Affiliation: National Research Council
- Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl-eicosapentaenoate, but not soybean oil, attenuates memory impairment induced by central IL-1beta administrationCai Song
Neuroscience Division, Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2255 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 2A1
J Lipid Res 45:1112-21. 2004..These effects of IL-1 were attenuated by the chronic administration of E-EPA. By contrast, rats fed with the soybean oil diet showed no effect on the changes induced by the IL-1 administration...
- Omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid. A new treatment for psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of clinical investigationsCai Song
University of Prince Edward Island, Department of Biomedical Sciences, AVC, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada
Expert Opin Investig Drugs 16:1627-38. 2007..Further clinical studies are required to fully explore the effects of EPA on other neurodegenerative diseases. The limitations of previous studies and further research directions have also been discussed...
- Imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and between Th1 and Th2 cytokines in depressed patients: the effect of electroacupuncture or fluoxetine treatmentC Song
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada
Pharmacopsychiatry 42:182-8. 2009....
- Changes in the immune system in rodent models of depressionBrian E Leonard
Department of Pharmacology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 5:345-56. 2002..The review concludes with a brief account of the various rodent models of depression in which evidence of immune activation as been demonstrated...
- Interleukin-1 beta modulates AMPA receptor expression and phosphorylation in hippocampal neuronsAaron Y Lai
Department of Psychiatry, Neurochemical Research Unit, University of Alberta, Canada
J Neuroimmunol 175:97-106. 2006..These findings suggest that IL-1beta selectively regulates AMPA receptor phosphorylation and surface expression through extracellular calcium and an unknown mechanism involving NMDA receptor activity...
- Cytokines mediated inflammation and decreased neurogenesis in animal models of depressionCai Song
Department of Biomedical Sciences, AVC, University of Prince Edward Island, and Canada National Research Institute for Nutriscience and Health, Charlottetown, PE, Canada
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 35:760-8. 2011....
- Increased phospholipase A2 activity and inflammatory response but decreased nerve growth factor expression in the olfactory bulbectomized rat model of depression: effects of chronic ethyl-eicosapentaenoate treatmentCai Song
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada C1A 4P3
J Neurosci 29:14-22. 2009..These results suggest that an interaction exists between inflammation and NGF in the depression model. EPA may improve depression via its anti-inflammation properties and the upregulation of NGF...
- Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate interleukin-1beta-induced changes in behavior, monoaminergic neurotransmitters, and brain inflammation in ratsCai Song
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada C1A 4P3
J Nutr 138:954-63. 2008..01). AA did not counteract any of the changes induced by IL-1. These results suggest that EPA, GLA, and AA play different roles in the neuroendocrine-immune network...
- The olfactory bulbectomised rat as a model of depressionCai Song
Department of Biomedical Science, AVC, University of Prince Edward Island and National Institute of Nutrisciences and Health, Charlottetown, Canada
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:627-47. 2005..Thus the olfactory bulbectomized rat is not only a model for detecting antidepressant activity but also one for exploring the inter-relationships between these systems that are also dysfunctional in patients with major depression...
- Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl-eicosapentaenoate attenuates IL-1beta-induced changes in dopamine and metabolites in the shell of the nucleus accumbens: involved with PLA2 activity and corticosterone secretionCai Song
Department of Biomedical Sciences, AVC, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE, Canada
Neuropsychopharmacology 32:736-44. 2007....
- Reductions of acetylcholine release and nerve growth factor expression are correlated with memory impairment induced by interleukin-1beta administrations: effects of omega-3 fatty acid EPA treatmentPornnarin Taepavarapruk
Department of Biomedical Sciences, AVC, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown PEC1A4P3, Canada
J Neurochem 112:1054-64. 2010..This study revealed important mechanisms by which IL-1beta impairs, while E-EPA improves memory through IL-1-glucocorticoid-ACh release and IL-1-NGF-ACh release pathways...
- ω-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid attenuates MPP+-induced neurodegeneration in fully differentiated human SH-SY5Y and primary mesencephalic cellsDirk W Luchtman
National Research Institute for Nutrisciences and Health and Department of Biomedical Science, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada
J Neurochem 124:855-68. 2013..However, EPA did not prevent mitochondrial enlargement or a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. This study demonstrated cellular mechanisms by which EPA provided neuroprotective effects in experimental PD...
- Behavior, neurotransmitters and inflammation in three regimens of the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's diseaseDirk W Luchtman
Department of Biomedical Sciences, AVC, University of Prince Edward Island, and NRC Institute for Nutriscience and Health, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 5T1
Physiol Behav 98:130-8. 2009..The study also provided additional evidence for the validity of the relatively new chronic MPTP/probenecid model. In all, the results suggested that dosing regimens should be carefully pre-considered...
- Ethyl-eicosapentaenoate modulates changes in neurochemistry and brain lipids induced by parkinsonian neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium in mouse brain slicesQingJia Meng
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, and Institute for Nutrisciences and Health, National Research Council of Canada, 550 University Avenue, Charlottetown, PE, Canada C1A 4P3
Eur J Pharmacol 649:127-34. 2010..EPA may provide modest beneficial effects in Parkinson's disease, but further investigation is warranted...
- Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) increases cell viability and expression of neurotrophin receptors in retinoic acid and brain-derived neurotrophic factor differentiated SH-SY5Y cellsWei Kou
Dept of Biomedical Sciences, AVC, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown PE, Canada
Eur J Nutr 47:104-13. 2008..However, the exact cellular mechanisms are not well understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of neurotrophins, which is involved in neuron differentiation, survival, and synaptogenesis...
- Effects of dietary n-3 or n-6 fatty acids on interleukin-1beta-induced anxiety, stress, and inflammatory responses in ratsCai Song
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Canada
J Lipid Res 44:1984-91. 2003..Ethyl-GLA only antagonised IL-1-induced inflammatory changes, whereas AA caused an increase in the secretion of corticosterone and PGE2, and induced anxiety-like behavior without enhancing the effects of IL-1...
- Interleukin 1 beta enhances conditioned fear memory in rats: possible involvement of glucocorticoidsCai Song
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2255 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, Canada, V6T 2A1
Eur J Neurosci 18:1739-43. 2003..This facilitation of defensive behaviour could reflect adaptive responses which may enhance survival during sickness...
- The effect of thymectomy and IL-1 on memory: implications for the relationship between immunity and depressionCai Song
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, 2255 Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 2A1
Brain Behav Immun 16:557-68. 2002....
- Ethyl-eicosapentaenoate and dexamethasone resistance in therapy-refractory depressionHarald Murck
Laxdale Ltd, Stirling, Scotland, UK, FK7 9JQ
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 7:341-9. 2004..EPA may, furthermore, enhance the action of antidepressants, like many SSRIs that are p-gp substrates, which are actively transported out of the intracerebral space at the level of the blood-brain barrier...
- Dietary ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid but not soybean oil reverses central interleukin-1-induced changes in behavior, corticosterone and immune response in ratsCai Song
Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada
Stress 7:43-54. 2004..Food enriched with ethyl-EPA but not soybean oil, significantly attenuated most of these changes. These results demonstrate that ethyl-EPA has anti-inflammatory, anti-stress and anti-anxiety effects in rats...