G N Duda

Summary

Affiliation: Humboldt University
Country: Germany

Publications

  1. doi request reprint Changing the mindset in life sciences toward translation: a consensus
    Georg N Duda
    Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany Julius Wolff Institut, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany
    Sci Transl Med 6:264cm12. 2014
  2. pmc CD133: enhancement of bone healing by local transplantation of peripheral blood cells in a biologically delayed rat osteotomy model
    Bernd Preininger
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 8:e52650. 2013
  3. doi request reprint Anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients with passive knee joint laxity have a decreased range of anterior-posterior motion during active movements
    Heide Boeth
    Julius Wolff Institute and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Center for Sports Science and Sports Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Am J Sports Med 41:1051-7. 2013
  4. pmc BMP2 and mechanical loading cooperatively regulate immediate early signalling events in the BMP pathway
    Jessica Kopf
    Institute for Chemistry Biochemistry, FU Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    BMC Biol 10:37. 2012
  5. pmc Influence of prosthesis design and implantation technique on implant stresses after cementless revision THR
    Markus O Heller
    Julius Wolff Institute and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Surg Res 6:20. 2011
  6. pmc Characterization of a rat osteotomy model with impaired healing
    Christine Kratzel
    Julius Wolff Institut, BCRT, CMSC Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 9:135. 2008
  7. pmc Composite transcriptome assembly of RNA-seq data in a sheep model for delayed bone healing
    Marten Jäger
    Institute for Medical Genetics, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburgerplatz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    BMC Genomics 12:158. 2011
  8. pmc Gene identification and analysis of transcripts differentially regulated in fracture healing by EST sequencing in the domestic sheep
    Jochen Hecht
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany
    BMC Genomics 7:172. 2006
  9. pmc Stromelysin-3 over-expression enhances tumourigenesis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines: involvement of the IGF-1 signalling pathway
    Grit Kasper
    Musculoskeletal Research Center Berlin, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    BMC Cancer 7:12. 2007
  10. pmc Founding of the julius wolff institut charité - universitätsmedizin berlin: editorial comment
    Georg N Duda
    Julius Wolff Institut, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353, Berlin, Germany
    Clin Orthop Relat Res 468:1050-1. 2010

Detail Information

Publications117 found, 100 shown here

  1. doi request reprint Changing the mindset in life sciences toward translation: a consensus
    Georg N Duda
    Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany Julius Wolff Institut, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany
    Sci Transl Med 6:264cm12. 2014
    ..Participants at the recent Translate! 2014 meeting in Berlin, Germany, reached a consensus on the rate-limiting factor for advancing translational medicine. ..
  2. pmc CD133: enhancement of bone healing by local transplantation of peripheral blood cells in a biologically delayed rat osteotomy model
    Bernd Preininger
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 8:e52650. 2013
    ....
  3. doi request reprint Anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patients with passive knee joint laxity have a decreased range of anterior-posterior motion during active movements
    Heide Boeth
    Julius Wolff Institute and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Center for Sports Science and Sports Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Am J Sports Med 41:1051-7. 2013
    ..Although instability of the knee joint is known to modify gait patterns, the amount that patients compensate for joint laxity during active movements remains unknown...
  4. pmc BMP2 and mechanical loading cooperatively regulate immediate early signalling events in the BMP pathway
    Jessica Kopf
    Institute for Chemistry Biochemistry, FU Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    BMC Biol 10:37. 2012
    ..Similar to BMPs, mechanical stimulation enhances bone formation. However, the molecular mechanism by which mechanical forces crosstalk to biochemical signals is still unclear...
  5. pmc Influence of prosthesis design and implantation technique on implant stresses after cementless revision THR
    Markus O Heller
    Julius Wolff Institute and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Surg Res 6:20. 2011
    ..This study investigates the influences of femoral anteversion and offset on stresses in the Wagner SL revision stem implant under varying extents of bone defect conditions...
  6. pmc Characterization of a rat osteotomy model with impaired healing
    Christine Kratzel
    Julius Wolff Institut, BCRT, CMSC Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    BMC Musculoskelet Disord 9:135. 2008
    ..Animal models of impaired bone healing are rare. Moreover, specific descriptions are limited although understanding of the biological course of pathogenesis of fracture nonunion is essential for therapeutic approaches...
  7. pmc Composite transcriptome assembly of RNA-seq data in a sheep model for delayed bone healing
    Marten Jäger
    Institute for Medical Genetics, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburgerplatz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    BMC Genomics 12:158. 2011
    ..The sheep is an important model organism for many types of medically relevant research, but molecular genetic experiments in the sheep have been limited by the lack of knowledge about ovine gene sequences...
  8. pmc Gene identification and analysis of transcripts differentially regulated in fracture healing by EST sequencing in the domestic sheep
    Jochen Hecht
    Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany
    BMC Genomics 7:172. 2006
    ..Despite these medical uses and the well known economic and cultural importance of the sheep, relatively little research has been performed into sheep genetics, and DNA sequences are available for only a small number of sheep genes...
  9. pmc Stromelysin-3 over-expression enhances tumourigenesis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines: involvement of the IGF-1 signalling pathway
    Grit Kasper
    Musculoskeletal Research Center Berlin, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    BMC Cancer 7:12. 2007
    ..Due to its known effect in promoting tumour formation, but its impeding effect on metastasis, a dual role of ST-3 in tumour progression, depending on the cellular grade of dedifferentiation, was hypothesized...
  10. pmc Founding of the julius wolff institut charité - universitätsmedizin berlin: editorial comment
    Georg N Duda
    Julius Wolff Institut, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353, Berlin, Germany
    Clin Orthop Relat Res 468:1050-1. 2010
    ..1007/s11999-010-1239-2 . (Supplemental materials are available with the online version of CORR.) An accompanying biographical sketch is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1258-z ...
  11. ncbi request reprint On the influence of mechanical conditions in osteochondral defect healing
    Georg N Duda
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow Clinic, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 38:843-51. 2005
    ..The correlation between simulation and histology allows identification of mechanical factors that appear to have a larger impact on the healing of osteochondral defects than previously considered...
  12. doi request reprint [Clinical research in partnership: musculoskeletal surgery]
    G N Duda
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin, Germany
    Chirurg 81:352-8. 2010
    ..The example in Berlin also illustrates that the research on prevention not only completes the network but more over opens unexpected possibilities in understanding basic research and translation...
  13. ncbi request reprint A new device to detect early cartilage degeneration
    Georg N Duda
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery and the Medical Technical Laboratory, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Am J Sports Med 32:693-8. 2004
    ..Currently available arthroscopic techniques do not allow the quantification of cartilage stiffness without direct mechanical indentation or penetration of the tissue...
  14. ncbi request reprint Does low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulate maturation of tissue-engineered cartilage?
    Georg N Duda
    Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 68:21-8. 2004
    ..An acceleration of the maturation of tissue-engineered neocartilage in a clinical setting by means of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therefore appears rather unrealistic...
  15. ncbi request reprint Mechanical conditions in the internal stabilization of proximal tibial defects
    Georg N Duda
    Research Laboratory, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Humboldt University of Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, Charite, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 17:64-72. 2002
    ..Information obtained from such an analysis is expected to delineate more clearly the indications for a new device prior to clinical utilization...
  16. ncbi request reprint Significance of musculo-skeletal soft tissue trauma on pre-operative planning, surgery and healing
    Georg N Duda
    Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Langenbecks Arch Surg 388:279-80. 2003
  17. ncbi request reprint Does partial weight bearing unload a healing bone in external ring fixation?
    Georg N Duda
    Research Laboratory, Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Langenbecks Arch Surg 388:298-304. 2003
    ..The goal of this study was to determine the effects of partial weight bearing on the loading of the healing bone in tibial osteotomies...
  18. ncbi request reprint Mechanical boundary conditions of fracture healing: borderline indications in the treatment of unreamed tibial nailing
    G N Duda
    Research Laboratory, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353, Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 34:639-50. 2001
    ..From a biomechanical perspective, the treatment of distal tibial shaft fractures by means of unreamed nailing without additional fragment contact or without stabilizing the fibula should be carefully reconsidered...
  19. ncbi request reprint [Mechanical behavior of Ilizarov ring fixators. Effect of frame parameters on stiffness and consequences for clinical use]
    G N Duda
    Unfall und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin
    Unfallchirurg 103:839-45. 2000
    ..The study demonstrates the correlation between design parameters, passive soft tissues and fixation stiffness and presents guidelines for an optimized fixator design...
  20. ncbi request reprint Interfragmentary movements in the early phase of healing in distraction and correction osteotomies stabilized with ring fixators
    Georg N Duda
    Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin, Germany
    Langenbecks Arch Surg 387:433-40. 2003
    ..This study set out to examine the gap movements in distraction and correction osteotomies and to determine the suitability of initial fixation...
  21. ncbi request reprint Mechanical quality of tissue engineered cartilage: results after 6 and 12 weeks in vivo
    G N Duda
    Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomed Mater Res 53:673-7. 2000
    ..As an adjunct to histological analysis, mechanical testing may be a valuable tool for judging the utility of engineered cartilage prior to a broad clinical usage...
  22. doi request reprint Biomechanical, microvascular, and cellular factors promote muscle and bone regeneration
    Georg N Duda
    Julius Wolff Institut, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery and Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Exerc Sport Sci Rev 36:64-70. 2008
    ..The fundamental mechanisms of soft tissue regeneration most likely hold the key to understanding healing response...
  23. ncbi request reprint THA loading arising from increased femoral anteversion and offset may lead to critical cement stresses
    Ralf U Kleemann
    Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow Clinic, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353, Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 21:767-74. 2003
    ..Analyses of implant survival should consider this as a limiting factor in THA longevity. In clinical practice, implant orientation, especially in regard to pre- and post-operative anteversion, should be considered to be more critical...
  24. ncbi request reprint [Mechanical borderline indications in the treatment of unreamed tibial nailing]
    G N Duda
    Unfall und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt Universitat, Berlin, Germany
    Unfallchirurg 106:683-9. 2003
    ..From a biomechanical perspective, the treatment of distal tibial shaft fractures with unreamed nailing without additional fragment contact or without stabilizing the fibula should be carefully reconsidered...
  25. ncbi request reprint Mechanical evaluation of a new minimally invasive device for stabilization of proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients: a cadaver study
    Georg N Duda
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
    Acta Orthop 78:430-5. 2007
    ..We determined the in vitro characteristics of a new implant developed to target the remaining bone stock, and compared it with an implant in clinical use...
  26. ncbi request reprint Angle stable locking reduces interfragmentary movements and promotes healing after unreamed nailing. Study of a displaced osteotomy model in sheep tibiae
    K Kaspar
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Free and Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13 353 Berlin, Germany
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 87:2028-37. 2005
    ..We compared those findings with healing after stabilization of such sites with standard unreamed tibial nailing. The duration of the study period was nine weeks...
  27. ncbi request reprint Do serological tissue turnover markers represent callus formation during fracture healing?
    P Seebeck
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Free and Humboldt University of BerlinAugustenburger Platz 1, Germany
    Bone 37:669-77. 2005
    ..The observed bone formation markers were not suitable as general markers to detect the course of fracture healing, whilst PIIINP was able to reflect soft callus degradation...
  28. ncbi request reprint The course of bone healing is influenced by the initial shear fixation stability
    H Schell
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 23:1022-8. 2005
    ..An upper limit of stability required for successful healing remains unknown, however a limit by which healing is less optimal has been determined...
  29. ncbi request reprint Musculo-skeletal loading conditions at the hip during walking and stair climbing
    M O Heller
    Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Research Laboratory, Humboldt - University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, 13353, Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 34:883-93. 2001
    ....
  30. doi request reprint Realistic loads for testing hip implants
    G Bergmann
    Julius Wolff Institut, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Biomed Mater Eng 20:65-75. 2010
    ..At least for heavyweight and very active subjects, the real load conditions are more critical than those defined by the ISO standards for fatigue tests...
  31. ncbi request reprint Comparison of unreamed nailing and external fixation of tibial diastases--mechanical conditions during healing and biological outcome
    P Klein
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Free and Humboldt University of Berlin, Campus Virchow Clinic, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 22:1072-8. 2004
    ..In this study, unreamed nailing of a tibial diastasis did not provide rotational stability of the osteosynthesis and resulted in a significant delay in bone healing...
  32. ncbi request reprint Gait evaluation: a tool to monitor bone healing?
    P Seebeck
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Research Laboratory, Charite, University Medicine Berlin, Free and Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 20:883-91. 2005
    ..Current clinical methods for monitoring fracture healing are often invasive and inaccurate. This paper evaluates the use of a pressure sensitive platform to improve monitoring...
  33. ncbi request reprint [Musculoskeletal load analysis. A biomechanical explanation for clinical results--and more?]
    M O Heller
    Centrum für Muskuloskeletale Chirurgie, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353, Berlin
    Orthopade 36:188, 190-4. 2007
    ....
  34. ncbi request reprint Influence of femoral anteversion on proximal femoral loading: measurement and simulation in four patients
    M O Heller
    , Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery Research Laboratory, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 16:644-9. 2001
    ..RELEVANCE: Detailed musculo-skeletal modelling may allow pre-surgical, patient specific optimisation of loading on implant, bone and soft tissues...
  35. ncbi request reprint Determination of muscle loading at the hip joint for use in pre-clinical testing
    M O Heller
    Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow Clinic, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin 13353, Germany
    J Biomech 38:1155-63. 2005
    ..It should therefore form the basis for further standardisation of pre-clinical testing by providing a more realistic approximation of physiological loading conditions...
  36. ncbi request reprint Are bone turnover markers capable of predicting callus consolidation during bone healing?
    P Klein
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Calcif Tissue Int 75:40-9. 2004
    ..No differences between the different types of osteosyntheses and thus the different mechanical situations were observed. All analyzed markers failed as general predictors for the course of callus consolidation during bone healing...
  37. ncbi request reprint Digital image correlation: a technique for determining local mechanical conditions within early bone callus
    M S Thompson
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Med Eng Phys 29:820-3. 2007
    ..4%. The sections showed concentrations of up to four times the applied strain and comparison of the strain patterns with histological analysis confirmed that these concentrations reflected boundaries between hard and soft callus...
  38. doi request reprint Biaxial cell stimulation: A mechanical validation
    F H Bieler
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 42:1692-6. 2009
    ..Thus, strain magnitudes do not match the system readout and results require careful interpretation, especially at high cycle numbers...
  39. ncbi request reprint Influence of muscle forces on femoral strain distribution
    G N Duda
    Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 31:841-6. 1998
    ..Analytical attempts to simulate bone modeling, remodeling or bone density distributions should therefore rely on fully balanced external load regimes which account for the role of the various soft tissue forces...
  40. ncbi request reprint Hip contact forces and gait patterns from routine activities
    G Bergmann
    Biomechanics Laboratory, Benjamin Frunklin School of Medicine, Free University of Berlin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203, Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 34:859-71. 2001
    ..Because the hip joint loading during all other common activities of most hip patients are comparably small (except during stumbling), implants should mainly be tested with loading conditions that mimic walking and stair climbing...
  41. ncbi request reprint Poly(D,L-lactide) coating is capable of enhancing osseous integration of Schanz screws in the absence of infection
    K Partale
    Center for Musculoskeletral Surgery, Charite, University Medicine Berlin Free and Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 74:608-16. 2005
    ..Poly(D,L-lactide) coating of Schanz' screws does not prevent osseous destruction and severe bacterial colonization along the pin tracts, but can improve osseous integration of Schanz' screws in the absence of infection...
  42. ncbi request reprint CYR61 (CCN1) protein expression during fracture healing in an ovine tibial model and its relation to the mechanical fixation stability
    Jasmin Lienau
    Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Free and Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 24:254-62. 2006
    ..The results supply further evidence that CYR61 may serve as an important regulator of bone healing...
  43. ncbi request reprint Cementless stem fixation and primary stability under physiological-like loads in vitro
    M O Heller
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin
    Biomed Tech (Berl) 50:394-9. 2005
    ..The analyses emphasize the importance of metaphyseal bone in proximal anchorage and the necessity of an accurate canal preparation to prevent excessive initial migration...
  44. doi request reprint [On the biomechanics of the hip: relevance of femoral anteversion for hip contact force and loading using a short-stemmed prostheses]
    S W Tohtz
    Centrum für Muskuloskeletale Chirurgie und Julius Wolff Institut, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Deutschland
    Orthopade 37:923-9. 2008
    ..The selection of the tribological pairing is to be considered more strongly regarding the wear behavior...
  45. doi request reprint Influences of age and mechanical stability on volume, microstructure, and mineralization of the fracture callus during bone healing: is osteoclast activity the key to age-related impaired healing?
    M Mehta
    Julius Wolff Institute and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Bone 47:219-28. 2010
    ....
  46. doi request reprint Repeatability and reproducibility of OSSCA, a functional approach for assessing the kinematics of the lower limb
    W R Taylor
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Center for Sports Science and Sports Medicine Berlin, Philippstr 13, Haus 11, 10115 Berlin, Germany
    Gait Posture 32:231-6. 2010
    ..The reliability of the OSSCA thus allows its application in clinical studies for reducing the uncertainty of approach-induced systematic errors...
  47. doi request reprint Stair climbing results in more challenging patellofemoral contact mechanics and kinematics than walking at early knee flexion under physiological-like quadriceps loading
    Ioannis G Goudakos
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburgerplatz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 42:2590-6. 2009
    ..The increase in patellofemoral pressure, lateral force distribution and lateral tilt during stair climbing provides a possible biomechanical explanation for the patellofemoral pain frequently experienced during this activity...
  48. ncbi request reprint Physiologically based boundary conditions in finite element modelling
    Andrew D Speirs
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery Charité, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Free and Humboldt, University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 40:2318-23. 2007
    ....
  49. doi request reprint Indirect MR-arthrography in osteochondral autograft and crushed bone graft with a collagen membrane--correlation with histology
    F Streitparth
    Klinik fur Strahlenheilkunde, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
    Eur J Radiol 70:155-64. 2009
    ....
  50. pmc In serum veritas-in serum sanitas? Cell non-autonomous aging compromises differentiation and survival of mesenchymal stromal cells via the oxidative stress pathway
    S Geissler
    1 Julius Wolff Institute and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany 2 Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Cell Death Dis 4:e970. 2013
    ..Thus, addressing the cell environment by, for example, systemic antioxidant treatment is a promising approach to enhance tissue regeneration and to regain cellular function especially in elderly patients. ..
  51. ncbi request reprint CD73/5'-ecto-nucleotidase acts as a regulatory factor in osteo-/chondrogenic differentiation of mechanically stimulated mesenchymal stromal cells
    A Ode
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Eur Cell Mater 25:37-47. 2013
    ..In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that CD73 is another regulatory factor in osteo-/chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs and may provide a - thus far underestimated - therapeutic target to guide bone regeneration...
  52. ncbi request reprint Proximal humeral fractures: how stiff should an implant be? A comparative mechanical study with new implants in human specimens
    H Lill
    Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Leipzig, Liebigstr 20a, 04103 Leipzig, Germany
    Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 123:74-81. 2003
    ..The goal was to optimize implant stiffness for fracture stabilization even in weak bone stock...
  53. ncbi request reprint A new model to predict in vivo human knee kinematics under physiological-like muscle activation
    M O Heller
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 40:S45-53. 2007
    ..9 mm at 90 degrees flexion. The accuracy achieved shows that kinematics may be accurately reconstructed for subject specific musculoskeletal models to allow a better understanding of the load distribution within the knee...
  54. ncbi request reprint Timely fracture-healing requires optimization of axial fixation stability
    Devakara R Epari
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Free and Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13 353 Berlin, Germany
    J Bone Joint Surg Am 89:1575-85. 2007
    ..We hypothesized that axial stiffness would determine the healing outcome...
  55. ncbi request reprint Mechanical conditions in the initial phase of bone healing
    Devakara R Epari
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Free and Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 21:646-55. 2006
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine how the initial mechanical conditions produced by interfragmentary shear and torsion differ from those produced by axial compressive movements...
  56. doi request reprint A new animal model for bone atrophic nonunion: fixation by external fixator
    Katharina Kaspar
    Musculoskeletal Research Center Berlin, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Free and Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Forum 4, PSF 24, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 26:1649-55. 2008
    ..It is reproducible, provides standardized biomechanical conditions, and allows minimized interaction of the implant with the healing zone...
  57. doi request reprint Pressure, oxygen tension and temperature in the periosteal callus during bone healing--an in vivo study in sheep
    Devakara R Epari
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
    Bone 43:734-9. 2008
    ..This study illustrates that in bone healing the local environment for cells may not be considered constant with regard to oxygen tension, pressure and temperature...
  58. ncbi request reprint Straining of the intact and fractured proximal humerus under physiological-like loading
    Zully M Maldonado
    Research Lab, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow Clinic, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 36:1865-73. 2003
    ..The ultimate salvage procedure of augmentation has mechanical limitations as long as current cement materials are used in osteoporotic patients...
  59. doi request reprint Mechanical induction of critically delayed bone healing in sheep: radiological and biomechanical results
    Hanna Schell
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 41:3066-72. 2008
    ..Therefore, the presented ovine model provides the basis for a comparative evaluation of mechanisms controlling delayed and standard bone healing...
  60. doi request reprint Differential regulation of blood vessel formation between standard and delayed bone healing
    Jasmin Lienau
    Julius Wolff Institut, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 27:1133-40. 2009
    ..This work demonstrates for the first time a differential regulation of blood vessel formation between standard and mechanically induced delayed healing in a sheep osteotomy model...
  61. ncbi request reprint Microstructure and homogeneity of distribution of mineralised struts determine callus strength
    M Mehta
    Julius Wolff Institute for Biomechanics and Musculoskeletal Regeneration, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, Institutsgebäude Süd, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Eur Cell Mater 25:366-79; discussion 378-9. 2013
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate that microstructure and strut homogeneity influence callus stiffness and strength...
  62. doi request reprint Deterioration of fracture healing in the mouse model of NF1 long bone dysplasia
    T El Khassawna
    Julius Wolff Institute and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Germany
    Bone 51:651-60. 2012
    ..Additionally, histological and in-situ hybridization analysis reveal a direct contact of the fracture site with muscle fascia, suggesting a possible involvement of muscle derived cells in the fracture deterioration...
  63. ncbi request reprint Time kinetics of bone defect healing in response to BMP-2 and GDF-5 characterised by in vivo biomechanics
    D Wulsten
    Julius Wolff Institute and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin, Germany
    Eur Cell Mater 21:177-92. 2011
    ..Furthermore, results showed that in vivo biomechanical method is capable of detecting differences in healing rate by means of change in callus stiffness due to tissue mineralisation...
  64. doi request reprint Frontal plane alignment: an imageless method to predict the mechanical femoral-tibial angle (mFTA) based on functional determination of joint centres and axes
    Evgenios I Kornaropoulos
    Julius Wolff Institut and Centre for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Gait Posture 31:204-8. 2010
    ..These new techniques could provide an accurate, non-invasive approach for quantifying frontal plane alignment, particularly in cases where X-rays may not be available...
  65. ncbi request reprint Tibio-femoral joint contact forces in sheep
    William R Taylor
    Musculoskeletal Research Center Berlin, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 39:791-8. 2006
    ..This has important implications for the interpretation of knee studies in quadrupeds and their relevance to the clinical situation...
  66. doi request reprint Influence of scaffold stiffness on subchondral bone and subsequent cartilage regeneration in an ovine model of osteochondral defect healing
    Karin Schlichting
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
    Am J Sports Med 36:2379-91. 2008
    ..In osteochondral defects, subchondral bone, as a load-bearing structure, is believed to be important for bone and cartilage regeneration...
  67. ncbi request reprint Mechanical behavior of articular cartilage after osteochondral autograft transfer in an ovine model
    Ralf U Kleemann
    Musculoskeletal Research Center Berlin, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Am J Sports Med 35:555-63. 2007
    ..Although encouraging midterm clinical results have been reported, no information on the mechanical competence of the transplanted joint surface is available...
  68. ncbi request reprint Tibio-femoral loading during human gait and stair climbing
    William R Taylor
    Research Laboratory, Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Campus Virchow Clinic, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 22:625-32. 2004
    ..Clinically, the conditions that produce these larger contact forces should be avoided during post-operative rehabilitation...
  69. ncbi request reprint Initial vascularization and tissue differentiation are influenced by fixation stability
    Jasmin Lienau
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, University Medicine Berlin, Free and Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 23:639-45. 2005
    ..Further studies should illustrate the precise role of mechanical conditions on the regulation of angiogenesis during early bone healing...
  70. ncbi request reprint The initial phase of fracture healing is specifically sensitive to mechanical conditions
    Petra Klein
    Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 21:662-9. 2003
    ..Therefore, initial mechanical stability of an osteosynthesis should be considered an important factor in clinical fracture treatment...
  71. doi request reprint BMP delivery complements the guiding effect of scaffold architecture without altering bone microstructure in critical-sized long bone defects: A multiscale analysis
    A Cipitria
    Julius Wolff Institute and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany Electronic address
    Acta Biomater 23:282-94. 2015
    ..In the vicinity of the scaffold increased tissue organization is observed at 3 months. Loading along the long bone axis transferred through the scaffold defines bone micro- and nanostructure after 12 months...
  72. doi request reprint Local drug delivery by personalized, intraoperative custom-made implant coating
    B Trajkovski
    Julius Wolff Institute, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 101:950-63. 2013
    ..The use of CA in combination with the PVA patch proved to be noncytotoxic in vitro. This technology platform opens the possibility for personalized medicine to locally administer drugs due to intraoperative requirements...
  73. ncbi request reprint CD73 and CD29 concurrently mediate the mechanically induced decrease of migratory capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells
    A Ode
    Julius Wolff Institute and Musculoskeletal Research Center Berlin, Charite Universitatsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
    Eur Cell Mater 22:26-42. 2011
    ..We therefore speculate that MSCs migrate into the fracture site, become mechanically entrapped, and thereby accumulate to fulfil their regenerative functions...
  74. ncbi request reprint Altered cartilage mechanics and histology in knee osteoarthritis: relation to clinical assessment (ICRS Grade)
    R U Kleemann
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Free and Humboldt University of Berlin Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Osteoarthritis Cartilage 13:958-63. 2005
    ..Knowledge about the mechanical quality of the tissue is important for diagnostic reasons and the understanding of the development of OA...
  75. doi request reprint Immunologically restricted patients exhibit a pronounced inflammation and inadequate response to hypoxia in fracture hematomas
    Paula Hoff
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite University Hospital, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    Immunol Res 51:116-22. 2011
    ..Thus, it is already within the early inflammatory phase of fracture healing that the local gene expression in fracture hematomas of immunologically restricted patients points toward a critical regeneration...
  76. ncbi request reprint The morphology and biomechanical characteristics of subcutaneously implanted tissue-engineered human septal cartilage
    Andreas Haisch
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Charite, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 262:993-7. 2005
    ..Its elasticity and failure load are of sufficient quality to meet the clinical requirements for reconstructive surgery...
  77. ncbi request reprint The influence of alignment on the musculo-skeletal loading conditions at the knee
    Markus O Heller
    Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Humboldt University of Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Langenbecks Arch Surg 388:291-7. 2003
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the influence of mal-alignment on the tibio-femoral loading conditions during dynamic activities...
  78. doi request reprint The medial-lateral force distribution in the ovine stifle joint during walking
    William R Taylor
    Julius Wolff Institute, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies BCRT, Centrum für Sportwissenschaft und Sportmedizin Berlin CSSB, Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 29:567-71. 2011
    ..However, the exact conditions under which the loading in the ovine stifle joint is representative of the human situation will need to be elucidated in further studies...
  79. doi request reprint Dose-response relationship of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and functional regeneration after severe skeletal muscle injury in rats
    Tobias Winkler
    Department of Orthopaedics, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Tissue Eng Part A 15:487-92. 2009
    ..The logarithmic dose-response relationship demonstrates the association between the number of transplanted cells and the resulting muscle forces, as well as the amount of MSCs required for promoting muscular regeneration...
  80. ncbi request reprint Stair climbing is more critical than walking in pre-clinical assessment of primary stability in cementless THA in vitro
    Jean Pierre Kassi
    Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery, Charite, Musculoskeletal Research Center Berlin, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite, University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Clinlic, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 38:1143-54. 2005
    ..Pre-clinical in vitro tests should therefore simulate stair climbing and include muscle activity in the assessment of initial implant stability, otherwise micro-movements may be underestimated and the primary stability overestimated...
  81. ncbi request reprint Autologous bone marrow-derived cells enhance muscle strength following skeletal muscle crush injury in rats
    Georg Matziolis
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Department of Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery and Department of Orthopaedics, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Germany
    Tissue Eng 12:361-7. 2006
    ..05). In conclusion, autologous BMD cell grafting leads to an increase in contraction force, 14% in tetanic and 13% in fast twitch stimulation, demonstrating its potential to improve functional outcome after skeletal muscle crush injury...
  82. ncbi request reprint On the influence of soft tissue coverage in the determination of bone kinematics using skin markers
    William R Taylor
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite University Medicine Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Orthop Res 23:726-34. 2005
    ..Current techniques are therefore limited in their ability to determine the kinematics of underlying bones based on skin markers, particularly in segments with more pronounced soft tissue coverage...
  83. doi request reprint The expression of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in the synovial membranes of patients with osteoarthritis compared with traumatic knee disorders
    Georgi I Wassilew
    Centrum für Muskuloskeletale Chirurgie, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Arthroscopy 26:1096-104. 2010
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate a subset of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and proinflammatory cytokines within the synovium, from traumatic knee disorders (TKDs) and nontraumatic osteoarthritis (OA)...
  84. doi request reprint Cyclic strain disrupts endothelial network formation on Matrigel
    Cameron J Wilson
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin, Berlin, Germany
    Microvasc Res 78:358-63. 2009
    ..Most importantly, the results indicate that the straining of endothelial cells and their assembly into vascular-like structures must be studied simultaneously to adequately characterise the mechanical influence on vessel formation...
  85. ncbi request reprint Matrix metalloprotease activity is an essential link between mechanical stimulus and mesenchymal stem cell behavior
    Grit Kasper
    Musculoskeletal Research Center Berlin, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin, Germany
    Stem Cells 25:1985-94. 2007
    ..Thus, MMP/TIMP balance seems to play an essential role in transferring mechanical signals into MSC function. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article...
  86. doi request reprint A new device to control mechanical environment in bone defect healing in rats
    Patrick Strube
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery Berlin, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Clinic for Orthopedics, Chariteplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 41:2696-702. 2008
    ..The overall-complication rate was 5.2%. In conclusion, we were able to establish a small animal model for bone defect healing which allows modeling the mechanical conditions at the defect site in a defined manner...
  87. pmc The influence of recovery and training phases on body composition, peripheral vascular function and immune system of professional soccer players
    Simon Reinke
    Division of Applied Cachexia Research, Department of Cardiology, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, CVK, Berlin, Germany
    PLoS ONE 4:e4910. 2009
    ....
  88. doi request reprint Locally applied osteogenic predifferentiated progenitor cells are more effective than undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of delayed bone healing
    Anja Peters
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Tissue Eng Part A 15:2947-54. 2009
    ..The percutaneous injection of OPCs could become a minimally invasive treatment option for delayed or nonunions...
  89. ncbi request reprint Mesenchymal stem cells regulate angiogenesis according to their mechanical environment
    Grit Kasper
    Musculoskeletal Research Center Berlin, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz, 113353 Berlin, Germany
    Stem Cells 25:903-10. 2007
    ..The underlying mechanism appears to be dependent on the FGFR and VEGFR signaling cascades and might be mediated by an additional cross-talk with other pathways...
  90. doi request reprint Fracture healing is accelerated in the absence of the adaptive immune system
    Daniel Toben
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Muskuloskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    J Bone Miner Res 26:113-24. 2011
    ....
  91. pmc Time course of skeletal muscle regeneration after severe trauma
    Tobias Winkler
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Julius Wolff Institute Berlin, Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Germany
    Acta Orthop 82:102-11. 2011
    ..We established a model of a critical size crush injury of the soleus muscle in rats. The aim was to describe the time course of skeletal muscle regeneration using mechanical, histological, and magnetic resonance (MR) tomographic methods...
  92. ncbi request reprint Immunological characterization of the early human fracture hematoma
    Paula Hoff
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite University Hospital, Chariteplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany
    Immunol Res 64:1195-1206. 2016
    ..They secrete a cytokine/chemokine cocktail that contributes to the onset of regeneration. We hypothesize that this specific microenvironment of the initial fracture hematoma is among the crucial factors that determine fracture healing...
  93. ncbi request reprint In vivo tracking of segmental bone defect healing reveals that callus patterning is related to early mechanical stimuli
    Manav Mehta
    Julius Wolff Institute and Centre for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    Eur Cell Mater 24:358-71; discussion 371. 2012
    ..In conclusion, bone defect size influences early onset of critical healing patterns...
  94. doi request reprint Osteochondral defect repair after implantation of biodegradable scaffolds: indirect magnetic resonance arthrography and histopathologic correlation
    F Streitparth
    Department of Radiology, Klinik fur Strahlenheilkunde, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany
    Acta Radiol 50:765-74. 2009
    ..Biodegradable scaffolds have become an important option in the treatment of osteochondral defects. Therefore, accurate and reproducible monitoring of scaffold repair tissue is crucial...
  95. ncbi request reprint Crushed bone grafts and a collagen membrane are not suitable for enhancing cartilage quality in the regeneration of osteochondral defects--an in vivo study in sheep
    Hanna Schell
    Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D 13353 Berlin, Germany
    J Biomech 40:S64-72. 2007
    ..Based on the results in this sheep model, the filling of subchondral bone defects with compacted cancellous bone should be carefully reconsidered...
  96. ncbi request reprint Stress shielding in box and cylinder cervical interbody fusion cage designs
    Devakara R Epari
    Research Laboratory, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite University Medicine, Berlin, Germany
    Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 30:908-14. 2005
    ..A numerical analysis of stress shielding of the bone graft in box and cylinder interbody fusion cages was performed...
  97. doi request reprint Insight into the molecular pathophysiology of delayed bone healing in a sheep model
    Jasmin Lienau
    Julius Wolff Institut and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Tissue Eng Part A 16:191-9. 2010
    ..This study provides insight into the temporal periods during which various factors may be deficient during a compromised bone-healing situation...
  98. ncbi request reprint Standard bone healing stages occur during delayed bone healing, albeit with a different temporal onset and spatial distribution of callus tissues
    Anja Peters
    Julius Wolff Institute and Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Histol Histopathol 25:1149-62. 2010
    ..Furthermore, the healing outcome might be related to the periosteum's regenerative capacity leading to bony union or absence of bony bridging...
  99. doi request reprint In vivo visualization of locally transplanted mesenchymal stem cells in the severely injured muscle in rats
    Tobias Winkler
    Department of Orthopaedics, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Tissue Eng Part A 14:1149-60. 2008
    ..The investigated method can be a powerful tool both in experimental setups and in possible clinical applications of stem cell-supported skeletal muscle regeneration...
  100. doi request reprint [Steel or titanium for osteosynthesis : A mechanobiological perspective]
    M Heyland
    Julius Wolff Institut, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Institutsgebäude Süd, 13353, Berlin, Deutschland
    Unfallchirurg . 2017
    ..The stabilization of fractures places high mechanical demands on implants and therefore steel and titanium are currently almost exclusively used as the materials of choice...
  101. doi request reprint Increased unilateral tendon stiffness and its effect on gait 2-6 years after Achilles tendon rupture
    A N Agres
    Julius Wolff Institute, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
    Scand J Med Sci Sports 25:860-7. 2015
    ..These data further support the claim that post-ATR tendon regeneration results in the production of a tissue that is functionally different than noninjured tendon. ..