in the putamen...
  17. doi request reprint Responsiveness to distracting stimuli, though increased in Parkinson's disease, is decreased in asymptomatic PINK1 and Parkin mutation carriers
    Rolf Verleger
    Department of Neurology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany
    Neuropsychologia 48:467-76. 2010
    ..Disease progression might prevent symptomatic PD patients from using this compensatory mechanism, leading to increased disinhibition of their lateral motor system...
  18. doi request reprint The left visual-field advantage in rapid visual presentation is amplified rather than reduced by posterior-parietal rTMS
    Rolf Verleger
    Department of Neurology, University of Lubeck, 23538, Lubeck, Germany
    Exp Brain Res 203:355-65. 2010
    ..It may be concluded that superiority of the right hemisphere in this task implies that this hemisphere is less irritable by external interference than the left hemisphere...
  19. pmc The right posterior inferior frontal gyrus contributes to phonological word decisions in the healthy brain: evidence from dual-site TMS
    Gesa Hartwigsen
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    Neuropsychologia 48:3155-63. 2010
    ..Our findings motivate detailed studies of phonological processing in patients with acute and chronic damage of the right pIFG...
  20. pmc Low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation over left dorsal premotor cortex improves the dynamic control of visuospatially cued actions
    Nick S Ward
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience, University College London, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 30:9216-23. 2010
    ....
  21. ncbi request reprint Bidirectional modulation of primary visual cortex excitability: a combined tDCS and rTMS study
    Nicolas Lang
    Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University, Gottingen, Germany
    Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 48:5782-7. 2007
    ..The authors examined whether tDCS can also prime the cortical response to rTMS in the human visual cortex...
  22. ncbi request reprint Changes in activity of striato-thalamo-cortical network precede generalized spike wave discharges
    Friederike Moeller
    Department of Neuropediatrics, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    Neuroimage 39:1839-49. 2008
    ..Our preliminary findings warrant further studies on a larger number of patients to explore the influence of age, medication and type of epileptic syndrome...
  23. doi request reprint The cortical motor threshold reflects microstructural properties of cerebral white matter
    Stefan Kloppel
    Department of Neurology, Neurozentrum, University Clinic Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany
    Neuroimage 40:1782-91. 2008
    ....
  24. doi request reprint Manual activity shapes structure and function in contralateral human motor hand area
    Oliver Granert
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    Neuroimage 54:32-41. 2011
    ..This bi-directional structural plasticity is functionally relevant as local grey matter changes are mirrored by changes in regional excitability...
  25. doi request reprint Abnormal response of motor cortex to photic stimulation in idiopathic generalized epilepsy
    Sergiu Groppa
    Clinic for Neuropediatrics, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    Epilepsia 49:2022-9. 2008
    ..Here we combined TMS of the M1(HAND) with IPS to examine whether patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) exhibit an abnormal cortical response pattern to IPS...
  26. doi request reprint Rotated alphanumeric characters do not automatically activate frontoparietal areas subserving mental rotation
    Michael M Weiss
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    Neuroimage 44:1063-73. 2009
    ..These results suggest that at least for alphanumerical characters, areas implicated in mental rotation will only be called into action if the task requires a rotational transformation...
  27. ncbi request reprint How to assess motor impairment in writer's cramp
    Kirsten E Zeuner
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    Mov Disord 22:1102-9. 2007
    ..Future studies need to address which combination of clinical scores and kinematic measures are most appropriate to quantify impairment in writer's cramp...
  28. ncbi request reprint Acute remapping within the motor system induced by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
    Lucy Lee
    Wellcome Department of Imaging Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, WC1N 3BG United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 23:5308-18. 2003
    ..This remapping may provide a neural substrate for acute compensatory plasticity of the motor system in response to focal lesions such as stroke...
  29. ncbi request reprint A functional endophenotype for sexual orientation in humans
    Jorge Ponseti
    Section of Sexual Medicine, Christian Albrechts University, Medical School, Arnold Heller Str 12, 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Neuroimage 33:825-33. 2006
    ..We propose that this invariant response pattern in core regions of the human reward and motor system represents a functional endophenotype for sexual orientation independent of the gender of the observer and gender of the stimulus...
  30. pmc Motor re-training does not need to be task specific to improve writer's cramp
    Kirsten E Zeuner
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    Mov Disord 23:2319-27. 2008
    ..We conclude that re-training does not need to specifically focus on the task affected by dystonia to be clinically effective...
  31. doi request reprint fMRI activation during spike and wave discharges evoked by photic stimulation
    Friederike Moeller
    Department of Neuropediatrics, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    Neuroimage 48:682-95. 2009
    ..Pronounced haemodynamic changes seen with the early regressor could mirror gamma activity that is known to precede PPR...
  32. doi request reprint Simultaneous EEG-fMRI in drug-naive children with newly diagnosed absence epilepsy
    Friederike Moeller
    Department of Neuropediatrics, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    Epilepsia 49:1510-9. 2008
    ..Here, we applied EEG-fMRI to investigate BOLD signal changes during absence seizures in children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy (CAE)...
  33. pmc Associative stimulation of the supraorbital nerve fails to induce timing-specific plasticity in the human blink reflex
    Kirsten E Zeuner
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel, Germany
    PLoS ONE 5:e13602. 2010
    ....
  34. doi request reprint Mapping brain activity on the verge of a photically induced generalized tonic-clonic seizure
    Friederike Moeller
    Department of Neuropediatrics, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    Epilepsia 50:1632-7. 2009
    ..We propose that repeated IPS led to an excessive amount of neuronal activity in the visual cortex that evoked PPRs and finally exceeded a critical threshold and triggered a generalized seizure...
  35. pmc Homosexual women have less grey matter in perirhinal cortex than heterosexual women
    Jorge Ponseti
    Section of Sexual Medicine, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    PLoS ONE 2:e762. 2007
    ..The relevance of the perirhinal area for high order multimodal (olfactory and visual) object, social, and sexual processing is discussed...
  36. ncbi request reprint An update on functional neuroimaging of parkinsonism and dystonia
    Thilo van Eimeren
    NeuroImage Nord, Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany
    Curr Opin Neurol 19:412-9. 2006
    ..The aim of this article is to review current advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography of the motor system in parkinsonism and dystonia...
  37. ncbi request reprint Transcranial magnetic stimulation: new insights into representational cortical plasticity
    Hartwig Roman Siebner
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, 8 11 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Exp Brain Res 148:1-16. 2003
    ..Indeed, the lasting effects of rTMS offer new possibilities to study dynamic aspects of the pathophysiology of a variety of diseases and may have therapeutic potential in some neuropsychiatric disorders...
  38. ncbi request reprint Repeated premotor rTMS leads to cumulative plastic changes of motor cortex excitability in humans
    Tobias Bäumer
    Department of Neurology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    Neuroimage 20:550-60. 2003
    ....
  39. pmc Shaping the excitability of human motor cortex with premotor rTMS
    Vincenzo Rizzo
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College of London, London, UK
    J Physiol 554:483-95. 2004
    ..By selecting the appropriate intensity and frequency, premotor rTMS allows to induce a predictable up- or down-regulation of the excitability in distinct neuronal circuits of human M1(HAND)...
  40. ncbi request reprint Preconditioning with transcranial direct current stimulation sensitizes the motor cortex to rapid-rate transcranial magnetic stimulation and controls the direction of after-effects
    Nicolas Lang
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom
    Biol Psychiatry 56:634-9. 2004
    ....
  41. ncbi request reprint Frequency specific changes in regional cerebral blood flow and motor system connectivity following rTMS to the primary motor cortex
    Elisabeth Rounis
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, UK
    Neuroimage 26:164-76. 2005
    ..J. Neurosci. 23, 5308-5318.) by providing evidence that the pattern of acute reorganization in the motor network following rTMS depends on the direction of conditioning...
  42. ncbi request reprint Abnormal plasticity of the sensorimotor cortex to slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with writer's cramp
    Tobias Bäumer
    Department of Neurology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
    Mov Disord 22:81-90. 2007
    ....
  43. ncbi request reprint No evidence for a substantial involvement of primary motor hand area in handedness judgements: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study
    Dieter Sauner
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, 8 11 Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK
    Eur J Neurosci 23:2215-24. 2006
    ..The modulation of motor-evoked potentials according to the laterality of the stimulus indicates a secondary effect of the task on corticomotor excitability that is not directly related to mental rotation itself...
  44. ncbi request reprint Implementation of visuospatial cues in response selection
    Thilo van Eimeren
    NeuroImage Nord, Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany
    Neuroimage 29:286-94. 2006
    ..We propose that the latter set of dorsal parieto-frontal areas subserves rapid implementation of spatial information during visually guided response selection...
  45. pmc Magnetic stimulation of human premotor or motor cortex produces interhemispheric facilitation through distinct pathways
    Tobias Bäumer
    Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Hamburg Eppendorf, Germany
    J Physiol 572:857-68. 2006
    ..These may correspond to elements involved in the generation of I3 and I1 waves, respectively...
  46. ncbi request reprint Preconditioning of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with transcranial direct current stimulation: evidence for homeostatic plasticity in the human motor cortex
    Hartwig R Siebner
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College of London, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 24:3379-85. 2004
    ..These preconditioning effects of TDCS suggest the existence of a homeostatic mechanism in the human motor cortex that stabilizes corticospinal excitability within a physiologically useful range...
  47. doi request reprint Structural changes in the somatosensory system correlate with tic severity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome
    Gotz Thomalla
    Department of Neurology, University Medial Center Hamburg Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
    Brain 132:765-77. 2009
    ..The negative correlation between higher regional FA values and fewer tics suggests that these alterations of white matter microstructure represent adaptive reorganization of somatosensory processing in GTS...
  48. doi request reprint On how the motor cortices resolve an inter-hemispheric response conflict: an event-related EEG potential-guided TMS study of the flankers task
    Rolf Verleger
    Department of Neurology, University of Lubeck, D 23538 Lubeck, Germany
    Eur J Neurosci 30:318-26. 2009
    ..This integrated implementation of response activation and cancellation at the level of the M1(HAND) presumably represents a downstream effect orchestrated by premotor brain regions...
  49. ncbi request reprint Acute changes in frontoparietal activity after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in a cued reaction time task
    Elisabeth Rounis
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, London WC1N 3BG, United Kingdom
    J Neurosci 26:9629-38. 2006
    ....
  50. doi request reprint Limbic and frontal cortical degeneration is associated with psychiatric symptoms in PINK1 mutation carriers
    Kathrin Reetz
    Department of Neurology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany
    Biol Psychiatry 64:241-7. 2008
    ..Mutations in the PINK1 gene can cause Parkinson's disease and are frequently associated with psychiatric symptoms that might even precede motor signs...
  51. pmc Phonological decisions require both the left and right supramarginal gyri
    Gesa Hartwigsen
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107:16494-9. 2010
    ..Our findings motivate detailed studies of phonological processing in patients with acute or long-term damage of the right SMG...
  52. ncbi request reprint Stimulus intensity and coil characteristics influence the efficacy of rTMS to suppress cortical excitability
    Nicolas Lang
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, University College London, United Kingdom
    Clin Neurophysiol 117:2292-301. 2006
    ..Here we examined whether inhibitory after effects of low-frequency rTMS are influenced by stimulus intensity, the type of TMS coil and re-afferent sensory stimulation...
  53. doi request reprint Structural findings in the basal ganglia in genetically determined and idiopathic Parkinson's disease
    Kathrin Reetz
    Department of Neurology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany
    Mov Disord 24:99-103. 2009
    ..In symptomatic PD, BG are subject to a progressive atrophy, which gradually increases with disease severity and duration...
  54. ncbi request reprint 5 Hz repetitive TMS increases anticipatory motor activity in the human cortex
    Iris Holler
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University, Schittenhelmstr 10, 24 105 Kiel, Germany
    Neurosci Lett 392:221-5. 2006
    ..The increase in pre-movement activity in the stimulated cortex may reflect an increase in facilitatory drive from connected motor areas, enhanced responsiveness of the stimulated cortex to these inputs or both...
  55. doi request reprint Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies: a prospective single-center study
    Gesa Hartwigsen
    Department of Neurology, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany
    J Comput Assist Tomogr 34:596-600. 2010
    ..There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management...
  56. doi request reprint Structural imaging in the presymptomatic stage of genetically determined parkinsonism
    Kathrin Reetz
    Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
    Neurobiol Dis 39:402-8. 2010
    ..Asymptomatic PINK1 and LRRK2 MC also revealed smaller GMV in the hippocampal region, which might play a role in the observed psychiatric disorders...
  57. doi request reprint ATP13A2 variants in early-onset Parkinson's disease patients and controls
    Ana Djarmati
    Department of Neurology, University of Lubeck, Lubeck, Germany
    Mov Disord 24:2104-11. 2009
    ..Although heterozygous variants are present in a considerable number of patients, they are-based on this relatively small sample-not significantly more frequent in patients compared to controls...
  58. ncbi request reprint Interleaving TMS with functional MRI: now that it is technically feasible how should it be used?
    Hartwig Roman Siebner
    Clin Neurophysiol 114:1997-9. 2003
  59. pmc Rapid-rate paired associative stimulation of the median nerve and motor cortex can produce long-lasting changes in motor cortical excitability in humans
    Angelo Quartarone
    Clinica Neurologica 2, Policlinico Universitario, 98125 Messina, Italy
    J Physiol 575:657-70. 2006
    ..These findings show that 2 min of 5 Hz rPAS25ms produce a long-lasting and somatotopically specific increase in corticospinal excitability, presumably by sensorimotor disinhibition...
  60. ncbi request reprint Investigating the human mirror neuron system by means of cortical synchronization during the imitation of biological movements
    Klaus Kessler
    Department of Psychology, Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, CCNi, University of Glasgow, UK
    Neuroimage 33:227-38. 2006
    ..Finally, we also found the basal ganglia to participate at an early stage in the processing of biological movement, possibly by selecting suitable motor programs that match the stimulus...
  61. ncbi request reprint Distinct changes in cortical and spinal excitability following high-frequency repetitive TMS to the human motor cortex
    Angelo Quartarone
    Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatric and Anaesthesiological Sciences, Clinica Neurologica 2, Policlinico Universitario, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
    Exp Brain Res 161:114-24. 2005
    ....