M Leinonen

Summary

Affiliation: National Public Health Institute
Country: Finland

Publications

  1. pmc Xylitol-supplemented nutrition enhances bacterial killing and prolongs survival of rats in experimental pneumococcal sepsis
    Marjo Renko
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    BMC Microbiol 8:45. 2008
  2. ncbi Interaction of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with other risk factors of atherosclerosis
    M Leinonen
    Laboratory of Respiratory Bacterial Infections, National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Am Heart J 138:S504-6. 1999
  3. ncbi Evidence for infectious agents in cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis
    Maija Leinonen
    National Public Health Institute, PO Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    Lancet Infect Dis 2:11-7. 2002
  4. ncbi Chlamydia pneumoniae and other risk factors for atherosclerosis
    M Leinonen
    National Public Health Institute, Department in Oulu, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    J Infect Dis 181:S414-6. 2000
  5. ncbi Infections and atherosclerosis
    M Leinonen
    Department in Oulu, KTL, National Public Health Institute, Finland
    Scand Cardiovasc J 34:12-20. 2000
  6. doi Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is associated with elevated body mass index in young men
    A Rantala
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland
    Epidemiol Infect 138:1267-73. 2010
  7. ncbi Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori infections in Sámi and Finnish reindeer herders
    A Laurila
    National Public Health Institute, Department in Oulu, Finland
    Int J Circumpolar Health 56:70-5. 1997
  8. doi Effects of CD14, TLR2, TLR4, LPB, and IL-6 gene polymorphisms on Chlamydia pneumoniae growth in human macrophages in vitro
    K Poikonen
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Institute of Diagnostics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    Scand J Immunol 70:34-9. 2009
  9. doi Interleukin-6-174 G/C promoter polymorphism is associated with persistence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in young men
    A Rantala
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland
    Scand J Immunol 74:95-9. 2011
  10. doi The association of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio with Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG antibodies and high-sensitive C-reactive protein at 31 years of age in Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966
    T Lajunen
    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Physiology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    Int J Obes (Lond) 35:1470-8. 2011

Detail Information

Publications88

  1. pmc Xylitol-supplemented nutrition enhances bacterial killing and prolongs survival of rats in experimental pneumococcal sepsis
    Marjo Renko
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    BMC Microbiol 8:45. 2008
    ..Xylitol has antiadhesive effects on Streptococcus pneumoniae and inhibits its growth, and has also been found to be effective in preventing acute otitis media and has been used in intensive care as a valuable source of energy...
  2. ncbi Interaction of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with other risk factors of atherosclerosis
    M Leinonen
    Laboratory of Respiratory Bacterial Infections, National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Am Heart J 138:S504-6. 1999
    ..C pneumoniae infection appears to be more common in smokers than in nonsmokers, suggesting that smoking predisposes to the development of chronic C pneumoniae infection...
  3. ncbi Evidence for infectious agents in cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis
    Maija Leinonen
    National Public Health Institute, PO Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    Lancet Infect Dis 2:11-7. 2002
    ..Several intervention trials with antibiotics are underway, and will hopefully shed new light on the role of bacteria in atherosclerosis. The causal relationship can be proved by use of vaccination to prevent infections...
  4. ncbi Chlamydia pneumoniae and other risk factors for atherosclerosis
    M Leinonen
    National Public Health Institute, Department in Oulu, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    J Infect Dis 181:S414-6. 2000
    ..Thus, known CHD risk factors may be partly explained by their association with chronic C. pneumoniae infection. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying these associations...
  5. ncbi Infections and atherosclerosis
    M Leinonen
    Department in Oulu, KTL, National Public Health Institute, Finland
    Scand Cardiovasc J 34:12-20. 2000
    ..The causal relationship has not yet been proven, but ongoing large intervention trials and research on pathogenetic mechanisms may lead to the use of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of CHD in the future...
  6. doi Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is associated with elevated body mass index in young men
    A Rantala
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland
    Epidemiol Infect 138:1267-73. 2010
    ..8 vs. 24.6 vs. 23.5, respectively; P<0.001). These results provide new information about the association between possible chronic C. pneumoniae infection and obesity in young men...
  7. ncbi Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori infections in Sámi and Finnish reindeer herders
    A Laurila
    National Public Health Institute, Department in Oulu, Finland
    Int J Circumpolar Health 56:70-5. 1997
    ..The difference in cardiovascular mortality between the Sámi and Finns may be partly explained by the lower incidence of chlamydial infections in the Sámi...
  8. doi Effects of CD14, TLR2, TLR4, LPB, and IL-6 gene polymorphisms on Chlamydia pneumoniae growth in human macrophages in vitro
    K Poikonen
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Institute of Diagnostics, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    Scand J Immunol 70:34-9. 2009
    ..018). TLR2 Arg 753Gln, TLR4 Asp299Gly, LBP Phe436Leu polymorphisms showed no effect on chlamydial growth...
  9. doi Interleukin-6-174 G/C promoter polymorphism is associated with persistence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in young men
    A Rantala
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland
    Scand J Immunol 74:95-9. 2011
    ..41; 1.00-1.99, respectively). Our data suggest that IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism is associated with persistence of C. pneumoniae antibodies and may be linked to the chronic or prolonged infection with systemic low-grade inflammation...
  10. doi The association of body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-hip ratio with Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG antibodies and high-sensitive C-reactive protein at 31 years of age in Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966
    T Lajunen
    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Physiology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    Int J Obes (Lond) 35:1470-8. 2011
    ..Viruses and bacteria like Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori have been suggested to have a role in pathogenesis of overweight and obesity...
  11. ncbi Association of Helicobacter pylori infection with elevated serum lipids
    A Laurila
    National Public Health Institute Department, Oulu, Finland
    Atherosclerosis 142:207-10. 1999
    ..The finding supports the hypothesis that chronic infections may modify the serum lipid profile in a way that increases the risk of atherosclerosis...
  12. ncbi Treatment of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with telithromycin in C57BL/6J mice
    L Törmäkangas
    National Public Health Institute, P O Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    J Antimicrob Chemother 53:1101-4. 2004
    ..The efficacy of telithromycin, a new ketolide antibiotic, was investigated in the treatment of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a mouse model...
  13. doi Susceptibility of human monocyte-macrophages to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in vitro is highly variable and associated with levels of soluble CD14 and C. pneumoniae IgA and human HSP-IgG antibodies in serum
    K Poikonen
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    Scand J Immunol 67:279-84. 2008
    ..Age and gender did not correlate with the production. We hypothesize that persons whose macrophages cannot restrict the growth of C. pneumoniae are more prone to chronic infection by this agent...
  14. ncbi Heat shock protein 60 autoimmunity and early lipid lesions in cholesterol-fed C57BL/6JBom mice during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection
    L Erkkilä
    Department of Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, P O Box 310 Aapistie 1, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    Atherosclerosis 177:321-8. 2004
    ..pneumoniae infections. Further, infectious burden increased early lipid lesions in C57BL/6JBom mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet...
  15. ncbi Host immune response to Chlamydia pneumoniae heat shock protein 60 is associated with asthma
    T Huittinen
    National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Eur Respir J 17:1078-82. 2001
    ....
  16. pmc Nasopharyngeal antibodies to pneumococcal pneumolysin in children with acute otitis media
    A Virolainen
    National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2:704-7. 1995
    ..We suggest that nasopharyngeal IgA antibody to pneumolysin can be produced early in life by pneumococcal colonization...
  17. ncbi Animal models for Chlamydia pneumoniae infection
    P Saikku
    National Public Health Institute, Department in Oulu, Finland
    Atherosclerosis 140:S17-9. 1998
    ..Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of the strain of chlamydia and dosage used, the importance of reinfection, the effect of diet and the effect of antibiotic treatment in these models...
  18. ncbi Pneumococcal carriage in children during their first two years: important role of family exposure
    T Leino
    Department of Vaccines, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 20:1022-7. 2001
    ..This study addresses the risk of Pnc carriage by infants 2 to 24 months of age in terms of simultaneous carriage of pneumococcus by family members...
  19. ncbi Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and inflammation in adults with asthma
    T Sävykoski
    Department of Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    Respiration 71:120-5. 2004
    ..Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and immune response to the C. pneumoniae heat shock protein 60 (CpHsp60) have been suggested to be associated with asthma...
  20. ncbi Enterovirus, mycoplasma and other infections as predictors for myocardial infarction
    A Reunanen
    Department of Health and Functional Capacity, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Intern Med 252:421-9. 2002
    ..To study antibodies against five infectious agents for their prediction of major coronary events in men with and without evidence of coronary heart disease at baseline...
  21. ncbi Streptococcus pneumoniae in nasopharyngeal secretions of healthy children: comparison of real-time PCR and culture from STGG-transport medium
    A Saukkoriipi
    National Public Health Institute KTL, P O Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    Mol Cell Probes 18:147-53. 2004
    ..Quantitative real-time PCR provides feasible means for quantifying pneumococcal carriage. Further studies are needed to confirm that positive PCR findings really indicate the presence of viable pneumococcus in nasopharyngeal specimens...
  22. ncbi Effect of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on lipoprotein metabolism in NIH/S mice
    T Tiirola
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine, Biomedicum, Helsinki, Finland
    Scand J Clin Lab Invest 62:477-84. 2002
    ..i. The data indicate that acute C. pneumoniae infection, although clinically almost asymptomatic, causes small, transient changes in serum total lipids and some key proteins involved in lipoprotein metabolism in mice...
  23. ncbi Evaluation of gene-technological and conventional methods in the identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae
    Tarja Kaijalainen
    KTL, National Public Health Institute, P O Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    J Microbiol Methods 51:111-8. 2002
    ..Thus, they did not reliably help in the identification of suspected pneumococcal isolates lacking the conventional characteristics of pneumococcus...
  24. pmc Comparison of four different sampling methods for detecting pharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in children
    S Rapola
    Department of Vaccines, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Clin Microbiol 35:1077-9. 1997
    ..influenzae among children younger than 13 months of age. Among older children, similarly, the nasopharyngeal swab seems optimal for the detection of S. pneumoniae; however, for H. influenzae, the oropharyngeal swab seems optimal...
  25. ncbi Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA by using polymerase chain reaction and microwell hybridization with Europium-labelled probes
    S Rintamäki
    National Public Health Institute KTL, P O Box 310, 90101, Oulu, Finland
    J Microbiol Methods 50:313-8. 2002
    ..Furthermore, the method is suitable for automation and, thus, for testing high numbers of samples. The clinical significance of the PCR findings remains to be studied...
  26. ncbi Reliability of disc diffusion susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and adjustment of laboratory-specific breakpoints. Finnish Study Group for Antimicrobial Resistance
    R Manninen
    Antimicrobial Research Laboratory, National Public Health Institute, Turku, Finland
    J Antimicrob Chemother 41:19-26. 1998
    ..These adjusted breakpoints corrected three of five false-susceptible interpretations of the resistant clinical isolates and reduced the number of minor errors from 8.5% to 2.6%...
  27. ncbi Type-specific enzyme immunoassay for detection of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide antigens in nasopharyngeal specimens
    K S Lankinen
    Department of Microbiology, KTL, National Public Health Institute, P O Box 310, FIN 90101, Oulu, Finland
    J Microbiol Methods 56:193-9. 2004
    ..The method appeared type-specific, except that EIA for 6B capsule also detected 6A. The method is applicable for type-specific identification of pneumococcus in carriage studies...
  28. ncbi Chlamydia pneumoniae inhibits apoptosis in human epithelial and monocyte cell lines
    S Airenne
    National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Scand J Immunol 55:390-8. 2002
    ..Our findings suggest that inhibition of apoptosis may be one of the pathogenetic mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae infection can mediate the development of chronic diseases...
  29. ncbi Nasal middle meatal specimen bacteriology as a predictor of the course of acute respiratory infection in children
    Aila Kristo
    Departments of Otorhinolaryngology, PO Box 5000, University of Oulu, Oulu FIN 90014, Finland
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 25:108-12. 2006
    ....
  30. ncbi [Isn't chlamydia the cause of atherosclerosis?]
    Pekka Saikku
    Duodecim 121:1572-4; author reply 1574. 2005
  31. ncbi Novel enzyme immunoassay utilizing lipopolysaccharide-binding protein as a capture molecule for the measurement of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide in serum
    Terttu Tiirola
    Department of Molecular Medicine, National Public Health Institute, Biomedicum, PO Box 104, Fin 00251 Helsinki, Finland
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 54:7-12. 2006
    ..001) with geometric mean concentrations of 1.87 and 0.61 microg/mL (P < .001), respectively. The novel cLPS EIA method will provide a potential diagnostic tool for C. pneumoniae infection...
  32. ncbi Chlamydial lipopolysaccharide is present in serum during acute coronary syndrome and correlates with CRP levels
    Terttu Tiirola
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine, Biomedicum, P O Box 104, Fin 00251 Helsinki, Finland
    Atherosclerosis 194:403-7. 2007
    ..pneumoniae during the ACS event. The significant correlation between cLPS and hsCRP levels further point to the possibility that both levels reflect the magnitude of tissue damage...
  33. ncbi Increased prostanoid dependency of arterial relaxation in Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected mice
    Liisa Törmäkangas
    National Public Health Institute KTL, PO Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    J Med Microbiol 55:1017-21. 2006
    ..In conclusion, infection shifted the balance of endothelium-derived relaxing factors from nitric oxide towards vasorelaxing prostanoids in C57BL/6J mice...
  34. ncbi In vivo treatment of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with the flavonoids quercetin and luteolin and an alkyl gallate, octyl gallate, in a mouse model
    Liisa Törmäkangas
    National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Biochem Pharmacol 70:1222-30. 2005
    ..Contrariwise, the effects of luteolin treatment suggest this compound to have potential in decreasing the infection load and inflammatory reactions in vivo...
  35. ncbi Real-time pneumolysin polymerase chain reaction with melting curve analysis differentiates pneumococcus from other alpha-hemolytic streptococci
    Tarja Kaijalainen
    KTL, National Public Health Institute, P O Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland tarja
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 53:293-9. 2005
    ..Our results suggest that the ply gene present in alpha-hemolytic streptococci differs from that present in pneumococcus, and that melting curve analysis would prove useful in the differentiation of these bacteria...
  36. pmc Effects of repeated Chlamydia pneumoniae inoculations on aortic lipid accumulation and inflammatory response in C57BL/6J mice
    Liisa Törmäkangas
    National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Infect Immun 73:6458-66. 2005
    ....
  37. ncbi The association between C-reactive protein levels and depression: Results from the northern Finland 1966 birth cohort study
    Timo Liukkonen
    Department of Psychiatry, Savonlinna Central Hospital, Savonlinna, Finland
    Biol Psychiatry 60:825-30. 2006
    ..The impact of the severity of current single and recurrent depressive episodes on this putative association was also investigated...
  38. ncbi Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody levels before coronary events in the Helsinki Heart Study as measured by different methods
    Mika Paldanius
    National Public Health Institute, P O Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 56:233-9. 2006
    ..The difference in the kinetics of EIA and MIF antibodies demonstrated that MIF should remain the gold standard...
  39. ncbi Rapid genotyping of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) C(1341)-->T (Leu(436)-->Phe) polymorphism by LightCycler real-time PCR
    Taina Korhonen
    Laboratory for Chlamydia and Respiratory Tract Bacteria, National Public Health Institute, PO Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    J Immunol Methods 317:171-4. 2006
    ..In our study population of 393 Finnish blood donors, the genotype frequencies were: 86% TT, 13% CT and 1% CC...
  40. doi Mannose-binding lectin concentrations, MBL2 polymorphisms, and susceptibility to respiratory tract infections in young men
    Aino Rantala
    National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    J Infect Dis 198:1247-53. 2008
    ..Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an important component of innate immunity, and its deficiency is associated with susceptibility to recurrent infections...
  41. doi Maternal serum Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies and CRP levels in women with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension
    Liisa Karinen
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    Hypertens Pregnancy 27:143-58. 2008
    ..To determine whether Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in maternal sera are associated with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension...
  42. doi Intragastric primary infection sensitizes to lung reinfection in a Chlamydia pneumoniae mouse model
    Leena Erkkilä
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Child and Adolescent Health, Oulu, Finland
    Vaccine 26:2503-9. 2008
    ..In addition, the primary i.g. challenge made mice more susceptible to i.n. reinfection. In conclusion, the results suggest that the nature of the immune response to a previous C. pneumoniae infection affects the outcome of reinfection...
  43. doi Training improves physical fitness and decreases CRP also in asthmatic conscripts
    Raija Juvonen
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kainuu Central Hospital, Kajaani, Finland
    J Asthma 45:237-42. 2008
    ..2 and non-asthmatics 0.1 respiratory infections per month (p < 0.001). In summary, asthmatic conscripts can enhance their physical fitness by training similarly to non-asthmatic ones. Their levels of hsCRP also decrease...
  44. doi Size at birth, weight gain over the life course, and low-grade inflammation in young adulthood: northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study
    Ioanna Tzoulaki
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, Norfolk Place, W2 1PG, London, UK
    Eur Heart J 29:1049-56. 2008
    ..Our aim was to investigate relationships between fetal growth, weight over the life course, and low-grade inflammation measured by serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at 31 years...
  45. doi Risk factors for acute respiratory tract illness in military conscripts
    Raija Juvonen
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kainuu Central Hospital, Kajaani, Finland
    Respirology 13:575-80. 2008
    ..The aim of this study was to identify factors that possibly predicted and contributed to frequent respiratory tract infections among military conscripts...
  46. doi Comparison of polymerase chain reaction methods, in situ hybridization, and enzyme immunoassay for detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in atherosclerotic carotid plaques
    Taina Lajunen
    Respiratory Infection Unit, National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 61:156-64. 2008
    ....
  47. pmc Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with HLA-B*35 in patients with coronary artery disease
    Anil Palikhe
    Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:55-9. 2008
    ..003 and P = 0.001, respectively). No associations were found in controls. In conclusion, HLA-B*35 may be the link between chronic C. pneumoniae infection and CAD...
  48. ncbi C-reactive protein levels and sleep disturbances: observations based on the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort study
    Timo Liukkonen
    Department of Psychiatry, Savonlinna Central Hospital Keskussairaalantie 6, FIN 57120 Savonlinna, Finland
    Psychosom Med 69:756-61. 2007
    ..Elevated CRP levels have been found to accompany sleep disturbances, but evidence so far comes only from limited clinical and experimental studies; epidemiological studies are lacking...
  49. ncbi Asthmatic persons are prone to the persistence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies
    Mika Paldanius
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Child and Adolescent Health, P O Box 310, Aapistie 1, 90101 Oulu, Finland
    Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 59:117-22. 2007
    ..Military recruits seem to be most vulnerable to C. pneumoniae infections during the period from January to June. The antibody titer changes were more rapid than previously thought...
  50. ncbi Effect of pravastatin treatment on Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, inflammation and serum lipids in NIH/S mice
    Terttu Tiirola
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 29:741-2. 2007
  51. ncbi Treatment of acute otitis media with probiotics in otitis-prone children-a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study
    Katja Hatakka
    Valio Ltd, R and D, FIN 00039 Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Nutr 26:314-21. 2007
    ..To examine whether probiotics would reduce the occurrence or duration of acute otitis media (AOM), or the nasopharyngeal carriage of otitis pathogens in otitis-prone children...
  52. pmc Risk of cervical cancer associated with Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies by histology, HPV type and HPV cofactors
    Margaret M Madeleine
    Program in Epidemiology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
    Int J Cancer 120:650-5. 2007
    ..0-5.1), but not for the 4 types (C, F, H, and K) that were present at very low prevalence in this population. There was an increased risk of SCC, but not AC, associated with antibodies to C. trachomatis that was not serotype specific...
  53. pmc Effect of simvastatin, an established lipid-lowering drug, on pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice
    Leena Erkkilä
    National Public Health Institute, Department of Viral Diseases and Immunology, P O Box 310, 90101 Oulu, Finland
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 49:3959-62. 2005
    ..pneumoniae infection...
  54. ncbi Protective efficacy of a second pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against pneumococcal acute otitis media in infants and children: randomized, controlled trial of a 7-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide-meningococcal outer membrane protein complex conjugate v
    Terhi Kilpi
    National Public Health Institute KTL, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Infect Dis 37:1155-64. 2003
    ..The 2 boosters seemed to provide equal protection against AOM, but PncPS induced markedly higher antibody concentrations. The efficacy of PncOMPC was comparable to that of the recently licensed pneumococcal conjugate vaccine...
  55. ncbi Isolation of pneumococcal DNA from nasopharyngeal samples for real-time, quantitative PCR: comparison of three methods
    Annika Saukkoriipi
    National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Mol Diagn 7:9-15. 2003
    ..Real-time PCR is a useful method for detecting and quantifying bacterial DNA in clinical samples. DNA extraction is a crucial step when performing quantitative PCR...
  56. ncbi Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and the risk of female early-onset lung cancer
    Tarja Anttila
    Int J Cancer 107:681-2. 2003
  57. ncbi Antibodies to human heat shock protein 60, hypertension and dyslipidemia. A study of joint effects on coronary risk
    Helena Kervinen
    Department of Medicine, Hyvinkaa Hospital, Hyvinkaa, Finland
    Atherosclerosis 169:339-44. 2003
    ..In this paper we studied the joint effects of high Anti-Hsp60-antibody level and the classical coronary risk factors...
  58. ncbi Synergistic effect of persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, autoimmunity, and inflammation on coronary risk
    Tiina Huittinen
    National Public Health Institute, Aapistie 1, PO Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    Circulation 107:2566-70. 2003
    ....
  59. pmc Measurement of Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies by the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) method: comparison of seven fluorescein-labeled anti-human IgA conjugates in an in-house MIF test using one commercial MIF and one enzyme i
    Mika Paldanius
    National Public Health Institute Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:8-12. 2003
    ..The titer agreement indicated by kappa coefficients was very good or good for all of the fluorescein-labeled conjugates and the EIA with low antibody titers but decreased with increasing titers...
  60. ncbi Real-time quantitative PCR for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis media
    Annika Saukkoriipi
    National Public Health Institute KTL, Oulu, Finland
    Mol Cell Probes 16:385-90. 2002
    ..The real-time PCR assay was found to be rapid, easy to use, and sensitive in detecting and quantifying pneumococci...
  61. ncbi Atypical pathogen infection in adults with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma
    David Lieberman
    Pulmonary Unit and Division of Internal Medicine, Soroka Medical Center, and the Department of Virology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167:406-10. 2003
    ..The pathophysiologic and therapeutic significance of these findings should be tested in further studies specifically designed to address these questions...
  62. ncbi Pneumonic vs nonpneumonic acute exacerbations of COPD
    David Lieberman
    Pulmonary Unit, Division of Internal Medicine, Soroka University Medical Center, The Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel 84101
    Chest 122:1264-70. 2002
    ..To describe and compare the background, clinical manifestations, disease course, and infectious etiologies of pneumonic acute exacerbations (PNAE) vs nonpneumonic acute exacerbations (NPAE) of COPD...
  63. ncbi Experimental Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in NIH/S mice: effect of reinoculation with chlamydial or cell preparation on culture, PCR and histological findings of lung tissue
    Leena Erkkilä
    Department of Microbiology, National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Vaccine 20:2318-24. 2002
    ..pneumoniae mouse model are chlamydial components. However, a cellular preparation may participate in an inflammatory reaction. Autoimmunity against Hsp60 may also play a role in the pathogenesis of C. pneumoniae infection...
  64. ncbi Autoimmunity to human heat shock protein 60, Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, and inflammation in predicting coronary risk
    Tiina Huittinen
    National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 22:431-7. 2002
    ..2) when adjustment was made for age and smoking. In conclusion, an elevated human Hsp60 IgA antibody level was a risk factor for coronary events, especially when it was present together with C pneumoniae infection and inflammation...
  65. pmc Ribosomal mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates
    Marja Pihlajamäki
    Antimicrobial Research Laboratory, National Public Health Institute, Turku, Finland
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:654-8. 2002
    ....
  66. ncbi Etiological diagnosis of childhood pneumonia by use of transthoracic needle aspiration and modern microbiological methods
    Elina Vuori-Holopainen
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki University Central Hospital, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Infect Dis 34:583-90. 2002
    ..Aspiration's advantages are high microbiological yield and a relatively low risk of a clinically significant adverse event. Aspiration should be used if identification of the causative agent outweighs the modest risk of the procedure...
  67. ncbi Serologically indicated pneumococcal pneumonia in children: a population-based study in primary care settings
    Tarja Heiskanen-Kosma
    Department of Pediatrics, Kuopio University and University Hospital, Kuopio and Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    APMIS 111:945-50. 2003
    ..The incidence of pneumococcal CAP was assessed for the first time, being high (19/1000/year) in 0- to 4-year-old urban boys and rather stable (5-9/1000/year) in all other groups by age, sex and residence...
  68. ncbi Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae lower respiratory infection in hospitalized children by culture, polymerase chain reaction, serological testing, and urinary antigen detection
    Ian C Michelow
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 9063, USA
    Clin Infect Dis 34:E1-11. 2002
    ..These findings support the use of PCR tests to evaluate the protective efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and to identify promptly children with pretreated or nonbacteremic pneumococcal lower respiratory infections...
  69. ncbi Serum C-reactive protein and Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in preterm delivery
    Liisa Karinen
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Oulu, Finland
    Obstet Gynecol 106:73-80. 2005
    ....
  70. pmc Prevalence and persistence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in healthy laboratory personnel in Finland
    Mika Paldanius
    National Public Health Institute, P O Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:654-9. 2005
    ..The prevalence of IgG and IgA antibodies was higher in older persons than in younger ones. The presence of antibodies did not offer protection from reinfection...
  71. ncbi [Cold and infections]
    Sylvi Silvennoinen-Kassinen
    Oulun yliopisto, mikfobiologian laitos
    Duodecim 121:450-3. 2005
  72. ncbi Chlamydial antibodies and risk of prostate cancer
    Tarja Anttila
    National Public Health Institute, Oulu, Finland
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14:385-9. 2005
    ..We assessed the risk of prostate cancer by exposure to Chlamydia trachomatis...
  73. ncbi Methodological aspects affecting the infectivity of Chlamydia pneumoniae in cell cultures in vitro
    Ying Yan
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Oulu, P O Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
    J Microbiol Methods 61:127-30. 2005
    ..Prolonged sonication was detrimental. Detailed description of the experimental conditions is necessary in studies of chlamydial attachment and infectivity...
  74. pmc Invasiveness of serotypes and clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children in Finland
    William P Hanage
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Old Medical School Building, St Mary s Hospital, Imperial College London, London W2 1PG, United Kingdom
    Infect Immun 73:431-5. 2005
    ..These results demonstrate the invasive phenotype of the serotype 14 variant of the Spain(9V)-3 clone and differences between members of the same serogroup in invasive disease potential...
  75. ncbi Association of clinical signs and symptoms with pneumococcal acute otitis media by serotype--implications for vaccine effect
    Arto A I Palmu
    National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Infect Dis 40:52-7. 2005
    ..Alteration in clinical presentation of AOM could be expected after wide-scale pneumococcal vaccinations if there were considerable differences between vaccine serotypes and nonvaccine serotypes...
  76. ncbi Does the presence of pneumococcal DNA in middle-ear fluid indicate pneumococcal etiology in acute otitis media?
    Arto A I Palmu
    Department of Vaccines, National Public Health Institute, Helsinki, Finland
    J Infect Dis 189:775-84. 2004
    ..PCR-positive AOM represented a clinically less severe disease, compared with culture-positive Pnc AOM. A positive PCR result seemed to indicate the presence of viable, although often nonculturable, Pnc...
  77. ncbi Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children
    Ian C Michelow
    Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
    Pediatrics 113:701-7. 2004
    ..The objective of this study was to determine as precisely as possible the epidemiology and morbidity of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children...
  78. pmc Telithromycin treatment of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in C57BL/6J mice
    Liisa Törmäkangas
    National Public Health Institute, P O Box 310, FIN 90101 Oulu, Finland
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:3655-61. 2004
    ..We conclude that telithromycin is effective in preventing the development of chronic C. pneumoniae infection and intimal lipid accumulation in C56BL/6J mice when the treatment is given after each inoculation...
  79. ncbi Development and validation of a time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay for screening of antichlamydial activity using a genus-specific europium-conjugated antibody
    Päivi Tammela
    Viikki Drug Discovery Technology Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, P O Box 56, University of Helsinki, FIN 00014 Helsinki, Finland
    Anal Biochem 333:39-48. 2004
    ..By being considerably less labor intensive and offering significantly higher throughput, the TR-FIA is especially suitable for screening of new antichlamydial compounds...
  80. ncbi Presence of viral and bacterial pathogens in the nasopharynx of otitis-prone children. A prospective study
    Anne Pitkaranta
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB 220, FIN 00029 Helsinki, Finland
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 70:647-54. 2006
    ....
  81. doi The role of respiratory viral infections among children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia in a developing country
    Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
    Department of Pediatrics, Federal University of Bahia School of Medicine, Salvador, Brazil
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 27:939-41. 2008
    ..Rhinovirus (21%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (21%) were the most common pathogens. Our results demonstrate the importance of viral and pneumococcal infections among those patients...
  82. doi Selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors prevent the growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae in HL cells
    Ying Yan
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Oulu, Aapistie 5A, Oulu, Finland
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 32:78-83. 2008
    ..Selective COX inhibitors appear to have a chlamydiostatic but not chlamydiacidic effect; they inhibit the growth of C. pneumoniae in vitro but do not prevent infection or eradicate C. pneumoniae from host cells...
  83. ncbi Relative frequency of Haemophilus influenzae type b pneumonia in Chinese children as evidenced by serology
    Ya Juan Wang
    Beijing Children s Hospital, China
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:271-7. 2002
    ..In two prospective series of children hospitalized for pneumonia in China, the causative agents were searched for with a wide panel of microbiologic assays...
  84. ncbi Aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia: serological results of a paediatric survey
    Massimiliano Don
    Department of Paediatrics, School of Medicine DPMSC, University of Udine, Udine, Italy
    Scand J Infect Dis 37:806-12. 2005
    ..pneumoniae at >2 y of age and emphasize the emerging role of hMPV. The high proportion of mixed viral-bacterial infections highlights the need to treat all children with CAP with antibiotics...
  85. doi Microarray analysis of a Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected human epithelial cell line by use of gene ontology hierarchy
    Joni Alvesalo
    Drug Discovery and Technology Development Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, PO Box 56 Viikinkaari 5 E, FIN 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
    J Infect Dis 197:156-62. 2008
    ..The greatest reduction in the number of C. pneumoniae inclusions was due to the silencing of the gene coding for the transcription factor early growth response 1, which decreased the number of inclusions by 38.6%...
  86. ncbi Inhibitory effect of heparan sulfate-like glycosaminoglycans on the infectivity of Chlamydia pneumoniae in HL cells varies between strains
    Ying Yan
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Oulu, P O Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
    Microbes Infect 8:866-72. 2006
    ..Treatment of host cells with heparin derivatives and heparinase was also inhibitory. Different chlamydial strains and species seem, however, to vary in their ability to use heparin in their attachment to host cells...
  87. ncbi Infectious aetiologies in elderly patients hospitalised with non-pneumonic lower respiratory tract infection
    David Lieberman
    Pulmonary Unit and Geriatrics Department, Division of Internal Medicine, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel
    Age Ageing 32:95-101. 2003
    ..to identify the infectious aetiologies of non-pneumonic lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalised elderly patients, and to characterise the patients in terms of demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables...
  88. ncbi Clinical response to antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia
    Taina Juven
    Department of Paediatrics, Turku University Hospital, PL 52, 20521, Turku, Finland
    Eur J Pediatr 163:140-4. 2004
    ..Expensive and time-consuming microbiological investigations are not required once bacterial sepsis has been excluded...