National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health

Summary

Organization: National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health
Country: Finland

Top Publications

  1. pmc Physical and cognitive function in midlife: reciprocal effects? A 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study
    M Elovainio
    International Institute for Society and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, UCL Medical School, London, UK
    J Epidemiol Community Health 63:468-73. 2009
  2. ncbi Overview of systematic reviews on invasive treatment of stable coronary artery disease
    Pekka Kuukasjärvi
    Finnish Office for Health Care Technology Assessment, Helsinki, Finland
    Int J Technol Assess Health Care 22:219-34. 2006
  3. ncbi Choices and utilization in dental care: Public vs. private dental sectors, and the impact of a two-channel financed health care system
    Lien Nguyen
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Health Econ 7:99-106. 2006
  4. ncbi Heavy and nonheavy drinking occasions, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations: a follow-up study in a population with a low consumption level
    Pia Makela
    Alcohol and Drug Research Group, STAKES, P O Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    J Stud Alcohol 66:722-8. 2005
  5. ncbi [Is psychological debriefing beyond evaluation?]
    Kristian Wahlbeck
    Duodecim 121:2461-3. 2005
  6. ncbi Gender differences in drinking: why do they still exist?
    Marja Holmila
    Acohol and Drug Research Group, STAKES, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland
    Addiction 100:1763-9. 2005
  7. ncbi Patient- and ward-level determinants of nursing time in nursing facilities
    Juha Laine
    Centre for Health Economics CHESS, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, Finland
    J Health Serv Res Policy 10:226-31. 2005
  8. pmc Quality effects of operative delay on mortality in hip fracture treatment
    R Sund
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, Outcomes and Equity Research, Helsinki, Finland
    Qual Saf Health Care 14:371-7. 2005
  9. ncbi Comparing hospital cost efficiency between Norway and Finland
    Miika Linna
    Stakes CHESS, Lintulahdenkuja 4, PO Box 220, FIN 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Health Policy 77:268-78. 2006
  10. ncbi Injury deaths, suicides and homicides associated with pregnancy, Finland 1987-2000
    Mika Gissler
    STAKES National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, STAKES Information Division, Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Public Health 15:459-63. 2005

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. pmc Physical and cognitive function in midlife: reciprocal effects? A 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study
    M Elovainio
    International Institute for Society and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, UCL Medical School, London, UK
    J Epidemiol Community Health 63:468-73. 2009
    ..Whether cognitive function predicts physical function and whether physical function predicts cognitive function were assessed in middle-aged men and women...
  2. ncbi Overview of systematic reviews on invasive treatment of stable coronary artery disease
    Pekka Kuukasjärvi
    Finnish Office for Health Care Technology Assessment, Helsinki, Finland
    Int J Technol Assess Health Care 22:219-34. 2006
    ....
  3. ncbi Choices and utilization in dental care: Public vs. private dental sectors, and the impact of a two-channel financed health care system
    Lien Nguyen
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Health Econ 7:99-106. 2006
    ..The findings suggest that lowering copayments and user fees and increasing the public supply of dental care, accompanied by an efficient recall system, might improve access to dental care and better steer the choice between sectors...
  4. ncbi Heavy and nonheavy drinking occasions, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and hospitalizations: a follow-up study in a population with a low consumption level
    Pia Makela
    Alcohol and Drug Research Group, STAKES, P O Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    J Stud Alcohol 66:722-8. 2005
    ..The purpose of this study was to separate the effects of heavy and nonheavy episodic drinking on mortality and hospitalizations from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and other cardiovascular disease (OCVD) and on all-cause mortality...
  5. ncbi [Is psychological debriefing beyond evaluation?]
    Kristian Wahlbeck
    Duodecim 121:2461-3. 2005
  6. ncbi Gender differences in drinking: why do they still exist?
    Marja Holmila
    Acohol and Drug Research Group, STAKES, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland
    Addiction 100:1763-9. 2005
    ..The paper discusses the kinds of reasoning that have been presented as possible mechanisms and reasons for gender differences in alcohol consumption...
  7. ncbi Patient- and ward-level determinants of nursing time in nursing facilities
    Juha Laine
    Centre for Health Economics CHESS, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, Finland
    J Health Serv Res Policy 10:226-31. 2005
    ..To explore the patient- and ward-level determinants of wage-adjusted nursing time in long-term care wards for the elderly with a view to improving efficiency of the use of labour resources...
  8. pmc Quality effects of operative delay on mortality in hip fracture treatment
    R Sund
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, Outcomes and Equity Research, Helsinki, Finland
    Qual Saf Health Care 14:371-7. 2005
    ..There is considerable variation in the length of surgical delays between hospitals, possibly reflecting the quality of care...
  9. ncbi Comparing hospital cost efficiency between Norway and Finland
    Miika Linna
    Stakes CHESS, Lintulahdenkuja 4, PO Box 220, FIN 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Health Policy 77:268-78. 2006
    ..Although these preliminary results must be taken with caution, this study demonstrates the importance and potential benefits of integrating cost efficiency analysis into international comparisons of health care expenditure...
  10. ncbi Injury deaths, suicides and homicides associated with pregnancy, Finland 1987-2000
    Mika Gissler
    STAKES National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, STAKES Information Division, Helsinki, Finland
    Eur J Public Health 15:459-63. 2005
    ..Only few studies have been carried out on the relationship between pregnancy and deaths from external causes...
  11. ncbi Paternal postnatal depression: fathers emerge from the wings
    Tytti Solantaus
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, FIN 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Lancet 365:2158-9. 2005
  12. ncbi [Is early debriefing useful or harmful?]
    Kristian Wahlbeck
    Vaasan keskussairaala ja Stakes, mielenterveysryhmä, Helsinki
    Duodecim 121:241-3. 2005
  13. ncbi How to read a paper: critical appraisal of studies for application in healthcare
    M Makela
    Health Technology Assessment at Stakes Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, P O Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Singapore Med J 46:108-14; quiz 115. 2005
    ..The possibility of using the research results in the reader's setting and patient population is then evaluated...
  14. ncbi Physicians' opinions on patients' requests for specific treatments and examinations
    Hanna K Toiviainen
    STAKES National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Health and Social Services, Helsinki, Finland
    Health Expect 8:43-53. 2005
    ..The aim of the study was to investigate physicians' opinions on patients' requests for specific treatments and examinations...
  15. ncbi The Antimicrobial Treatment Strategies (MIKSTRA) program: a 5-year follow-up of infection-specific antibiotic use in primary health care and the effect of implementation of treatment guidelines
    Ulla Maija Rautakorpi
    Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment, National Research and Development Center for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland
    Clin Infect Dis 42:1221-30. 2006
    ..A national 5-year follow-up study of infection-specific antibiotic use in primary care was conducted to see if prescribing practices change after implementing new treatment guidelines...
  16. ncbi Treatment of anxiety disorders in the Finnish general population
    Sinikka Sihvo
    STAKES, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, P O Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    J Affect Disord 96:31-8. 2006
    ..Treatments for anxiety disorders in the general population are not widely investigated. We determined the proportion, type and determinants of treatment in the Finnish general population...
  17. ncbi Reanalysis of systematic reviews: the case of invasive strategies for acute coronary syndromes
    Pekka Kuukasjärvi
    Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment Finohta, Helsinki
    Int J Technol Assess Health Care 22:484-96. 2006
    ....
  18. pmc Change and persistence in healthcare inequities: access to elective surgery in Finland in 1992--2003
    Kristna Manderbacka
    Health Services Research, STAKES National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland
    Scand J Public Health 37:131-8. 2009
    ..Many countries experience persistent or increasing socioeconomic disparities in specialist care. This study examines the socioeconomic distribution of elective surgery from 1992 to 2003 in Finland...
  19. doi Stillbirths and infant deaths among migrants in industrialized countries
    Mika Gissler
    STAKES National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 88:134-48. 2009
    ..There are studies which show that some migrant groups have similar or even better outcomes than those from the receiving country. Equally, raised risk of adverse outcomes for other migrant groups has been reported...
  20. doi Postmenopausal hormone drugs and breast and colon cancer: Nordic countries 1995-2005
    Elina Hemminki
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, P O Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Maturitas 61:299-304. 2008
    ....
  21. pmc Experiences of a long-term randomized controlled prevention trial in a maiden environment: Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy trial
    Sirpa Liisa Hovi
    Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment Finohta, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, PO Box 220, FI 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    BMC Med Res Methodol 8:51. 2008
    ..The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in a long-term randomized controlled trial and discuss the impact and consequences of changes in the research environment...
  22. doi Aging, health expenditure, proximity to death, and income in Finland
    Unto Häkkinen
    Centre for Health Economics at STAKES, Helsinki, Finland
    Health Econ Policy Law 3:165-95. 2008
    ..Overall, our results indicate that the future expenditure is more likely to be determined by health policy actions than inevitable trends in the demographic composition of the population...
  23. pmc Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review
    Heidi Anttila
    Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment Finohta, at the National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, PO Box 220, FIN 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    BMC Pediatr 8:14. 2008
    ..To assess the effectiveness of physical therapy (PT) interventions on functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP)...
  24. ncbi Staffing adequacy, supervisory support and quality of care in long-term care settings: staff perceptions
    Outi Räikkönen
    The National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, Helsinki, Finland
    J Adv Nurs 60:615-26. 2007
    ..This paper is a report of a study to explore relationships between perceived care quality, self-assessed professional skills, and the perceptions of the quality-related factors...
  25. ncbi Changes in volume of drinking after changes in alcohol taxes and travellers' allowances: results from a panel study
    Pia Makela
    Alcohol and Drug Research Group, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, Helsinki, Finland
    Addiction 103:181-91. 2008
    ....
  26. ncbi Comparing properties of audit data and routinely collected register data in case of performance assessment of hip fracture treatment in Finland
    R Sund
    National Research and Development Centre, for Welfare and Health STAKES, Outcomes and Equity Research, P O Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Methods Inf Med 46:558-66. 2007
    ..To compare prospective audit data and secondary administrative register data in the production of performance assessment information in the case of hip fracture treatment, and to cross-validate the quality of information...
  27. ncbi Depressive symptoms as predictors of discontinuation of treatment of menorrhagia by levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system
    Marko Elovainio
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, P O Box 220, FIN 00531, Helsinki, Finland
    Int J Behav Med 14:70-5. 2007
    ..Our findings suggest that diagnosing and treating depression among patients having menstrual problems may improve the continuity of LNG-IUS treatment of menorrhagia...
  28. ncbi Evaluating waiting time effect on health outcomes at admission: a prospective randomized study on patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint
    Johanna Hirvonen
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland
    J Eval Clin Pract 13:728-33. 2007
    ..To evaluate the effect of waiting on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), pain and physical function in patients awaiting primary total knee replacement (TKR) due to osteoarthritis...
  29. ncbi Inappropriate treatment of people with dementia in residential and day care
    Saila Sormunen
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland
    Aging Ment Health 11:246-55. 2007
    ..The results show that nurses involved in dementia care need more knowledge of how illnesses causing dementia change the way the affected person experiences reality, and of the ethical aspects of their work...
  30. ncbi Drinking patterns and their gender differences in Europe
    Pia Makela
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, Alcohol and Drug Research Group, Helsinki, Finland
    Alcohol Alcohol Suppl 41:i8-18. 2006
    ..To compare drinking habits and to examine differences between drinking cultures in different regions and countries in Europe; to examine gender differences in drinking habits and to compare them over countries...
  31. ncbi eHealth in Finland: present status and future trends
    Persephone Doupi
    Centre of Excellence for Information and Communication Technology, National R and D Centre for Welfare and Health, STAKES, Helsinki, Finland
    Int J Circumpolar Health 63:322-7. 2004
  32. ncbi [Influence of MIKSTRA guidelines on clinical practice]
    Ulla Maija Rautakorpi
    STAKES, FinOHTA, Helsinki
    Duodecim 120:2963-9. 2004
  33. ncbi Change in determinants of use of physician services in Finland between 1987 and 1996
    Unto Häkkinen
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Siltasaarenkatu 18 A, FIN 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Soc Sci Med 55:1523-37. 2002
    ..In conclusion it can be stated that Finland's tax-based and locally decentralised health care system adapted quite well to the radical changes experienced during the study period...
  34. ncbi Children's responses to low parental mood. II: Associations with family perceptions of parenting styles and child distress
    Tytti Solantaus-Simula
    National Research and Development Centre and Helsinki University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Finland
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:287-95. 2002
    ..They then hypothesized that these response patterns were related to parenting styles and to discrepancies in family members' perceptions of parenting and child mental distress...
  35. ncbi Structural changes and social inequalities in health in Finland, 1986-1994
    K Manderbacka
    National Research and Development, Centre for Welfare and Health, Health Services Research, and Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland
    Scand J Public Health Suppl 55:41-54. 2001
    ....
  36. ncbi Statistical inference of progressivity dominance: an application to health care financing distributions
    J Klavus
    STAKES, Health and Welfare Economics Group, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, P O Box 220, FIN 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    J Health Econ 20:363-77. 2001
    ..As an empirical application the paper presents estimation results for the progressivity of various health care financing sources using data from the 1987 and 1996 Finnish Health Care Surveys...
  37. ncbi Antenatal care in Europe: varying ways of providing high-coverage services
    E Hemminki
    Research Unit on Women s and Children s Health, INSERM U 149, 16 Avenue P Vaillant Couturier, Villejuif, France
    Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 94:145-8. 2001
    ..To describe the organizational characteristics of antenatal care and their relation to the utilization of health services and perinatal mortality in 13 European countries...
  38. pmc Predictors of somatic symptoms: a five year follow up of adolescents
    K Poikolainen
    Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, FIN 00531, Helsinki, Finland
    Arch Dis Child 83:388-92. 2000
    ..Somatisation is common among adolescents...
  39. ncbi A model for analyzing suicide prevention
    M Upanne
    National Research and Development Center, Helsinki, Finland
    Crisis 21:80-9. 2000
    ..Practical working experiences enhanced the psychologists' sense of the difficulties of suicide prevention as well as their criticism and feeling of powerlessness...
  40. ncbi Value of drug-licensing documents in studying the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on cardiovascular disease
    E Hemminki
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Health Services Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
    Lancet 355:566-9. 2000
    ....
  41. ncbi A model for the description and interpretation of suicide prevention
    M Upanne
    National Research and Development Center for Welfare and Health, Helsinki, Finland
    Suicide Life Threat Behav 29:241-55. 1999
    ..Suicide prevention proved to be a multifactorial concept manifesting mainly process theory and interactional explanations of suicidality, and prevention practices fell into a simple typology of four categories...
  42. ncbi Reproductive effects of in utero exposure to estrogen and progestin drugs
    E Hemminki
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Health Services Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
    Fertil Steril 71:1092-8. 1999
    ..To determine whether in utero exposure to estrogens and progestins other than diethylstilbestrol reduces fertility in offspring...
  43. ncbi Ethics and allocation of health resources--the influence of poverty on health
    V Taipale
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, STAKES, Helsinki, Finland
    Acta Oncol 38:51-5. 1999
    ..Has the time come to dispel our Nordic arrogance and look at how the present services may in fact be generating inequity?..
  44. ncbi Treatment of miscarriage: current practice and rationale
    E Hemminki
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Health Services Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
    Obstet Gynecol 91:247-53. 1998
    ..To describe health service use during miscarriage and medical treatment of miscarriage in Finland and the rationales behind them...
  45. ncbi Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception
    E Hemminki
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Health Services Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
    Soc Sci Med 45:1875-84. 1997
    ..The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit...
  46. ncbi Quality of data on subsequent events in a routine Medical Birth Register
    Mika Gissler
    STAKES, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, PO Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Med Inform Internet Med 27:33-8. 2002
    ..The maintenance of health registers has become routine. The main prerequisite for their use is that registers be complete and that their contents correspond to reality...
  47. ncbi Correlates of women's preferences for treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding
    Sirkku Vuorma
    STAKES, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, PO Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Patient Educ Couns 49:125-32. 2003
    ..Doctors should pay more attention to motivating women for a trial of conservative treatment since only half of the women reported previous treatment for their menstrual problem...
  48. ncbi The Finnish press's political position on alcohol between 1993 and 2000
    Jukka Törrönen
    The Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies, Helsinki, Finland
    Addiction 98:281-90. 2003
    ..To examine Finnish commentary on changes in alcohol policy between 1993 and 2000. Data. A corpus of newspaper editorials on alcohol issues from six daily newspapers published between 1993 and 2000...
  49. ncbi The role of school context in the increase in young people's health complaints in Finland
    Sakari Karvonen
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, POB 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    J Adolesc 28:1-16. 2005
    ..However, none of these factors can account for the rapid decrease in young people's psychosocial health...
  50. ncbi Comparison of Estonian and Finnish physicians' opinions of menopause and hormone therapy
    Sirpa Liisa Hovi
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, Health and Social Services, PO Box 220, FIN 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Maturitas 49:107-13. 2004
    ..To compare Estonian and Finnish gynaecologists' and general practitioners' (GP) opinions on and prescribing practices in hormone treatment (HT) during and after menopause...
  51. ncbi Evaluation during design of a regional seamless network of social and health care services--information technology perspective
    Pirkko Nykanen
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health Centre of Excellence for Information and Communication Technologies in Health Care, PO Box 220, FIN 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Stud Health Technol Inform 90:539-42. 2002
    ....
  52. ncbi Evidence-based medicine in general practice: helping the whole patient
    Marjukka Makela
    Finnish Office for Health Technology Assessment, National Centre for Research and Development in Welfare and Health, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Scand J Prim Health Care 22:132-5. 2004
    ..Initially, Marjukka Mäkelä pointed to strengths to underline the need for EBM in general practice. Subsequently, Irene Hetlevik argued that the concept of EBM, on the contrary, could be a hindrance for good general practice...
  53. ncbi Finnish physicians show little support for consumer advertising of prescription drugs
    Hanna Toivianen
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, Health and Social Services, Helsinki, Finland
    N Z Med J 117:U907. 2004
    ..To study Finnish physicians' opinions of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs (DTCA) and other drug information sources for patients...
  54. ncbi Equity in the use of IVF in Finland in the late 1990s
    Reija Klemetti
    STAKES, National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Health Services Research, Helsinki, Finland
    Scand J Public Health 32:203-9. 2004
    ....
  55. ncbi European security framework for healthcare
    Pekka Ruotsalainen
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health STAKES, Centre of Excellence for IC, Helsinki, Finland
    Stud Health Technol Inform 96:128-34. 2003
    ..Gross-platform integration seems to be the most practical integration method at a European level in the short run. The use of Internet as a European integration platform is a promising solution in the long run...
  56. ncbi Nursing documentation in nursing homes--state-of-the-art and implications for quality improvement
    Päivi Voutilainen
    Stakes National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health Policy and Services for Ageing People, Helsinki, Finland
    Scand J Caring Sci 18:72-81. 2004
    ..The means by which knowledge is transferred to guide the practice should be carefully considered. Also forms should be developed to meet the special requirements for recording nursing care in long-term care settings...
  57. ncbi Societal dimensions of third-party evaluation of Internet health content
    Kristian Lampe
    Institute for Learning and Research Technology, University of Bristol, UK
    Stud Health Technol Inform 95:661-6. 2003
    ..In this paper, we view various societal issues and suggest solutions whenever possible. Rating and certification of Internet content should be preceded by a consideration and discussion that has many societal dimensions...
  58. pmc Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland
    H Hiilamo
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Lintulahdenkuja 4, 00530 Helsinki, Finland
    Tob Control 12:414-23. 2003
    ..To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s...
  59. ncbi The drug industry and medical practice--the case of menopausal hormone therapy in Estonia
    Elina Hemminki
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Social and Health Services, PO Box 220, 00531 Helsinki, Finland
    Soc Sci Med 58:89-97. 2004
    ..Fears about cancer in the 1980s were not found in 2000. The study suggests that the drug industry contributed to the change in physicians' views of HT...
  60. pmc Register based monitoring shows decreasing socioeconomic differences in Finnish perinatal health
    M Gissler
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Finland
    J Epidemiol Community Health 57:433-9. 2003
    ..The aim of this paper was to investigate whether socioeconomic differences in perinatal health in Finland could be regularly monitored using routinely collected data from one single register...
  61. ncbi Economic costs of care in extremely low birthweight infants during the first 2 years of life
    Viena Tommiska
    Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
    Pediatr Crit Care Med 4:157-63. 2003
    ..To assess the 2-yr costs of extremely low birthweight infants' (ELBWIs; birthweight, < 1000 g) care in relation to birthweight, outcome, and the costs of normal birthweight infants...
  62. ncbi Economic depression and the use of physician services in Finland
    U Häkkinen
    National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Health Services Research Unit, Helsinki, Finland
    Health Econ 5:421-34. 1996
    ..Variables describing the continuity of care seem to be more important determinants of visits to a doctor than certain other availability and socioeconomic variables...